10 January 2005, Volume 23 Issue 0501

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  • . 2005, 23(0501): 4-8.
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    More than half of the total length of Qinghai-Tibet Railroad (QTR) traverses warm (0~1°C) permafrost areas, and about 40% of its total length is in ice-rich permafrost areas. The construction of the QTR must also consider the impacts of climatic warming along the QTR during the next 50~100 years. The latest projection indicates a warming of 2.2~2.6°C on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) by the year 2050. Therefore, the key to the successful construction of the QTR is to protect permafrost from being thawed. Although railroad construction in permafrost areas has had a history of more than 100 years, the troubled sections of the railroads in permafrost areas have been greater than 30% of their total length. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the road construction in permafrost areas, both in China and abroad, the author proposes that the principle of "active cooling" of the railroad roadbed by lowering permafrost temperatures should be used in the design of the QTR, rather t...更多han that of "passive protection" of permafrost through increasing thermal resistance of the roadway, such as increasing fill thickness and/or using insulative materials. This is especially important for the road sections in warm, ice-rich permafrost. In addition, this paper proposes several methods for "cooling the roadbed" by controlling radiation, convection and conduction through modifying roadway structure and using different fill materials
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 8-13.
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    The distribution characteristics and regional changing background of alpine cold ecosystem along the railroad, where the permafrost was located, are analyzed. Based on the comparison of the variation laws of the ecosystem along the Qinghai-Tibet highway line and the relationship between permafrost environment and various alpine ecosystem, the integrative disturbed degree index method and its quantitative assessment model, which comprised with the factors of engineering disturbed soil environmental change, permafrost condition change and the restoration degree and anti-disturbing capacity of the various alpine cold ecosystem, are put forward and used to estimate the impacts of railroad engineering on the alpine cold ecosystem in Tibetan plateau. According to the climate change scene in future 50 years and the construction measures of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad, the impacts estimating results show that the most serious disturbing construction actions have a middle degree of influence on ...更多ecosystem with maintaining the disturbed grassland coverage over 50%. Meanwhile, the influence on alpine steppe ecosystem will be in middle and light degree. For the middle and light disturbing construction actions, there will be slight influence on alpine ecosystems.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 14-17.
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    Based on the modern process research, abundance of climate and environment information were collected, the influence factors from nature and human activities synthesized, and momentous climatic and environmental events, especially calamity climate events by the means of high resolution ice core analysis anatomized. In this paper, the character and mechanism of climatic and environmental evolution, microbe evolvement under the ultra-low temperature, the cause of atmospheric greenhouse concentration variations and its relation with climate change, and the estimate of the effect on environment by human activities are being discussed on the evidences from ice cores recovered in Qinghai-Tibet plateau.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 18-22.
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    In this paper, the basic climate characteristics of winter, summer and annual mean surface temperatures were analyzed by using 86 stations during period from founding to 2001 over the Tibetan Plateau, and the spatial anomaly structure and time evolution tendency have been analysed systematically through principal component analysis, a periodic function and a random function and power spectral analysis methods. The result shows that the surface temperature is a function of sea level elevation and latitude in the Tibetan Plateau, the higher the elevation and latitudes are, the lower the surface temperature is . The annual highest surface temperature is 14.9 ℃ of Cayu in the Yaluzangbu river, and the highest value of the surface temperature in summer is 23.0 ℃ at Germu in the Chaidamu basin. The souther Talmu basin of the plateau outer circle, the temperature is higher in western Sichuan, but the center is not in the plateau. The Lowest value of surface temperature in the center of the pl...更多ateau is -0.2 of annual mean surface temperature, winter then much lower (average -14.2~-15.8 ℃). The lowest value of the surface temperature is 9.8 ℃ at Qingshuihe in summer, its average in July is 10.7℃. The first loading vector of the surface temperature over the Plateau is overall consistency. The second loading vector has a difference in the north and the south. The variety of the first principal component has an obvious up-trend in the last 30 years, but the second principal component is a slow-moving descent, and there is a quasi periodic oscillation of 7~9 years for the interannual variation.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 23-28.
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    In allusion to the problems of the frozen soil engineering geology, the roadbed stability with climate change, the entironment change and protection in the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway, this paper analysed the frozen soil engineering technology problems existed in the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railway and introduced new ideas and methods for solving these problems: the idea of the actively cooling roadbed and the idea of the dynamic design. Meanwhile, we put forward the problems of considering and research at next phase in the construction of Qinghai-Tibet Railroad.
  • 工程技术
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 29-31.
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    The Huanghua Harbor is a man-made harbor in the muddy beach at the southwest of the Bohai Bay. The current problem is that during gales whose wind force over Grade 6 and lasting more than 14 hours in E or ENE direction from the sea, the aggradation in the outer waterway greatly exceeds the estimate and the accretion consists of hard and close-grained fine sediments which is difficult to dredge. The study on this paper shows that the above problem is caused by sediment transport of vortex, which is verified by satellite photos and numerical model. Furthermore, two kinds of control plan were compared with each other.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 32-34.
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    Based on the characteristics of network decoy system, the acquiring Information strategies of dynamic game theory were suggested. Looked upon the attacker and network decoy system as the game players, and in accordance with the dynamic game of incomplete information theory and stochastic games theory, the characteristics of the acquiring information strategies in different phase of acquiring information under network warfare environments were discussed.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 35-37.
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    In this paper, the identity authentication technology and biological characteristic recognition were introduced at first. Then the shortcomings of fingerprint recognition--the most extensively used biological characteristic identity authentication method at present, was indicated. On this basis, a new biological characteristic identity authentication method--the hand vein recognition was proposed. Theoretical foundation and difficulty of hand vein recognition was analyzed. A new threshold segmentation method and match method of vein picture were proposed. The match experiment was carried on, very good experiment result was obtained.
  • 区域开发
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 46-49.
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    Cyclic economy and ecological small town means that its general industry design is based on the principle of systems engineering and employs the way of cyclic economy so that the natural resources can be circularly used with less, even none pollution in such a typical small town. At the same time, it follows the nature ecosystem regular, the ecological environment of the small towns are advantageous and sustainable. Presently, the construction of Chinese small towns is in the period of fast development and this kind of small town should be the best choice.
  • 农业
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 50-53.
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    The three problems concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers in Province Guizhou have been not only a critical obstacle disturbing its economic and social development, and nodernization development, but also an important theoretical and realistic issue that an all-round well-off society is constructed in Province Guizhou. The present state and characteristics of the three problems in Guizhou were analysed, and their solutions were also suggested in the paper.
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 54-58.
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    The investment of government fiscal in agriculture is one of the most important components of the total agriculture investments. The available space and shares of the government fiscal investments in agriculture have been very large since china became a member of WTO. The effects of WTO on China's agriculture, rural areas and farmers, and the policy suggestions of government fiscal investment in agriculture in the permissible range of "green-box policy" were put forward, that is, increasing the total investment, optimizing the investment structure, reforming the administration system of investment, transforming the operation system of investment, improving the investment assessment administration system and making a favorable environment of investment
  • 经济
  • . 2005, 23(0501): 58-61.
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    The manufacturing industry in China attaches itself to the international division of labor under the economic globalization and is titled the "world factory". The benefit denudation in the manufacturing industry of the world makes it be not a match for the title. This paper puts forward the "dumbbell" structure of the value-added of the value-chain in the manufacturing industry based on the theory in existence, and on the basis of the analysis of the manufacturing industry in China, using the outside resources to speed up the upgrade of the structure of the resource endowment, substituting the "obtaining the technology by the competition" for the "trading market for technology", making the use of the informationalization to extent the value-chain in order to realize the China's effect of the value-added of the value-chain in the manufacturing industry of the world