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   Science & Technology Review
2005, Vol.23, No. 0507
10 July 2005

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Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 351 )

HIV Epidemic in China and the World: Current Situation and Challenges

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 4-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 976 )
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was transmitted into China in 1985. Three different HIV epidemics have occurred: low-level, concentrated and now generalized epidemics in China. So far, HIV/AIDS has been reported in all 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in the mainland and there exist three HIV transmission routes (via blood/blood products, sex and mother-to-child transmission). HIV epidemic is now at the risk of critical phrase spreading from high risk population to general population. Currently, the largest group of HIV infection is injecting drug users, with a proportion of 45% in cumulative reported cases in China. Sexually transmitted HIV infections are gradually increasing in recent years, mainly caused by extra-marital unprotected homosexual and heterosexual behaviors, partly by marital sex intercourse. Mother-to-child transmission has been found in high prevalence areas. HIV transmission route due to blood donation has been successfully controlled. The Chin...更多ese government has attached great importance to the control of HIV/AIDS cpidemic, however, in order to get rid of HIV/AIDS will be a very arduous and long way to go.

Advance on HIV Biology and Pathogensis

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 9-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 528 )
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the pathogen of AIDS. Research on HIV etiology is the basis of understanding HIV pathogenesis, searching for the targets of antiretroviral therapy, designing of effective HIV vaccine and diagnostic methods. Since HIV was isolated in 1983, the biology study has made great progress. The shape, structure and function of each ingredient of the viral particle have been clarified. The replication and life cycle of the virus have been understood, the control and regulation of virus replication have been revealed. The dynamic and variation of the virus have been comprehended. On the basis of the these knowledge, the pathogenesis of HIV and the interaction between HIV and host cell have been bright to light. However, HIV antiretroviral therapy and specific immune prevention are still great problems, the advanced research on HIV biology and pathogenesis is urgently needed for revealing molecular mechanism of HIV replication, regulation and pathogenesis, clar ifying the interaction between HIV and host cell and development of new antiretroviral agents and vaccine.

Progress of Testing Technology and Quality Assurance System in HIV Laboratories in China

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 17-23. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 492 )
HIV/AIDS laboratory testing is very important in the prevention and the treatment of AIDS. HIV/AIDS laboratory network and its quality assurance system has been built and will be more and more perfect in China. 3 707 screening laboratories and 53 confirming laboratories in the whole country had been authorized by the end of year 2004; proficiency testing in serology and immunology has been developed and in virology will start this year. Routine testing technology, which is being used in the laboratory network, includes HIV antibody testing, nucleic acid testing and CD4+ T cells counting. The new technologies and the new strategies in study and evaluation include the alternative strategy of confirming testing, antigen testing, BED-EIA assay, antibody testing and nucleic acid testing with dry blood paper, pooling RT-PCR, and etc..

Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS and Current Situation of China Free ARV Program

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 24-29. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 706 )
The epidemic of HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 million people globally. Even there is no medicine can heal HIV/AIDS, with the coming out and widely use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, AIDS has changed to a treatable chronic infectious disease. Chinese government is paying great attention to HIV/AIDS issue and improving medical services to people living with HIV/AIDS step by step. Based on the description of general information about AIDS treatment, following topics, such as history review, current situation, challenges and future plan, regarding China Free ARV Program were emphasized with the combination of characters of AIDS treatment.

General Introduction and Prospect of Treating AIDS by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 29-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1378 )
Although the HAART(Highly Active Antiretrovirus Therapy) can not completely cure HIV/AIDS, it makes the fatal disease into the chronic and controllable disease with reducing mortality and morbility throughout the world. TCM has been used in the research of HIV/AIDS and treating HIV/AIDS for many years.Many Chinese herbs have some effect on inhibiting HIV thought the basic research. TCM can enhance immune function, improve symptoms-signs, not reduce viral loading according with the Clinic research. In a word, TCM have some advantages, such as improving the clinical symptoms, enhancing immune function,good adherence,low cost and so on.

Columbia Tragedy and Materials

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 34-37. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 568 )
Metallurgy analysis of Columbia debris materials was proceeded in order to study the cause of Columbia Tragedy. It was found that major thermal events occurred in the left wing leading edge near RCC panels 8 and 9 during reentry of space shuttle. A breach occurred at left hand (LH) airframe components reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panel 8. The high-temperature plasma entered through the breach and melted the supporting materials such as Al alloy and Fe,Ni base alloy, which result in the space shuttle Columbia explosion. It is suggested that new materials development should be a limited aim for the present. The system of new materials and its processing should be built to meet the need of economy in our country. The common key materials, which used in aviation, space shuttle, nuclear-powered plant, and equipment manufacture etc, should be strengthened those materials processing. The visualization casting technology was presented.

Study on Microorganism Used in Treatment of Oil Wastewater with PAM

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 38-40. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 542 )
A puzzle of how to treat wastewater with polyacrylamide(PAM) is presented while a new technology ,tertiary recovery processes with the aid of polymer, is widely used. The feature of wastewater with PAM is highly viscous, plentiful of oil and stable for emulsified oil. Therefore, it's hard for conventional processes and equipments to treat wastewater with PAM and make it reach the national standard for reuse water. The study on microorganism in aerobic sludge granules domesticated by synthetic wastewater with PAM will be helpful for the development of bio-treatment technology which is used in oil wastewater with PAM. In this paper, the inoculated aerobic sludge granules could be well adapted to the synthetic oil wastewater with PAM. The aerobic sludge granules could degrade PAM in wastewater from 350 mg/Lto150 mg/L when HRT was 144 h. The removal ratio of PAM reached 57% .The study on superior microorganism in aerobic sludge granules showed that the main microorganism was pseudomonas al caligenes, which played a very important role in degradation of PAM in synthetic oil wastewater

Power Law of Social and Economical Indexes Based on Languages on the Web

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 40-43. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 675 )
From a new angle of language, we studied the distributions and correlativity of the social and economical indexes on the Web. Based on the computation to the model of statistics, we found out that these indexes obey the power law approximatively on different scales, they are the reflections of the distributions and evolving characters of the social and economical phenomena on the Web. We pointed out that languages have been the nature boundaries of social and economical on the Web, and so, web language communities and web language markets have been shaped. Their evolutive status and size are restricted strongly by the real language economical level correspond to languages. At the same time, we have estimated the upper web language markets' size at present, and discovered that these markets' size obeys the power law, too.

Analysis on Evolution of Firm Based on Evolutionary Game Theory and Evolutionary Theories in Economics

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 44-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 501 )
On the base of biological evolutionary theory, this article discusses the concept of evolution of the firm, and the genes in the firm's evolution, then make up a model based on the evolutionary game theory and analysises the evolutionary mechanism and process of the firm. At last, this paper points out the inevitability of the firm's evolution.

Analysis on Defect and Bottleneck of Agricultural Industrialization——Survey and Thinking of Cow Industrialization in Qian County, Shaanxi Province

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 48-50. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 579 )
Based on a typical investigation in Qian County, Shaanxi Province, the author analyzed the cow industrialization operation in Qiao County through the real case, stated the exsisting system defects and bottleneck in the course of developing China's agricultural industrialization, and put forward such measures as establishing the cooperative association, accelerating the construction of the rural infrastructure, so as to promote the healthy development of China's agricultural industrialization.

Ecological Measures of Sustainable Development of Agriculture in the Arid Areas of China

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 51-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 582 )
Systematically analyze the actualities of the entironment in the arid areas of China. According to these actualities of the environment, bring forward some measures that agriculture keep on developing in the arid areas. Namely, ① come true to transform the traditional agriculture to eco-agriculture;② adjusting measures to local conditions,arrange areas exploitation with reasons and set up the areas eco-agriculture models;③ friendly treating all natural systems,construct their characteristic cultures in areas;④ strengthen the research on the oasis system, we discuss especially the new idea that is looked as the standard to judge whether the resources of the oasis are overly exploited or not with the theory of Ecology Field, In the word, regarding making full use of the all natural resources of the arid areas as target, regarding reasonably coordinating the relations among economic benefits, ecological benefits and social benefits as basic principles, so that we can realize sustainable development of the agriculture in the arid areas of China.

Emprical Analysis on Employment of Tertiary Industry in Xi'an

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 56-59. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1248 )
Collected the employment data of the tertiary industry in Xi'an in recent 20 years, analyzed the employment situation by using the employment-output elasticity method, compared it with that of other countries, Beijing and Shanghai, and summatized the characteristics and trend of the employment of the tertiary industry in Xi'an.

Comparison Research on Comprehensive Competitiveness of Cities in Central Shaanxi Plain

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 59-63. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 512 )
Based on analyzing the city competitiveness connation and some evaluation methods, the author analyzed and evaluated the comprehensive competitiveness of cities in Central Shaanxi Plain by using the main composition analysis method, and put forward some countermeasures so as to enhance the city competitiveness.

Study on Disaster Relief Logistics System Design of Large Scale Disaster

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 64-67. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 536 )
Based on the experience of delivery activities of overseas disaster relief materials and the development of business logistics.A logistics system to convergence, transport and distribute disaster relief materials efficient and effective was designed.

Components of Stream Corridor Ecological Restoration Project and Ecological Restoration Principles

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 67-70. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 518 )
The five components of a stream corridor ecological restoration project, including planning, implementation, performance assessment, adaptive management, and product dissemination, were introduced. Based on the summary of experiences by United States Environment Protection Agency, the principles for the ecological restoration including stream corridor, were explained in detail.

Progress in the Research of Decision Support Systems in China

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 71-75. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 554 )
The application and research of Decision Support Systems (DSS) in China were summarised. The main application fruits in the area of government macro management, industry programming management, resources developing and utilities, water resource planning and flood control, environment management, finance and investment decision, enterprise production and operation management were concluded. The contributions of Chinese scholars were expatiated. Two interesting topics of DSS in China were discussed and its developing trends were analyzed. The key technique and research areas of DSS in the future were introduced, which will supply references for intention research and application of DSS in China.

Research on Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Industrial Clusters

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0507): 76-79. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 530 )
The paper argues that the advantage of industrial clusters lies in the reduction of coordinating cost, improvement of efficiency and innovation. Its necessary conditions involve in the split of production process and the transportable of product, its sufficient conditions are longer value chain, heterogeneous competence between enterprises in clusters, network innovation and inconstant market environment. The paper provides accordance as judgment for government.

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