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   Science & Technology Review
2006, Vol.24, No. 0604
10 April 2006

Articles

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Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 327 )

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 63-63. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 302 )
农作物研究专题

Trend of Wheat Breeding and Food Security in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 5-7. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 553 )
The variety improvement is the most significant scientific and technologic factor in wheat production, which is very important to the food security of China. Facing the problems of reducing sowing area, water resources shortage and lower use rate of fertilizer, the objective of wheat improvement is the super-wheat cultivar by the strategy of breeding water saving, economizing fertilization and high-yielded characters. Through the reasonable variety extensive way, integrate improved variety and good cultivation techniques, the high output and efficiency in a large area can be realized.

Approaches to High-yielding and Yield Potential Exploration in Corn

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 8-11. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 493 )
The main factors of yield per unit increasing were analyzed by using the data of corn yield from 1949 to 2005 in this paper. The estimation of yield potential shows that there is still a large potential for the increase of corn yield per unit in China. Based on experts' assessment, the main constraints for the realization of corn yield potential and suggestions on increasing corn yield per unit are put forward.

Effects of Nitrogen Rates on Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in Different Types of Rice Germplasms at Seedling Stage

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 12-14. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 525 )
Nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in rice germplasms with different ecological types were determined and analyzed during seedling stage under low nitrogen rate (20 mg/kgN), medium nitrogen rate (40 mg/kgN) and high nitrogen rate (60 mg/kg N). The results showed that NUE in different ecological rice germplasms reduced with increasing nitrogen rate and had significant or greatly significant differences with different nitrogen rates. NUE in upland rice was significantly higher than that in paddy rice under low nitrogen rate, whereas NUE between upland rice and paddy rice was not significantly different under medium and high nitrogen rates. NUE in contemporary breeding variety was significantly or greatly significantly smaller than that in ancient local variety under different nitrogen rate. NUE in hybrid combination was significantly or greatly significantly higher than that in conventional variety under different nitrogen rate. NUE in Indica rice was greatly significantly smaller tha...更多n that of Japonica rice under medium and high nitrogen rates, but NUE between Indica rice and Japonica rice was not significantly different.

Investigation on Resistance of Indica Rices with Lysozyme Gene against Rice Blast in Hunan Area

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 14-17. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 553 )
The article deals with researches on obtaining new strains of highly resistance to create new hybrid rice with fine quality and strong resistance to rice blast germ through backcross between the lysozyme gene donor-transformed ZH-9(R) and general types 9311, MH63, 288, E32 and PA64s in Hunan. The results are as follow: Hybrid offspring were notably more resistant to rice blast than their parents. In the five parent indica rices, MH63 turned out to be superior to the others for that its transferring generations displayed well and stable in resistance and agronomic characters; Positive plants of PCR are 269 from 353 that screening from all of transferring generations, which is 76.20%; Contrast to resistance identification result, the ration of likeness reaches 94.05%.

Effects of Crystal Protein Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis on Vip3A Toxicity

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 18-21. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 477 )
To investigate the influence of crystal protein Cyt1A on Vip3A expression and its insecticidal activity, the recombinant plasmid pHVC20 containing cyt1A and vip3A genes were constructed and transformed into the Bacillus thuringiensis acrystalliferous strain CryB, with CryB (pHPT3) strain only expressing Vip3A protein as control. Western blot showed that the maximum yield of Vip3A in CryB (pHVC20) was about 2 fold to that in CryB (pHPT3). It was deduced that the p20 gene in plasmid pHVC20 could not only be required for efficient production of Cyt1A protein but also promote Vip3A yields. Bioassay showed that LC50s of CryB(pHVC20) and CryB(pHPT3) against the first instar larvae of Spodoptera litura were 10.62 μg/ml and 78.00 μg/ml respectively, with the former performing enhanced insecticidal activity. This result suggested that Cyt1Aa might synergize the activity of Vip3A toxin towards S. litura.
气象问题研究专题

Elementary Research on the Characteristics of Typical Cyclone Disasters in 2005

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 22-28. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1299 )
Based on the analysis of typical cyclone activities in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean in 2005, this paper researches into the evolvement and disaster characteristics of typical cyclones landed on China in a general way.

Study on Matsa's Gale Characteristics Occurred in Zhejiang Province and Their Formation

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 29-32. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 508 )
In the paper, we summarized the gale characteristics,which were caused by the Matsa tropical cyclone over Zhejiang Province in 2005, and analyzed their formation. The characteristics show that the long period of the gale duration, the large scale of time and space of the gust are rare in the history. The analysis revealed that the intensive Matsa is the basic factor. Matsa's north-westward track and slow moving velocity ensured the gale persistence. The interaction between neighbouring systems is the main direct cause of gale unsymmetrical distribution. The special terrain of Zhejiang Province was also availed to occurrence of gale unsymmetrical distribution.

Analysis on Causes of Quick Strengthening of Typhoon Khanun and Comparison of Landfall Intensity with Rananim

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 33-36. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 509 )
The study was carried out on the landfall typhoon 0515 Khanun which affected East China seriously. Firstly, based on the characteristics of large-scale circulation and physics factors, the causes of the quick strengthening, which came ahead of its landfall, were analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of intensity was associated with lower layer moisture transportation, upper level strong divergence, and the typhoon moving to where vertical shear was low and sea surface temperature was high. Secondly, focusing on horizontal stream field, the structure of warm core, the stability and vorticity, and the landfall intensity were comparative analyzed between typhoon Khanun and Rananim. It is found that Khanun was weaker than Rananim in these aspects; this conclusion may serve as references on judging the landfall intensity of typhoon.

Analysis on the Persistent Extreme Warm Period over China since 1998

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 37-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1246 )
Surface Air Temperature (SAT) data over China were used. Quality control process were applied to them, and the homogeneity of the series and the spatial sample errors were taken into consideration. The amplitude of China climate warming in recent 55 years was calculated. The results show: 1998 is the warmest year during the period, the SAT anomaly reached 1.10 ℃ (based on the climatology during 1971-2000, the same with the following text). In addition, the following 8 years saw 7 warmest years during 1951-2005, which are 2002(0.88℃),1999 (0.86℃),2004 (0.86℃),2005 (0.72℃),2003 (0.68℃),2001 (0.63℃), which deserves more attention.

Centurial Cycles of Variation of the Holocene East Asian Monsoon

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 40-43. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 520 )
AMS14C dating and grain-size analysis for Core PC-6, located in the middle of a mud area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), were used to rebuild the Holocene history of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The 7.5-m core recorded the history of environmental changes during the postglacial transgression. The core was divided into three sections with boundaries at 450 cm and 540 cm, according to its lithology, color, sedimentary structure, and vertical stacking pattern of its sediment. The core's mud section (the upper 450 cm) has been formed mainly by suspended sediment delivered from the Yangtze River mouth by the ECS Winter Coastal Current (ECSWCC) since 7.6 kyr BP. Using a mathematical method called "grain size vs. standard deviation", we can divide the Core PC-6's grain-size distribution into two populations at about 28 μm. The fine population (<28 μm) is considered to be transported by the ECSWCC as suspended loads. Content of the fine population changes little and represents a stable sedimentary environment in accord with the present situation. Thus, variation of mean grain-size from the fine population would reflect the strength of ECSWCC, which is mainly controlled by the EAWM. Spectral analyses of the mean grain-size time series of Core PC-6 show statistically significant centurial periodicities centering on 70-72, 78, 89, 102, 112, 123, 154 years. The EAWM and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) agree with each other well on these cycles, and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Indian Monsoon also share in concurrent cycles in Holocene, which are in accord with the changes of sun irradiance.
Articles

Comprehensive Evaluation Study on Therapeusis of the Elder's Diseases Based on Primary Osteoporosis

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 44-48. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 449 )
Objective: Taking primary osteoporosis as example, this study was designed to evaluate three therapeusis by multidimensional, especially biology, social psychology and health economics indexes and to provide new pathway and methods for the elder's diseases and the other chronic disease comprehensive evaluation. Methods: The three therapeusis are Vit D+ Ca, estrogen and diphosphonates. The biology indexes are bone mineral density of lumbar (L1-4), total lumbar, thighbone neck and Ward's triangle area. The social psychology indexes are quality of life SF-36 eight dimensionalities and sum total. The health economics indexes are drug cost, examine cost and total cost. Results: ① According to the bone mineral density, the estrogen treatment's effect was significantly worse than before at L-1, ;L-2 and L-Total,VitD+ Ca treatment was significantly worse than before at L-2 and the others were not significant. ② According to the quality of life , the Estrogen treatment effect was significantly better than before at RP and RE, diphosphonates treatment had significant difference at SF and GH,three therapeusis were significantly better than before at SF-36 Total. ③ According to the medical cost, by the end of the first follow-up, there were no significant statistical difference among the three therapeusis and by the end of the second followed-up, the drug cost was significant statistical different and the Vit D+ Ca was cheaper than the others. ④ According to the Data Envelopment Analysis, the data of first follow-up show that DEA of both diphosphonates treatment and estrogen treatment were useful (θ=1), and DEA of Vit D + Ca treatment was not useful (θ<1 ). The bone mineral density of Vit D + Ca treatment could be improved further according to the relaxation variable. The second follow-up showed that DEA of all the three treatments were useful, and all the relaxation variables were zero. Conclusion: ① According to the bone mineral density, the diphosphonates is the best; According to the quality of life, estrogen is the best and according to the cost, the Vit D + Ca is the best. According to the three aspects, in short-term effect,the effect of estrogen and diphosphonates are equivalent, and VitD+ Ca is relative worst; but in long-term effect,the three treatment are equivalent. ② Evaluation of therapeusis may take the different conclusions if clinical practices consider only one aspect. The A index implicates the different result from the B index as well as th

Preliminary Study on the Apoptosis by Treating Human Osteosarcome MG-63 with As2O3 Combined with FP99

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 48-50. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 479 )
FP99 is an active substance from nightshade. We found the proliferation of MG-63 cells was inhibited by FP99 combined with As2O3 through MTT assay. In addition, the results indicated that the percent of apoptosis was elevated after treated by As2O3 combined with FP99 in MG-63 cells. To account for the mechanism of apoptosis in MG-63 cell, the detection of Caspase-3 activity was performed. The results indicated that the activity of Caspase-3 was increased after treated with As2O3 combined with FP99. We conclude that As2O3 combined with FP99 elevated apoptosis in MG-63 cell through increasing activation of Caspase-3.

Gene Translocation of Mouse Cardiac Muscle and Liver Nuclear DNA by AFM Observation

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 51-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 459 )
Combining direct observation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), in vitro expression and transcription, mouse cardiac muscle and liver genomic genes were observed. Some active factors, such as switch proteins, were partially dissolved, causing nuclear genes move between nuclear DNA fragments or inside nuclear DNA fragments in static or metastatic ways. Some gene expression profiles like LDH gene were analyzed. Static or metastatic gene translocation shows decreased expression. Moreover, gene translocation is proportional to decreased activity. This work shows future prospect that combining AFM direct observation and in vitro expression may help study gene translocation and gene mutation.

Researches and Applications on Drought Monitoring Approach of Vegetation Temperature Condition Index

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 56-58. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 536 )
Based on remotely retrieved normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST), vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) is developed for monitoring drought occurrence at a regional scale. For the VTCI definition, it is not only related to NDVI changes in a given region, but also related to LST changes of pixels with a given NDVI value. VTCI can be physically explained as the ratio of temperature differences among the pixels which have the same NDVI values. Two areas, namely, Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, China and the southern region of the Great Plains, USA are selected for the study. The composited NDVI and LST products retrieved from AVHRR and MODIS remotely sensed data, and cumulative precipitation data are used to develop and validate the VTCI drought monitoring approach. The results indicate that VTCI is a near-real time drought monitoring approach.

Study on Influence of Different Irrigation Measures on Ecological Environment of Paddy Field

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 59-63. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1330 )
This paper studies on the influence of different irrigation measures including film-mulched irrigation, "shallow to wet" irrigation and "shallow water" irrigation on the ecological environment of paddy field by field experiment. The results show that, the film-mulched irrigation method may increase the soil temperature, reduce the air humidity, leakage, evaporation, emitting of greenhouse gas of CH4 and N2O,and control weed's growth, thus promoting crops effective growth, precocity, saving water, increasing production, actively controlling plant disease and grass evil. And its water use efficiency, its economic benefit and the ecological environment benefit are all best. The "shallow to wet" irrigation method is the next, the "shallow water" irrigation method is the lowest.

Monitoring Ice Flood of Yellow River with

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 64-67. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 882 )
After a brief review on the characteristics of ice flood disaster in the Yellow River and the disasters happened in the history, we illustrate the contents, the methods, the main technology and the results of using the model "Four-satellite and Three-resource" to monitor the Yellow River with RS and GIS, during three annuals from 2002 to 2005. We come to the conclusions as follow: ①The model "Four-satellite and Three-source" is the best method to monitor the ice flood disaster in the Yellow River to date. Specifically, it is to contribute to useful reference value to monitor the pollution of the river and the floodwater and the mountain landslide. ②With high resolution and the ability to identify ice and to access data through swinging rapidly, CEBERS-02 can be applied to broad application fields in monitoring the disasters.

K-WebMiner: A Web Text Mining Model Based on Knowledge Base

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 68-71. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 490 )
The role of Web Text Mining technology is becoming more and more important in people's daily life and decision analysis process. We briefly introduce the concept and the features of Web Mining and pay more attention on Web Content Mining technology and Web Text Mining model-Webminer. We put forward the K-WebMiner, an improved Web Text Mining model based on knowledge base, and hope it will ameliorate the effect of Web Content Mining technology.
研究报告

Study on Performance and Advance of Food Subsidy Policy in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 71-75. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (440 KB)  ( 341 )
Abstract ( 1238 )
It is very effective to put the food subsidy policy in practice for people. The paper analyzed advances of the food subsidy policy,appraised performances of the food subsidy policy and put forward some advices: cost apportion, reforming the price of food,improving the structure and object,increasing support-gross.

Study on Performance and Advance of Food Subsidy Policy in China

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 75-79. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (621 KB)  ( 262 )
Abstract ( 521 )
The Chinese CESDIS and the CESDED have been put forward based on the environment, resource, economy and society. City ecological sustainable development ability of Wenzhou city during 1998-2003 has been evaluated according to CESDED by means of factor analysis. The problems of Wenzhou's ecological sustainable development have been brought forward, which can be used for reference by other city ecological sustainable development in China.

Asymmetric Information & Trust Products Trading Mechanism

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 80-82. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 474 )
We disclosed the factor which brought trust products trading problems to be more rock-ribbed. By reviewing two trading mechanisms developed by trust companies, we indicated that neither of them could deal with asymmetric information which would cause "adverse selection" and "moral hazard" in trust products trading . Based on the above analysis,we suggested a new way to solve the problem.

Studies on Changes in Time and Space of Cultivated Land Resources in China since 1949

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 83-85. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (436 KB)  ( 239 )
Abstract ( 505 )
Being the main productive material and the direct productive object for farmers, cultivated land is one of the most basal and important elements forming the comprehensive ability of crop production. The changes and its related reasons in time and space of cultivated land resources in China since 1949 were analyzed by dividing them into two phases.
实验技术

Fastigial Nucleus Electro-stimulation Down-regulated the Expression of Proinflamatory Cytokines in the Ischemic Myocardium

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 86-90. ;  doi:
Full text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF  (651 KB)  ( 197 )
Abstract ( 495 )
We investigated the effects of fastigial nucleus electro-stimulation (FNS) in advance on cardiac expression of various proinflamatory cytokines in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. Animal models were created by stimulating fastigial nucleus (FN) with the flow of electricity, using ibotenic acid to produce lesions of FN neurons, ligating the left anterior artery (LAD), respectively. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: group MI was rats with myocardial infarction alone; group FNS+MI was rats receiving FN stimulation for 1 hour before producing MI; group FNL+FNS+MI was rats undergoing the same procedure like group FNS+MI except that there were lesions of the FN five days before producing MI; group Sham was rats without ligating LAD and stimulating FN, just mimicing all the operations. Then every group was randomly divided into three subgroups according to the three time points, that is 1,7,21 days after MI for further study. The mRNA expression levels of tumour necrosis fac...更多tor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in IZ and NIZ were studied by RT-PCR. Compared to sham group, TNF-α, IL-1βand IL-6 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in IZ or NIZ in MI group, especially on day 7 after ligation. Compared to MI group, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1βand IL-6 mRNA in FNS+MI group decreased significantly. There was no decrease effect for the expression of the cytokines when FN neurons were destroyed. We demonstrated that FNS can down-regulate TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 mRNA expression. So it can be forecasted that FNS will be beneficial in the prevence and treatment of MI someday.
科技评论

Japan's Mode and Experience in Improving Independent Innovation Ability: Take the EXPO 2005 AICHI as an Example

Science & Technology Review. 2006, 24 (0604): 91-94. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 540 )
The EXPO 2005 AICHI had attracted officials and tourists from over 120 coutries and regions around the world. The most noticeable point is the first-class technology and advanced scientific perceptions it revealed. The conduct of Science EXPO and Enviromental-sound EXPO had greatly aroused Japanese people's confident in revitalizing the economy. Since the 1980s, Japanese government has undertaken a series of methods in syetem restructuring, which setted scientific development as its main goal, drawed up the independent innovation development strategy according to different stages, maintained Japan's research and development ability and technology innovation activity in a high active status. Having accomplished the transition, Japan changed from the early absorption of technology and imitation mode at post-war mainly interimmed to the pursuing mode of autonomous innovation, and finally to the successful advanced innovation mode.

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