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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 1
08 January 2014


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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 1-1.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 89-89.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 85-85.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 94-96.
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Cladistic Analysis of Palastraea McCoy, 1851 from China

LIN Wei, WANG Xiangdong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 15-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.001
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Fifteen species (including 14 endemic and one epidenmic) of Palastraea were recorded in China. Some Chinese researchers subdivided Palastraea into several genera including Palastraea, Acmoheliophyllum, Palaeosmilastraea, and Parapalaeosmilia in light of characteristics of the epithecal wall. Detailed observations and examinations on some thin sections of Palastraea show, however, the morphologic characters of the epithecal wall seem to vary largely even within the same colony. For further understanding the taxonomic classification of Palastraea and its related taxa, 16 characters were chosen in this paper to make a cladistic analysis for 13 endemic species (with one being omitted) from China. The analysis yields two cladogrames, on which one strict consensus tree can be generated. The tree shows that the three genera including Acmoheliophyllum, Palaeosmilastraea, and Parapalaeosmilia are polyphyletic, which indicates the generic subdivision in light of the epithecal wall is not appropriate. Those species included in these three genera by some researchers should belong to one genus, namely Palastraea. The tree also shows that Palaeosmilastraea gracilis and P. gyorxtungensis are closely related and should be a sister group. They are identical in many characters and even occur in the same horizon at the same locality, therefore, could be the synonym.

Characteristics of Ripples both in Morphology and Sediments in Golden Beach Coastal Zone, Huangdao and the Relationship with Hydrodynamics

YANG Junsheng, GE Yuzhu, WU Qiong, WANG Jing, WANG Miao
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 22-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.002
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Abstract ( 551 )
The Golden Beach is a typical high-energy coast without barrier, with wind ripples being developed in the backshore and wave ripples in the upside of the nearshore and swales in the foreshore. This paper analyzes the morphology, the sediment granularity and the hydrodynamic conditions of these three kinds of ripples developed in different environments, and it is found that, 1) The wind ripples in the backshore have a longer wavelength, a lower wave height, but a bigger ripple index as compared to the wave ripples. Both the wavelength and the scale of the wave ripples increase from the land to the sea. 2) For the wind ripples, it is the crest sediments that contain more coarse grains, while for the wave ripples, it is the valley sediments that contain more coarse grains, and the coarse grains increase their number from the backshore to the foreshore. The sediments of the wind ripples and the wave ripples in the swale lack the suspension components. The frequency distributions of the ripple grain size in the backshore and the foreshore take bimodal forms, while the frequency distribution of the ripple grain size in the upside of the nearshore takes a unimodal form. Using the sorting-kurtosis figure and the sorting-skewness figure of the ripple sediments, it is easy to distinguish the sedimentary environment. 3) The mean grain size of the sediments has a certain linear relationship with the flow velocity, the water depth and the Froude number Fr. According to the experimental results, the ripples in the foreshore formed in the falling tide indicate a weak hydrodynamic condition, which may be related to the quick change of the flow velocity and the water depth. 4) The regression equations between the sedimentary characteristics, the flow velocity and the water depth are obtained after the stepwise regression analyses.

Influence of Bivalent Cation on Viscosity of Polymer Solution in High Calcium and Magnesium Reservoir

CUI Maolei, LÜ Chengyuan, HAI Yuzhi, WANG Youqi, TAN Zhongliang, XU Shuang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 30-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.003
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Abstract ( 620 )
A block in Bamianhe reservoir of Jianghan Oilfield is considered in this paper. With respect to the heat-tolerance saltresistance polymer, the influence of the bivalent cation on its viscosity in the high calcium and magnesium reservoir is studied. The proposed concepts of the mineralization and the cation content calculated from the quantitative relationship between the influences of the monovalent cation and the bivalent cation on the viscosity could be used as the evaluation indexes of the polymer solution viscosity under the condition of high calcium and magnesium. In order to reduce the effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the viscosity, a complexing agent called the sodium citrate is added to the solution to improve the viscosity of the polymer solution. The experimental results show that the sodium citrate has a high complexing ability, and the solution viscosity is significantly increased, though the calcium and magnesium ion influence on the viscosity is not fully suppressed. This paper provides a theoretical guidance for the high calcium magnesium reservoir polymer flooding technology.

Research and Application of the Drag Reduction Technique of the DRA in the Natural Gas Pipelines

HUANG Zhiqiang, HU Wengang, LI Qin, CHEN Zhen, WANG Nan
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 34-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.004
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Abstract ( 603 )
With the "gasification" process guided by China's energy strategy, during the 12th Five-Year Plan, the gas pipeline mileage will have a significant growth, and expect to reach 100,000 kilometers by 2015. This paper analyzes the mechanisms of the film forming and the drag reduction of the DRA through the electron microscope micro tests. In the optimization of the key structure in the injection device, it is shown that the change of the cone angle of the swirl chamber has a great impact on the spray angle of the swirl atomizer, the atomizing results are best when the cone angle of the swirl chamber is 100°. The change of the nozzle outlet diameter may change the the axial velocity of the drag reducing agent injection, it would lead to the increase of the spray distance, which, however, would decrease the spray angle. When the diameter of the nozzle outlet is 1.4mm, the tangential angle of the spin chamber is 14°, the atomizing results are the best. A computation formula of the reasonable dose is obtained through a method of combining the laboratory and field testings. Finally, the field experiment is developed in the pipeline of LAN-YIN. The findings provide a guidance for the extension and application of the technology of natural gas DRA.

Technology and Application of CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage for Coal?fired Power Plant

LÜ Guangzhong, LI Zhenquan, LI Xiangliang, ZHANG Jian, WANG Shijie
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 40-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.005
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Abstract ( 649 )
The carbon dioxide capture, the flooding and the storage technologies in a coal-fired power plant are effective for enhancing the oil recovery in an ultra-low permeability reservoir and reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. The studies in these directions provide insight on the dynamic microscopic mechanism of the carbon dioxide mixed with oil, the capture of the carbon dioxide to reduce the high cost of coal-fired power plants, the serious corrosion of oil storage and production systems and other key technologies, to form the technology series, including the carbon capture coal-fired power plant flue gas purification technology, the carbon dioxide EOR reservoir adaptability evaluation system, the indoor experimental techniques and the reservoir engineering optimization design technology, supported with the carbon dioxide flooding processes and the ground engineering. The first demonstration project of the coal-fired power plant carbon capture, flooding and storage is established, with good results. Compared with the conventional MEA capture process, the efficient carbon capture solvents and the process make a cost reduction of 35%, over 128000 t of CO2 being successfully injected into the reservoir, with the cumulative oil increment of 2.9×104 t,and 110000 t of CO2 being stored in the CO2 flooding and sequestration demonstration zone.

Cost Analysis of CO2 Geological Storage in Deep Saline Formation

WANG Zhong, KUANG Jianchao, PANG Heqing, HUO Zhilei
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 46-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.006
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Abstract ( 487 )
In order to study the relationship between the deep saline formation (DSF) storage cost and the reservoir properties and the location for the CO2 storage, an engineering economic model of the DSF storage cost is established in this paper. Compared with the conventional studies, this model takes into account the costs of the old well review and the post-injection monitoring, focusing more on the leakage and pollution prevention. Taking a typical scenario as an example, the total capital cost is calculated as 76.86×106 $, the total annual operation and maintenance cost is 5.03×106 $/a, and the levelized cost of the DSF storage is 4.89 $/t. In the levelized cost, the injection related cost, the monitoring related cost and the site characterization related cost account for 80.43%, 10.46% and 9.12% , respectively. The relations among the levelized storage cost, the injection rate, and the reservoir properties such as the permeability, the pressure, the porosity, the thickness and the depth are also analyzed. It is shown that the levelized cost decreases with the increase of the permeability, the thickness and the porosity of the reservoir. On the other hand, however, the relations between the injection rate, the reservoir pressure and the reservoir depth are more complex, they are non-monotonous. These relations are explained from the aspects of the number of the injection wells and the area of the storage site. Finally, through the sensitivity analysis, the reservoir depth and the reservoir pressure are found to be the most sensitive factors to the levelized cost.

Full Pipeline Flowing Transportation Technology of Classified Tailings Based on the Fluent Software

WANG Xinmin, HE Yan, CHEN Qiusong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 53-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.007
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Abstract ( 457 )
In view of the serious wear on the pipeline owing to the free falling of the classified tailing slurry, a classified tailing slurry full pipeline flowing transportation technology is adopted. Combining with the related transportation theory of Engineering Fluid Mechanics and for deep level pipelines, the classified tailing slurry under different stowing gradient conditions with full pipeline flowing characteristics of transportation is numerically simulated based on the Fluent software. It is shown that compared with the free fall system, the full pipeline flowing system greatly reduces the impact abrasion and pressure to the pipeline. The outlet pressure of the classified tailing full pipeline flowing conveying system increases with the stowing gradient, and the total pressure remains constant; the diameter has a great influence on the hydraulic slope of the filling slurry, the measures of adjusting the pipeline are beneficial to the full pipeline flowing transportation in deep mines; when the pipe length-backfilling depth ratio N=6.0, the pressure loss of the classified tailings reaches the minimum of 0.247 MPa.

Mining Area Connection Scheme in Surface Coal Mine

LIU Guangwei, LI Chengsheng, YU Yuan
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 59-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.008
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Abstract ( 482 )
A large-horizontal and gently inclined coal mine is usually divided into several mining areas and is mined in one surface coal mine area at a time in proper order. The difficulties of connecting the old and new mining areas consist of the steering transition mode selection, the connecting position determination, the layout of the pit haulage system and the assignment of engineering. In this paper, three kinds of steering transition programs are analyzed and compared to determine a steering angle gentle slope transition program. In the determination of the next mining engineering location, the SMCAD software is used for 3D geological modeling, with interactive design of working slope, and the engineering position is simulated, with accurate calculation of quantities accordingly; four kinds of two section connecting scheme are proposed, considering the production stripping ratio and the mining transition time to finally establish the mining transition scheme.

Effects of Various Solvent Systems and the Ratios on Thin-Layer Chromatographic Enantio-separation of Propranolol Hydrochloride

YAO Yuanxiang, LIU Jinyun, TAN Xinliang, PENG Zhiguang, JIN Hangdan
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 65-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.009
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Abstract ( 694 )
This paper evaluates the hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin-based chiral stationary phase, with oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as additional adsorbing materials, for the chiral separation of propranolol hydrochloride enantiomers. The compositions of the developing solvent (acetonitrile/various alcohols), with/without acetic acid, are optimized. The optimal solvent system of acetonitrile/iso-butanol 9/1 (V/V) containing 2% acetic acid (in volume) for hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/ oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated thin-layer chromatography, and the optimal solvent system of acetonitrile/n-butanol 1/1 (V/V) containing 2% acetic acid (in volume) for methyl-β-cyclodextrin/oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated thinlayer chromatography are obtained.

Aquatic Ecological Health Assessment of the Third Level Aquatic Eco?functional Zones for Typical Tributaries of Liaohe River

LI Fayun, LÜ Chunjian, WEI Ran, WANG Jinlong, CHU Kuo
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 70-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.010
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Abstract ( 444 )
Based on the survey of the third level aquatic eco-functional zones of Liao River basin in Liaoning Province and the investigation of its ecosystem, with two typical rivers (Qing River and Fan River) as the selected cases and the water ecosystem health assessment indicators for the principal component analysis (PCA) and the correlation analysis, this paper has constructed the comprehensive assessment indicator groups made of ten parameters: EC, TP, TN, CODCr, BOD5, DAA, DO, DAA, B-IBI, F-IBI, hydrologic index and habitat index, which reveal the integrated physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the rivers in the studied areas. It is shown that among the 11 third level aquatic eco-functional zonings at Qing River and Fan River basins, one zone (Ⅳ-5-4) is evaluated as in the healthy level, six zones (Ⅳ-5-1、Ⅳ-5-2、Ⅳ-5-3、Ⅳ-5-9、Ⅳ-5-10、Ⅳ-5-11) are in sub-healthy level,three zones (Ⅳ-5-12、Ⅳ-5-13、Ⅳ-5-14) are in the ordinary level and one zone (Ⅳ-5-8) is in a poor level. The overall healthy characteristics of the spatial distribution in Qing River and Fan River zonings are gradually deteriorated from the source of the rivers to the end of Liao River, with a close relationship with the human activities.

Preparation of the Ordered Molecular Assembly Based on Green Ionic Liquid Media

MA Fumin, GUO Jianlin, CHEN Xiao, LI Wen, RUAN Min, YU Zhanlong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (1): 78-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.011
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Abstract ( 536 )
The ionic liquid is widely used in various fields due to its special characteristics and the environment-friendly green performance. In this paper, the research progress is reviewed with a focus on the fabrication of the ordered molecular assembly such as micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals, vesicles, microemulsion and emulsion, using the green ionic liquids as the media, including nonprotic and protic ionic liquids. Firstly, the basic concepts, the classification and the development of the amphiphilic molecule and the ordered molecular assembly are briefly discussed. Then, the assembly behaviors of a variety of ionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants and polymeric surfactants in the non-protic ionic liquid, the protic ionic liquid and the aqueous solution are compared. The type, the structure, the influencing factors, the driving force, and the mechanism of the ordered molecular assembly are analyzed. Its application areas and research trends in this field are also commented.

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