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   Science & Technology Review
2013, Vol.31, No. 36
28 December 2013

Articles
Reviews

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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 2-3.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 9-9.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 80-80.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 83-83.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 84-84.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 85-85.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 12-12.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 13-13.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 14-14.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 81-81.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 82-82.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 82-82.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 86-88.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 89-89.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 90-92.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 94-94.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 95-95.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 96-96.
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Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 97-120.
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Articles

Reservoir Physical Characteristics of Shale Gas in Longmaxi Formation in Southeastern Chongqing

CHEN Qiao, TAN Yanhu, WANG Lisha, WANG Sen, LIAO Kaigui, LIU Hong, YAO Guanghua, WANG Qijun, YANG Bo
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 15-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.001
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Abstract ( 428 )
The physical experiments on the shale outcrop core in the Longmaxi formation in southeastern Chongqing show that the Porosity variation is in the range of 1.5%~2.5%, the permeability is in the range of 2.5×10-4~1.3×10-3mD; the Shale beddings and the dispersion phenomenon are clearly seen, but their extents gradually increase with the angle of bedding, and the wave velocity decreases. The pore size distribution is changed, with less large pores, basically with no micro pore, and with a large capillary force. The rock quartz content is high, the clay content is relatively low, as typical of the hard brittle shale. At the same time, the clay is dominated by illite, with a small amount of chlorite and illite/smectite mixed layer, not including montmorillonite, the expansion extent is small, the brittle shale parameters are between 0.49~0.77, the average value is 0.58. Test results provide some guidance for the shale mining method selection, the instability mechanism and the fracturing fluid design scheme in the shale gas development in the region.

Preparation of SO42--H3PW12O40/TiO2(P123) and It’s Photocatalytic Activity for Dinitrotoluene Decomposition

SHANG Hairu, LIU Xia, FENG Changgen
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 20-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.002
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Abstract ( 197 )
Mesoporous materials SO42--H3PW12O40 /TiO2(P123)were synthesized by combining sol-gel technology and solvothermal treatment. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) results suggest that the specific surface area of SO42--H3PW12O40 /TiO2(2gP123)is 211m2/g, which is five times higher than that of pure TiO2. The average particle size of composite catalyst decreases obviously. Results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra (UV-Vis) show that, compared with pure TiO2, an obvious redshift of composite catalysts was observed and the absorption intensity of the band increased significantly. By means of the orthogonal design method of L16(45), the influence of various operating parameters on the dinitrotoluene (DNT) degradation were investigated, including H3PW12O40 loadings, dosage of template agent P123, initial pH value of the solution, catalyst dosage and the concentration of H2SO4, then the intuitionistic analysis and variance analysis were performed. Kinetics results show that the photocatalytic degradation of DNT fits the apparent first-order reaction. The conversion of DNT reached 98.7% after xenon lamp irradiating for 4h under optimum operating conditions: 1.2g/L catalyst dosage, 20%H3PW12O40 loading, 2g dosage of P123, pH value 2 and 1mol/L H2SO4. The half-life of DNT degradation is 0.7162h. The experimental results demonstrate that the photocatalytic effect is good.

Simulation of the Oil and Water Two-phase Flow Based on the Galerkin Finite Element Method

ZHANG Xiansong, DING Meiai, ZHOU Zongming, LIN Chunyang
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 26-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.003
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Abstract ( 320 )
This paper simulates the oil-water two-phase flow of oil and water based on the Galerkin finite element method, as an advanced reservoir simulation method. The finite element mathematical model in the weak form is derived for the oil-water two-phase flow, Then, a feasible strategy is adopted to deal with the nonlinearity terms in the well boundary processing and the upstream weight selection. Using the finite element code generation platform FEPG, the finite element software code based on hexahedral eight nodes is generated for the simulation of the three-dimensional two-phase oil-water percolation. To validate the finite element method and the software, the results are compared with those obtained by the commercial software based on the finite difference, and it is shown that the finite element method is effective and reliable.

Fault Influence in Slope of Down Dip Soft Rock Based on RFPA-SRM

CHEN Peng, ZHOU Zhiwei, CAO Lanzhu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 31-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.004
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Abstract ( 304 )
According to the actual data of Yanbaoshan open-pit and based on the mesoscopic mechanics method and the strength reduction method, the dynamic instability processes of the down dip soft rock with and without fault are simulated by the RFPA-SRM, then the stability of the slope, the affected form and the failure mechanism of the fault are studied. It is indicated that with fault, Fs=1.099, without fault, Fs=1.176, the slope is stable; the landslide or the failure of the slope is a gradual process of crack generation, extension, cut-through stages and the tensile failure and the shear failure co-exist; the root cause is that the fault causes the change of the failure mode and the stability of the slope through the rock stress condition influenced by the fault and the strength characteristics.

Applicability of Bullheading Killing Technology

SUN Xiaofeng, YAN Tie, WANG Kelin, SHAO Shuai, LUAN Shizhu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 36-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.005
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Abstract ( 285 )
The bullheading as an unconventional technique to kill a well is by pumping the kill fluid directly into the wellbore or the annulus during the gas kick, until all the influx is displaced into the exposed open hole formation and the wellbore is filled with a kill fluid of sufficient density to balance the reservoir pressure. For the type of blowouts applied by the bullheading technique, this paper analyzes the invasion fluid characteristics, the formation physical properties, and other parameters for the bullheading, identifies the applicable conditions, the necessary conditions and the required equipment for bullheading, and analyzes the field applications for bullheading to provide some guidelines for engineers. With considerations of the kick and blowout features in recent years, it is shown that the bulheading has a good prospect for the shallow gas well overflow, the high pressure gas well overflow, and other complex well overflows and blowouts.

Probability Distribution of Rock Salt Creep Parameters Based on Multivariate Normal Distribution

MA Jiwei, WANG Zhiyin
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.006
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Abstract ( 452 )
According to the rock salt creep experimental data at a would-be gas storage site and their variation pattern, based on the Burgers creep model fitting, the rock salt creep parameters of the gas storage are obtained. Taking each of the creep parameters as a random variable, the influence of many random factors on the creep parameters is studied during the rock salt formation and its creep experiment process. Considering the linkages between the creep parameters, assuming a five variable overall random sample constituted by the creep parameter variables in accordance with a five variable normal distribution, the joint density function of the five variable normal distribution is obtained. Then the link between the creep parameters is revealed through the covariance matrix, and the multivariate normal distribution assumption is tested by the Q-Q test method of the χ2 statistics. It is shown that the five variable overall random sample constituted by the creep parameter variables can be very well represented by the five variable normal distribution. The results provide an insight for the probability distribution of rock salt creep parameters.

Development of Dynamic Simulation Test Device for the Corrosion Near Downhole Pump Suction Port

GAO Fei, LOU Yishan, WU Qiong, TANG Lihua, MIN Jiangben, LI Yihao, JIANG Meiting
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 46-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.007
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Abstract ( 174 )
The corrosion of the casing near a downhole pump suction port is common in some domestic oilfields, and it has a serious impact on the stable production of the oilfield. In order to study the corrosion mechanism, we have designed and manufactured a dynamic simulation test device for the corrosion of the casing near the downhole pump suction port. The device consists of a single plunger pump and a tube and casing strings in line with the site structure to simulate the intermittent production mode of the pump as well as the fluid flow state near the pump inlet adequately, and the corrosion velocity measurement can be made and the corrosion behavior can be studied under different temperatures, CO2 partial pressures, and velocities to provide important data for the casing materials. The test results show that the flow rate and flow pattern of the corrosive medium near the oil pump suction port are the main factors of casing-leakage, and CO2 local corrosion is the main way, which is in accordance with the casing damage status.

Nuclear Magnetic Rresonance Characteristics in Fresh Filling Slurry

ZHOU Keping, AI Kaiming, ZHANG Jian, LI Jielin
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 50-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.008
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Abstract ( 276 )
The distribution and the peak area of the transverse relaxation time (T2) of water in a fresh filling slurry are studied by the lowfield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to obtain the water distribution and the evolution law in the fresh filling slurry during the early hydration. The results are as follows: During the early hydration of the filling slurry, the T2 distribution of water includes three peaks. Peak 1 represents the signal generated by the adsorbed water in the filling slurry; peak 2 is the signal generated by the pore water between solid particles; peak 3 stands for the signal generated by the free water in the filling slurry. With the increase of the hydration time, the 1st peak area decreases continuously, indicating the transformation from the adsorbed water into the chemically bound water and the free water; the 2nd peak area fluctuates, but remains stable in general, indicating that the pore water changes not significantly; the increase of the 3rd peak area shows the bleeding phenomenon in the fresh filling slurry. With the increase of the hydration time, the sum of the three peak areas is constantly reducing, indicating the process of the adsorbed water transforming into the chemically bound water in the filling slurry.

Development of the ADVISOR Module for the Regenerative Braking Based on the HEV with CVT

YANG Junping, WANG Xinyu
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 54-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.009
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Abstract ( 308 )
Based on the operating principle of the powertrain system in the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with the CVT and the characteristics of the ISG motor, a new model is built with the braking force varying with the velocity, and a simulation platform of a new coaxial parallel HEV carrying CVT is set up after the redevelopment of the default HEV model in ADVISOR. For the regenerative braking system, simulative tests were carried out. It is shown that the redeveloped simulation platform can well ensure the accuracy of the tests, and the model developed can effectively extend the application of ADVISOR and be used in the study of the new power structure of HEV.

Dynamics of Solar Wind Origin Area Plasma

HUANG Wei, WANG Huajun, ZOU Qian
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 59-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.010
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Abstract ( 130 )
This paper discusses the dynamics of the solar wind plasma based on solar wind origins. The MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) and its formula derivation are reviewed, especially its features of discontinuous structure and rotation discontinuity, as shown by one dimensional space structure diagrams. By analyzing the satellite detection results, it is found that there are two magnetic field direction discontinuity surfaces: one is a tangential discontinuity (TD), and the other is a rotation discontinuity (RD). It is shown that for the TD, the magnetic-field component of the vertical discontinuity surface is zero and the electricity ions do not go through the surface. While the bilateral magnetic field directions of the RD are different, the size is the same and the electricity ions go through the discontinuity surface. It is observed that the rotation discontinuity surface in the solar wind is mainly related with the high-speed solar wind. The magnetic flux through the interface remains unchanged, the magnetic field in the tangential direction can change along any direction, therefore, the rotational discontinuity can be observed. By conparing the derivation results with the data verification diagrams, it is shown that the data diagram analysis supports the derivation of the formula and then proves the system of the rotation discontinuity of the solar wind origin area plasma.

Screening of Quantitative Diagnosis Indices of Typing Abnormal Hilit Syndrome in Uighur Medicine Using Delphi Method with 129 Cases of Ulcerative Colitis

MAITISIDIKE Ayinuer, ABUDULAIHAITI Wuerguli, UPUR Hamulati, AJI Rouzibake
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 64-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.011
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Abstract ( 284 )
To set up abnormal hilit typing quantitative diagnostic criteria of Uighur medicine for the Ulcerative colitis patients, based on the free disease clinical diagnostic information, 129 Ulcerative colitis patients were selected in the study of quantifying diagnosis specialist counseling. Selected factors were analyzed by the modified multi-categorization logistic regression analysis to determine the dedication degree and the main and subsequent symptoms of the symptom-complex factors of the abnormal hilit of Ulcerative colitis through the OR values. As the result, the meaningful symptoms were found in all the abnormal hilit syndromes according to the OR values. It is shown that the chief symptoms of the abnormal savda type Ulcerative colitis include dry mouth without desire to drink, dark and gloomy fur, dreaminess, nightmare, pale urine, bitter taste, dark purple lips, cyanotic tongue quality. Subsequent symptoms include not peaceful in mind, rough and cool skin. The chief symptoms of the abnormal kan type Ulcerative colitis include sleepless, thick、strong pulse, reddish conjunctiva, dark red tongue quality. Subsequent symptoms include bitter sweet taste, hot skin. The chief symptoms of abnormal balgham type Ulcerative colitis include sticky mouth, poor quality of sleep, fretful, cool and moist skin. Subsequent symptoms include whitish complexion, metallic taste (tasteless), increased urine volume, thin and pale urine. The chief symptoms of abnormal sapra type Ulcerative colitis include hot skin, dry mouth, thready, floating pulse, irritability, yellowish conjunctiva, yellowish complexion, pale lips, deep colored urine. Subsequent symptoms include thin tongue and bitter mouth. The features of excess syndromes of the four abnormal hilit syndromes on Ulcerative colitis identified by the Delphi method are in line with clinical observations. The establishment of the standards would provide a ground for developing the clinical effect standards for the traditional Uighur medicine and at the same time, a methodological reference for the establishment of the related standards.

Effect of Uighur Medicine Hyssopus officinalis L. Total Flavonoids on Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-induced Asthmatic Rats

EKIM Mahsum, ROZI Nurjan, YUSUP Abdiryim
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 71-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.012
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Abstract ( 253 )
The effect of the Uygur medicine Hyssopus officinalis L. total flavonoids on pathological changes in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats is observed and the total number of cells and the percentage of lymphocytes (Ly), eosinophils (Eos), neutrophils (Neu) in BALF, the level of TGF-β1 in BALF and the lung tissue are studied for the mechanism of its treatment of asthma. The rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the asthma model group, the aminophylline treatment group, the Hyssopus total flavonoids groups of high, medium and low dose treatments. They were sensitized with OVA, Al(OH)3 and DPT vaccine and then were challenged with the inhalation of aerosolized OVA solution for preparation of the asthma model. The level of the lung tissue and BALF TGF-β1 were determined with ELISA, the total number of cells and the percentage of Ly, Eos, Neu in BALF were determined by light microscope. The results show that as compared with the asthma model group, the level of TGF-β1, the total number of cells and the percentage of Ly, Eos, Neu in BALF and the level of the lung tissue TGF-β1 were significantly lower in those of treated groups (P<0.05); among different dose treatment groups, the level of TGF-β1, the total number of cells and the percentage of Ly, Eos, Neu in BALF and the level of the lung tissue TGF-β1 were significantly reduced (P<0.05) with a dose-dependent trend in alleviating the airway inflammation of the asthma., Hyssopus officinalis L. total flavonoids may inhibit the secretion of TGF-β1, Ly, Eos, Neu, reducing the airway inflammation of the asthma.
Reviews

Advances in On-line Detecting Technologies of Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Toxicity in Water

HAN Yanhe, CHEN Jiaqing, WANG Peng, RUAN Xiuli
Science & Technology Review. 2013, 31 (36): 76-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2013.36.013
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Abstract ( 282 )
The chemical oxygen demand (COD), the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the toxicity, which play very important roles in the detection of contamination, the analysis of the wastewater treatment plant, and the water quality assessment, are important indexes for representing the degree of the organic pollution in water bodies. The on-line detecting technology is a promising research area. The conventional determination methods of the COD make use of the consumption of the chemical oxidant as the quantitative basis. The BOD is measured through the dissolved oxygen consumption during the biological degradation as the basis in a conventional method. The conventional toxicity detection is carried out by using the variation of the biomass or the number of individuals as the basis. Therefore, the detecting integration of the COD, the BOD and the toxicity is hard to be made based on these conventional determination methods. The merits and demerits of testing technologies for the COD, the BOD, the toxicity and their integration are reviewed in this paper. An unconventional quantitative method is proposed to realize the integrating detection of the COD, the BOD and the toxicity, as an advance in on-line detecting technologies of the COD, the BOD and the toxicity.

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