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   Science & Technology Review
2005, Vol.23, No. 0502
10 February 2005


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Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 1-1. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 326 )

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 16-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 293 )
基础科学

SUPER-HYDROPHOBIC NANOSCALE INTERFACE MATERIALS: FROM NATURAL TO ARTIFICIAL

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 4-8. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 563 )
The wettability of solid surfaces is a very important property, and is governed by both the chemical composition and geometrical microstructure of the surface. Our recent studies on lotus and rice leaves reveal that a super-hydrophobic surface with both a large CA and small sliding angle needs the cooperation of micro and nanostructures, and the arrangement of the microstructures on this surface can influence the way a water droplet tends to move. The study on the surface structures of the water-strider's legs reveals the relationships between super-hydrophobicity and orientation of the micro and nano-scale composite structures. Accordingly, super-hydrophobic and super-amphiphobic nano-scale interface materials have been successfully prepared and the reversible switcher materials on super-hydrophobicity and super-hydrophilicity have been realized.
生命科学研究专题

DIGTAL HUMAN——A NEW RESEARCH FIELDCOMBINED INFORMATION AND LIFE SCIENCE

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 9-12. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 1250 )
Digital human is a visible, adjustable and controllable virtual human image, which can show on screen. The image was obtained by digitize human structure by computer technology, then reconstructed and processed by virtual technology. The whole process could be divided into the following four periods: digital "Visible Human", "Physical Human", "Physiological Human" and "Intelligent Human". After two Xiangshan Science Conferences in 2001 and 2003, this study was initiated in our country and made great progress. Up to now, there 8 sets of digital Chinese database have been reported, many universities, academic institutes and clinical departments were involved in development study. As a new technology carrier, digital human could be applied in spaceflight, aviation, sports, entertainment, national defense and medicine fields. Currently there are still some unanswered scientific questions and key technology, such as image segment, information obtain from nerve system and lymph system, great...更多 capacity database management, scientific data sharing

STUDIES ON MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN CHINA

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 12-16. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 573 )
The state of art of marine biodiversity studies and the quantity and distribution of marine organisms in the world were reviewed. And the state of art of marine biodiversity studies were introduced and the quantity and distribution of commercial species and rare and endangers species in the Chinese waters were reported. The origins, organization and implementation of Census of Marine Lifes and forcasts the number of marine species to be discovered in various regimes in the world waters were introduced. In the end, some issues on marine biodiversity research in China were discussed.
2004年诺贝尔奖成果介绍专题

ASYMPTOTIC FREEDOM IN THE QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS (QCD) THEORY OF THE STRONG INTERACTION——INTRODUCTION OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 2004

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 17-22. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 561 )
Due to the theoretical discovery of asymptotic freedom for the strong interaction (a fundamental interaction) and later experimental confirmations, three American theoretical physicists (David J. Gross, Frank Wilczek and H. David Politzer) have awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2004. The elementary elements to establish the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory for the strong interaction, are briefly reviewed according to history. How to reach to the asymptotic freedom for Yang-Mills theories is introduced and its physics meaning in QCD is explained. The latest and essential experimental tests of the asymptotic freedom are presented, and from the presentation one may conclude that the theoretical prediction of the asymptotic freedom consists with experimental measurements excellently. The perturbative QCD, which is rooted to the asymptotic freedom, is outlined. It is pointed out that the theoretical discovery and the experimental confirmations of the asymptotic freedom are crucial ...更多for QCD to be the right theory of the strong interaction and some frontiers of QCD, such as 'color confinement', etc., are listed. The discovery indeed has deeply affected particle physics, such as the Standard Model with QCD as one of the main contents and to lead to the so-called Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) for strong and electroweak interactions etc..

UBIQUITIN-MEDIATED PROTEOLYSIS——INTRODUCTION OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY 2004

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 22-25. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 597 )
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 is shared among three scientists who have madefundamental discoveries concerning how cells regulate the breakdown of intracellular proteins with extreme specificity as to target, time and space. Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose together discovered ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, a process where an enzyme system tags unwanted proteins with many molecules of the 76-amino acid residue protein ubiquitin. The tagged proteins are then transported to the proteasome, a large multisubunit protease complex, where they are degraded. Numerous cellular processes regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis include the cell cycle, DNA repair and transcription, protein quality control and the immune response. Defects in this proteolysis have a causal role in many human diseases, including a variety of cancers.

PERCEIVING THE WORLD WITH SMELL——INTRODUCTION OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE 2004

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 26-29. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 486 )
The olfactory system is important for our quality of life. Humans and other mammals can detect a vast number and variety of environmental chemicals. How does the olfactory system work? To address this question, two American scientists began their research with genes coding olfactory receptor and found the receptors. Moreover, they uncovered the organization of the olfactory system. In 2004, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute has awarded them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their outstanding contributions. It was introduced in detail how they uncovered this big problem.
氢能源研究专题

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN MASS SCALE USING SOLAR ENERGY

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 29-33. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 682 )
Building a sustainable energy system is one of the most critical issues that today's society must address. A sustainable fuel is needed to replace current energy carrier in the new energy system. Hydrogen is an ideal secondary energy. Hydrogen production in large-scale using solar energy which can solve the problems of sustainability, environmental emissions, and energy security and become the focus of the international competition in the area of energy science and technology. It is also be set as an important research direction by many large international hydrogen program. The basic research of hydrogen production in mass scale using solar energy has being founded by NNSFC from 1998 and National Basic Research Program of China from 2003. The status and prospect of mass hydrogen production using solar energy were commented on firstly and a series newest progress of theories and experimental research achieved by the State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering of Xi'an J...更多itong University in this area were reported.

MOVING TOWARDS HYDROGEN ENERGY

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 34-38. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 850 )
Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, and affordable energy supply that can enhance China's economy, environment, and energy security. At present the hydrogen combustion is a real practical way. It is interested that the hydrogen- natural gas mixture can reduce the NOx evidently. The big challenge is the hydrogen price. It is believed that combustion is the practical way to use hydrogen in China before the fuel cells being commercial.

COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDROGEN AND METHANEAS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 39-43. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 489 )
A review was given on hydrogen fuel, its inevitability, technical bottlenecks, and the state of solutions available. It was indicated that all the bottlenecks of hydrogen fuel could not be overcome in a short time. On the other hand, technologies involved in methane fuel are relatively easier to solve and, hence, methane can be applied as an alternative fuel quite soon. Therefore, methane economy is a suitable ferry to reach the hydrogen economy from the point of view of technical feasibility. Hydrogen energy is still at the stage of fundamental research; however, more money should be invested in methane energy to develop the advanced and sophisticated technologies in order to release the pressure on petroleum supply in 510 years.
农业

DEVELOPMENT OF IPM TECHNOLOGY AND NEW CONCEPT OF HEALTHY CULTIVATION OF FACILITY VEGETABLE

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 44-47. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 525 )
The development of vegetable production and the situation of diseases and insects in China were introduced, and an overview on the development of the Integrated Pest Management(IPM) technology at home and abroad given. On the basis of analyzing the reasons of excessive residues of chemicals on harvested vegetables, it was considered that no-polluted vegetable production rely on healthy growth of plant. The concept of 'healthy cultivation' was also proposed in no-pollution vegetable production.
区域开发

A STUDY ON THE COORDINATION DEGREE BETWEEN INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION IN CHINA SINCE REFORM AND OPENING UP

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 48-51. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 508 )
Based on the theory of industrialization and urbanization, the paper firstly offers a Coordinated Model (CDM) on the relation between comprehensive index industrialization and urbanization comprehensive index. The author expounds the notion of coordination degree and believes that there exist two periods of the coordination degree from 1978 to 1991 and from 1992 to 2001. From the viewpoint of time, the former period is not harmony and the latter period is mainly harmony. At the same time, from the viewpoint of space, the results of the demonstrative analysis on the provinces (regions) in China by using the CDM has revealed that the coordination degree between industrialization and urbanization has belt differences, i.e., the most provinces (regions) in the east region are harmony but the most provinces (regions) in the middle & western regions are not. Meanwhile, the coordination degree between industrialization and urbanization and the level of economic development has spatial rel...更多ations, the coordination degrees are higher where the level of economic development is higher, otherwise, the coordination degrees is low

THE MODEL OF WATER RESOURCE UTILIZATION IN KARST AREA IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 52-55. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 515 )
Karst Area, the margin of desert and loess altiplano are eco-environmental frail zones in China. Due to the especial geological environment of karst, the river is deep and land is high, the land is leaky though the rainfall is plentiful, the soil cover is lesser than rock exposed, the soil cover is too thin to maintain moisture. It results in drought in wet hot climate. On the basis of the analysis on karst characteristics, the models of water resource utilization were put forward. The rain collection, runoff gathering, water upgrade, building underground and depression reservoirs, lower dams in surface are better models for karst water utilization. The lack of water in karst area may be settled with dispersing storage, scattering supply and breaking up the whole into parts.
科研管理

USER ACCEPTANCE :A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT

Science & Technology Review. 2005, 23 (0502): 55-57. ;  doi:
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Abstract ( 530 )
The value of information technology (IT) is realized only when information systems are accepted and utilized by their intended users. There are three major contextual factors which impact on user acceptance through their perception on technology. These factors relate to people, technology, and people-technology interaction. Strategies including user expectation management, overcoming resistance to change, and building an innovative culture will increase user acceptance and maximum IT payoff.

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