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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0601
10 January 2006

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Articles
Reviews

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论文

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 321 )
Exclusive

Significant Advances of Science, Technology and Engineering in China in 2005

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 5-10. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 625 )
With the principles of classification, putting quality before quality, fact recountal and time order, and in accordance with the categories of science, technology and engineering, 12 significant scientific research achievements, nine significant technological achievements and nine significant engineering achievements in China in 2005 were chosen and briefly commented.

Quality Factor and Decoherence Mechanism of Rabi Oscillation in Semiconductor Quantum Dot

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 11-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 512 )
The Rabi oscillations of the exciton of the excited state in single semiconductor quantum dots were investigated by using the photoluminesence and nano-spectroscopy technique. The population on the excited state oscillated as a function of phase angle of the qubit were recorded, in which pulse-pairs with the adjustable time delay were used as the excitation. The quality factors of free rotation is about 9.8×104, and that of the dynamic rotation is about 18 for the single quantum dot excitonic qubit based on the experimental observations, The decoherece mechanism of Rabi oscillation stem from the capture processes from wetting layer to quantum dot is also analyzed. The exciton coherent control and the statistic characteristics of single photon emission in single semiconductor quantum dot are discussed as well.

Review on Dark Matter Research

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 15-18. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 734 )
Recent astronomical observations show that only about 5% of the Universe were made of the baryonic matter which we understand, about 25% were dark matter, and the rest 70% were dark energy. Dark matter and dark energy has become one of the most important problems in modern science. In this article we review the progress in dark matter research.

Major Puzzles and Possible Answers in Black Hole Research

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 19-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 510 )
Some major puzzles in black hole theory and General Relativity, including Hawking radiation, information puzzle, singularity theorem and synchronization of clock rate, are presented. The possible answers are given. We introduce a method to calculate the temperature of a non-stationary black hole; the proof on the information loss during Hawing radiation due to the irreversibility of the process, and the proof on the proper acceleration being infinity for null geodesics. The relation between the synchronization of clock rate and the zeroth law of thermodynamics, and the relation between the singularity theorem and the third law of thermodynamics are pointed out.
Articles

Applications of Averaging Optimal Control in Quantum System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 23-27. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 459 )
The control time is supposed to be relative large, the averaged system is obtained by using of the averaging theorem in the quantum system. The control field of averaged system is designed by classical optimal control theorem, then analytic expression for the control field is acquired within optimal energy. As a result, the normal iterative solution of a two-point boundary value problem is avoided by the use of averaging optimal control. At last, the method is used to a three-level quantum system. The some analysis are given according to the simulation test results.

Effects of Fastigial Nucleus Electro-Stimulation on Cardiac Nerve Regeneration after Myocardial Infarction in Rats Hearts

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 27-30. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 474 )
We investigated the effects of fastigial nucleus electro-stimulation(FNS) in advance on cardiac nerve regeneration after myocardial infarction(MI) in rats. Ninety healthy adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group MI was rats ligating the left anterior artery alone; group FNS+MI was rats receiving FNS for 1 h before producing MI; group FNL +FNS+MI was rats undergoing the same procedure like group FNS+MI except that there were lesions of the bilateral fastigial nucleus five days before producing MI. Then every group was randomly divided into three subgroups according to the three time points, that is 1,7,21 d after MI for further study. Mimicing all the operations, Sham-operated group was selected as non-infarction control (Sham group, n=8). Rats were sacrificed at matched time point, and sympathetic or vagus nerve fibers density in the infarcted zone (IZ) and non-infarcted zone (NIZ) in myocardium of these rats, as well as in a group of Sham-operated animals, were examined by displaying tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyl transferase (CHAT) with immunohistochemistry method. Compared to Sham group, the concentration of nerve stained positive decreased significantly for TH or CHAT in IZ and NIZ in MI group (P<0.01); The FNS+MI group had higher concentration of nerve stained positive for TH or CHAT in IZ and NIZ than the MI group at matched time points (P<0.05). There was no significant difference for these stained positive nerves between MI group and FNL+FNS+MI group (P>0.05). FNS could increase the density of sympathetic or vagus nerve fibers for TH or CHAT staining positive in IZ and NIZ in myocardium of MI rats, so FNS could promote cardiac nerve regeneration.

Biological Performance of Four Dental Ceramics Modified by Cold Plasma

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 31-34. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 450 )
BGC, HA, β-TCP and biphase calcium phosphate (β-TCP/HA) are modified by using the cold plasma technique in the present study. The study results come from the formation of bone-like apatite in SBF and results of osteoblast culture in vitro, SEM, XPS, and XRD. The results show that the formation of bone-like apatite on dental ceramics modified by cold plasma is easier than that of no modification and the growth of osteoblast can be promoted. The active mechanism is that impact on dental ceramics by means of the particles with high energy and high activity leads to rough and etched surface of ceramics, as well as the distortion of ceramics crystal, which increases solubility of materials and local concentration of Ca and P ions. It is helpful for the formation of bone-like apatite. It is shown that the modification using cold plasma technique can increase the activity of dental ceramics.

Differentiation of Water-salt-interaction in Bostan Lake and Peacock River in Recent Fifty Years

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 34-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 484 )
Systematically collecting and analysing the basic data of hydrogeology, meteorology, water-soil development and social economy, we research the interaction of water and salt of Bostan Lake in natural and artificial conditions in aspect of basins, oasises, lakes and marshes. In order to establish the quantitative relations between water-soil resource development in oasis and the differentiation of lakes and marshes. We consider that Bostan Lake was a little salt-water lake in late 1950s, and the water-soil development of the oasis has aggravated the salinization in recent fifty years. Since the west pumping station was brought into use in 1982, the Bostan Lake which accumulated salt has begun to be desalted and the peacock river water quality has changed from 0.45 g/L to 0.89 g/L?

Dynamic Game Analysis of Administration of Coal Mine Safety

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 38-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 453 )
The lack of safety investment results in frequent accidents and a big negative impact on coal mining. This paper discusses how to supervise the safety of coal mining from the game theory. By building models, the authors analyze the influence factors of safety arrears, makes clear the government administration's object and administrant measures, and set conditions and target of government administration,and put forward some corresponding measures for government administration.

Research on Information Systems Evolution Based on Ecology

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 41-44. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 466 )
From an ecological view, Information systems are considered as living species, and exist as communities in environment of information systems. They are competing and depending, and furthermore, evolving by the driving force from the variety of the environment. Based on ecology, the concept of Information system is redefined, the environment is depicted, more important, the theory architecture of development theory based on ecology is built here. At last, the future researches are presented. The purpose of this research is to pioneer a new research field in background of multiple disciplines.

3D Reconstruction of Objects Based on Camera-Projector System

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 44-46. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (180 KB)  ( 291 )
Abstract ( 1248 )
The 3D reconstruction is a research hotspot in the fields of computer vision and close-range photogrammetry. Especially, the 3D reconstruction of objects which are lack of real texture is a great difficulty and challenge. In this study, the slide projector is steered on the foundation of taking images by digital camera traditionally, according to the characteristic lack of real texture. So the camera-projector system is formed. The slide projector can supply the target objects with texture characteristics which are clear and stable so that they are easy to be extracted out and matched well relatively. The space coordinates of the texture characteristics are computed out by the space forward intersection, taking full use of the stereo images composed with the slide of the projector and the images with the texture characteristics taken by the digital camera. The final 3D model is formed by connecting the neighbor space points. The 3D reconstruction based on the camera-projector system in the study is proved and confirmed to be effective and practical by the experimental data and results
Reviews

Some Theoretic and Technical Issues on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Information Intelligent Processing

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 47-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 505 )
Hyperspectral remote sensing information intelligent processing has significant theoretical and practical values to its wide applications. Support Vector Machine, as one effective mean of machine learning, is a potential classification approach to hyperspectral RS because of its suitability for high-dimensional dataset, insufficient samples and uncertainties. But it is necessary to pay more attentions to the following issues based on the characteristics of hyperspectral RS information: multi-class classification strategy, optimization of support vector and feature space, selection and optimization of kernel function and so on. Oriented to the requirements of intelligent information processing, the framework and processing flow of hyperspectral RS Data Mining (HRSDM) is proposed, and the types of discovered knowledge and typical DM modes are discussed.

Progress in the Application of MIPs

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 51-54. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (157 KB)  ( 349 )
Abstract ( 445 )
Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs) are new functional polymers, with specific spacial recognition ability to some molecules. In this study, the basic principle of molecular imprinting technology(MIT) and its application progress in many fields are summarized, including remarkable advancement in sensors. Present difficulties and potentials on commerce are involved.

Three-Dimensional Cultivation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Genetating Engineered Tissues

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 55-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 480 )
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated, expanded, and stimulated to differentiate into various tissues in vitro. This approach is now being explored to generate engineered tissues that the body cannot naturally repair when challenged. Obstacles relate to the application of controllable cell culture modes and systems to specifically mimic in vivo environment. In this article, three-dimensional cultivation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is reviewed with emphasis on culture modes, culture systems and their environmental factors.

Theory, Method and Future Trend of Optimal Extraction Order of Exhaustible Resources

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 59-62. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 466 )
The discrepancy between the finite stock of natural resources and infinite demand of human society development is increasingly drastic with the rapid development of economy. The sustainable exploitation and use of resources has caught attention of theorists. The study on the optimal extraction sequence of resources is an important content of sustainable resource exploitation and use. In this study, we make a brief comment on its study content, theoretical advance, study method based on the study actualities, and also make an analysis and forecast of its future trend.
学术争鸣

Suggestions on Sediment Research for Three Gorges Project during the 11th Five-Year Plan

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 62-64. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 498 )
As one of key technical issues concerning the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River, sedimentation problem plays significant role in the comprehensive benefit of the project. Focusing on the stage after starting construction of the project, a brief review has been made on the research results since demonstration and feasibility study periods. Taking the situation that the project has been put into operation into consideration, some suggestions are presented on sediment research during the 11th Five-Year Plan for the Three Gorges Project, i.e., research focus should be shifted from prediction to field data analysis, more attention should be paid to erosion problems in the downstream of the dam, sedimentation problem should be considered in the field of ecological system, facing regulation measures for lower reaches and planning in the national level as well as putting more coordinate efforts into action.

Outlet for Reservoir Silting of Three Gorges Project

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 65-66. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 502 )
The peper analyzed hidden danger of reservoir silting of the Three Gorges Project: upgrading of flood damage at the river reach of Chongqing; the river delta erosion. And suggested the new strategies: desilting at high concantration in vertical and horizontal pipes at the dam area; the silt liquefaction starting of buried seeper penstock at the river reach of Chongqing.
研究报告

Application of Model Identification for Site Selection of the Destruction Facility of Abandoned Chemical Weapons by Japanese

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 67-69. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 451 )
Seven qualitative and three quantitative indications were put forward through system analysis for the selection of the site of the destruction facility of chemical weapons abandoned by Japanese. The three quantitative indicators are the distance to cities of more than 100,000 citizens, to residential areas and to important objects. The seven qualitative indicators include avoiding the inhabiting area for national minority, avoiding the protected area of water resource, avoiding the natural protected areas, the ground environment, the geology, the climate and the first-aid, which are quantified using expert-evaluation method. Combined with a multi-target system fuzzy optimization model, these ten indicators are applied to select the site of the destruction facility of abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese and provide the scientific foundations to make policy.

Study on Characteristics of Technology Exchange Contract

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 70-72. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 461 )
In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of technology exchange contract from the point of view of new institutional economics --contract theory. Firstly, we put forward the question by giving the technology exchange contract statistics figures from 1991 to 2003 of Shanghai, then analyzed which industry the technology exchange took place and what property the technology had. And we concluded that the characteristics of industry and technology have impact on the form of technology exchange contract.

On Ecological Security and Ecological Construction of Poyang Lake District

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 73-78. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 478 )
The Poyang lake is the biggest Chinese fresh water lake. Ecological security of the Poyang lake district has the important ecological significance, economical significance, social significance and international significance. At present, ecological security of the Poyang Lake district is facing a series of problems and challenges, e.g., water and soil erosion, land desertification, the flood and drought disaster, the decrease of area of cultivated land at sharp speed, the farmland rat damage, the farmland salinification, the soil degeneration, the environmental pollution, the biological invasion, the biodiversity declines, food pollution, schistosomiasis, and the poverty of rural economy and the farmer's low quality status. In order to guarantee the ecological security of the Poyang Lake district in the new century, the ecological construction must be strengthened, and measures and countermeasures will be taken effectively, which include: to improve the ecological quality; to develop the afforestation; to strengthen the water conservancy construction; to turn the farmland into the lake; to adjust the industrial structure; to implement the clean production; to develop the circulation economy; to increase the material investment; to draft the ecology plan; to perfect legal laws and regulations; to pay attention to the international exchange and international cooperation.

Biomedical Research and Scientific Hypothesis

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 79-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 469 )
Medicine has a long history in terms of stage of experience and observational medicine. The stage of modern experimental medicine has been developed based on the development of basic medicine developed mainly in form of scientific hypothesis. Scientific hypothesis is characterized by its supposition, science background and testability. Basic medicine and thus experimental medicine have been guided and pushed forward preliminarily by prior-setup of hypothesis or working hypothesis. Modern experimental medicine would now be summarized, guided and promoted by post-setup hypothesis as high and new techniques with high throughput, high sensitivity and high specificity come out in the era of post-genome. People would be facing a novel situation of how to evaluate the quality of scientific grant and article when they are written without clear hypothesis but rich in creativity and risk in the epoch of discovery science characterized by great science and great discovery.

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 83-83. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 304 )

How It Is Possible in China for Pure Science

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0601): 84-87. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 479 )
More than a century ago, American scientist Dr. Rowland published the article, A peal for pure science, which has been intituled as Scientific Declaration of Independence of U.S.A. More than 100 years have passed, Science & Technology Review publishes this article again, amining at attracting the attention of our country's scientific community to a lot of problems that exist at present. The development of pure science has settled solid foundation for the development of America, but how is it possible in China for pure science? The first priorities are to dispel the misconceptions about science and technology, abolish the traditional technical development view, watch out for the possibility of science degenerating into technology, and guide the pure scientific research of our country with the scientific development view.

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