10 September 2004, Volume 22 Issue 0409

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  • LIN Hao-ran
    . 2004, 22(0409): 4-6.
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    Due to overfishing, heavy marine pollution and deterioration of marine ecosystem, the diversities of marine fish are declined, the fish resources are facing an exhaustive risk. The implementation of proliferation and culture of marine fishes is the fundamental measures and effective ways for the reasonable and sustainable exploitation of marine fish resources. Genomic researches on marine life are the bases and new growing point for the exploitation of marine bio-resoures, and especially researches on the genetic diversity and germplasm genome on major mariculture fish will enhance the theoretical level and promote the development of new techniques for the proliferation and culture of marine fish. A comprehensive analysis on the purposes, significances and advances in the detection of genetic diversity and germplasm genome, the control of genetic trait, the studies of molecular phylogeny and evolution on the major mariculture fish is made in this article.
  • 论文
  • WANG Tian-hong;HOU Yun-hua
    . 2004, 22(0409): 7-10.
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    Enzymes from extremophiles (extremozymes) show activity and stability at extremes of temperature, pH value, low water activity and high hydrostatic pressure. Thus, extremozymes have potential applications in biological catalysis and biotransformation. The discovery of the new extremophies, the sequencing of the genomes and the development of gene engineering technology have expedited the discovery and preparation of the novel enzymes. The enzymatic activity and specificity of the extreme enzymes have further been improved by protein engineering and directed evolution, which accelerates the industrial application of the extreme enzymes. Research on the extreme enzymes not only have enhanced our understanding of the have enzymes but also enriched the theory of molecular evolution.
  • 生物技术
  • CHEN Song-lin
    . 2004, 22(0409): 10-13.
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    Disease is key factor restricting sustainable development of fisheries. No fish species with enhanced disease-resistance are available in China.The development of fish functional genomics and molecular marker techniques provides chance for screening functional genes or molecular markers related to disease-resistance. Molecular breeding techniques such as transgenesis, gene marker-assisted selection breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection breeding are potential approaches to developing new strains with enhanced disease-resistance in aquaculture, which should be strengthened in China. The aim of this paper is to provide a survey on the progress in the field of fish disease resistance-related functional genes and molecular breeding.
  • 粮食安全专题
  • YANG Zheng-li;WEI Hong
    . 2004, 22(0409): 14-17.
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    On the basis of an analysis on China’s grain security at present, the main viewpoints on the security were simply compared. The reasons and necessarility to implement the strategy of Storing the Grain Productivity in Farmlands were dissertated. The general thoughts on the actualization of the strategy were put forward and the new idea of Ecological Conservation and Cultivation on Farmlands was advanced. The countermeasures for the strategy were stated, in which enhancing the system of law-and-policy and the system of supervision to cropland quality, putting five important programs in practice were included.
  • 论文
  • HUANG Ji-kun
    . 2004, 22(0409): 17-18.
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    There is growing concern about the national grain security by both the leaders and scholars in China. This paper shows that the evidence of this concern is not founded. Our study also shows that China can achieve its high level of grain security in the coming decades. However, there is need for the policy makers to make fundamental changes in national grain security policy.
  • WANG Han-zhong
    . 2004, 22(0409): 19-20.
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    Differences between terms of "food" and Chinese "liangshi" were analyzed. It was pointed out that strengthening the term of grain security instead of food security was harmful to agricultural development. It was suggested that the term of food security should be strengthened in China.
  • LIU Qing-chang
    . 2004, 22(0409): 21-22.
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    Sweetpotato is an important crop as food, feed, industrial materials and new-type energy. This paper describes the production situation, nutritional values and development of new products of sweetpotato in China. It is emphasized that sweetpotato plays an important role in the security of food and energy in China.
  • XUE Gen-yuan;YU Shan-xian;HE Feng-pian;CHEN Guo-yong;YU Yue-hui
    . 2004, 22(0409): 23-25.
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    Based on the analysis on the essential characteristics of the typhoon 0414, Rananim, with the aid of weather dynamical method, in combination with the diagnose of meteorological physical fields, the meteorological satellite cloud images, the new Doppler radar data and the numerical forecasted data, in this article, the main causes of strong precipitation during the period under the impact of this typhoon have been emphatically discussed. A few forecasting thought and clue brought forward in the article show some referenced value to the prediction on the typhoon hard rain in Zhejiang Province.
  • 资源环境
  • Duu-Jong LEE;HE Pin-jing
    . 2004, 22(0409): 26-30.
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    Sludge Management has become an esstntial environmental issue in modern society. This paper overviewed the current status of sludge management research and development. We briefly reviewed the typical characteristics of sludge and its constiuent flocs. Afterward, several important processes in sludge treatment, including conditioning, dewatering, disinfection, hydrolysis, thermal treatment, and resource utilization were addressed. The updated progress in floc structure study was highlighted.
  • 论文
  • SU Yang
    . 2004, 22(0409): 31-34.
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    China’s natural reserve has witnessed a fast increase in numbers, but the quality issue has also come to the fore. The poor management of natural reserve is attributive to the following reasons: too wide a range for protection, inadequate investment , the contradiction between production and development owing to biased policies, improper management system and competence disputes. The author suggested that the focus of natural reserve construction shift to quality raising, financial input be increased, relevant management laws and regulations be modified, ways for self-supporting be standardized, the establishment of community mechanism for joint management and common profit be promoted and the management system of state-level natural reserve be improved when conditions become adequate.
  • DAI Xiao-feng
    . 2004, 22(0409): 35-37.
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    According to the new demand of developing modern agriculture, promoting farmer’s income, enhancing international competitive capacity of agricultural products of China to agricultural science and technology, the paper reviewed the process, practice and achievements of national agricultural research system in the world in the past 10 decades, analysed the problems which China is facing in the development of agricultural sciences and technology in the new developing period of economy, and put forward the new ideas to speed up the establishment of the country’s innovation system of agricultural science and technology, and their related proposals in policy.
  • 农业
  • FU Shao-hui;HE Zhong-wei
    . 2004, 22(0409): 38-41.
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    The paper analyzed status, questions and potentialies of the agricultural bio-technique in China, and put forward some strategies: strengthening basic theory research of the agricultural bio-technique; reforming institution of the agricultural bio-technique; speeding up industrialization of the agricultural bio-technique.
  • ZHU Shu-fang;LAI Jing-sheng
    . 2004, 22(0409): 42-44.
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    This paper discusses the problems of the agricultural structure in western China. The problems include dislocation, low-location, vacancy and the same structure.According to the feature of China’s agriculture, rural areas and farmers, and requirement of development in the new era, the author puts forward a new idea and thinking of optimizing the agricultural structure on technical innovation and high-location adjustment.
  • 论文
  • ZHENG Nai-ren
    . 2004, 22(0409): 45-46.
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    Photonic technology is the most important technology for the 21st century. In the paper, we will briefly introduce the applications of lighting, solar cell, fiber communication, and security based on opto-electronics for new city planning.
  • ZHENG Yue-de TSAI Kuen-hong Lin Tsung-hi LEE Jun-ting
    . 2004, 22(0409): 47-50.
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    Rehabilitation engineers are extremely dependent on information from customers, therapists and technical professionals to direct them in the product development process. Designers of assistive devices are consistently endeavoring to perfect their products to keep competitive predominance. A strategy of product planning called Quality Function Deployment provides a systemic process of systematizing and constructing these priorities to enhance the energies for the product development team. Clinically, people with hemiplegia often use their unaffected upper and lower limbs to propel general wheelchairs. This paper describes a concept of using Quality Function Deployment to aid the product planning of manual wheelchair for people with hemiplegia to improve their life quality.
  • TING Yi-ni
    . 2004, 22(0409): 51-53.
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    This report elucidated the R&D activities in Taiwan by the expen-ditures and manpower of R&D, the number of annual papers and patents, the kinds of science and technology research institutes, and the core research projects. According to the Challenge 2008 Plan, the strategies of R&D for the following three years are:Attract international R&D personnel and intorduce R&D resources from around the world.Provide NT$50 billion in R&D loans to boost innovation and R&D activity. Establish key-industry technical colleges and encourage coopera-tion among industry,schools and research institutions. Promote key industrial technology research and establish industrial technologies. Establish innovation and R&D centers to create R&D competitive advantage in special fields. Construct industrial parks as base for industrial development.
  • 科研管理
  • NING Xiao-qian;WANG Qi-fan
    . 2004, 22(0409): 54-57.
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    The complexity of project makes it difficult to predict its time and cost performance. The paper establishes a system dynamics simulation model to study project time and cost behavior, and will be helpful to project budgeting practice.
  • WU Zhong-yuan
    . 2004, 22(0409): 58-60.
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    Because of the restriction of the hard and soft environment conditions, there has been a shortage of sci-tech talents in the undeveloped regions for long time, which restrains the local economy and social development. An effective solution to the problem is to make full use of the natural resources, to bring initiatives of local and nonlocal talents into play, to establish the sharing mechanism of high talents, to train and make full use of the practical talents in order to realize the localization of them.
  • 论文
  • CHEN Hui-xiong
    . 2004, 22(0409): 61-63.
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    Hedonic is the only one reasonable destination of the economic and social development. GDP can not satisfy all needs of human hedonic, and the forest,the everglade and the spring also form the base of human consumption and become the source of hedonic. If we pay attention to the basic meaning of the hedonic of human life from beginning to end and carry out the Threshold Governing industrialization development mode, it will in favor of alleviating our sustainable development pressure, enlarging eco-capital,reducing the eco-footprint of human activity and advancing the form of long-term harmonious development mode between human and nature.