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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 2
18 January 2014

Articles
Reviews

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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 102 )

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 1-1.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 9-9.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 84-84.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 87-87.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 88-88.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 89-89.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 90-90.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 90-90.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 12-12.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 13-13.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 14-14.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 85-85.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 86-86.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 86-86.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 91-93.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 94-96.
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Articles

Design and Response Characteristics of a Semi-submersible Platform for Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Hot!

WU Haitao, ZHANG Liang, MA Yong, ZHAO Jing, JING Fengmei
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 15-20. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.001
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Abstract ( 348 )
A semi - submersible platform was designed for wind energy exploration and response characteristics comprehension. In numerical simulation, the whole numerical model of motion response for floating offshore wind turbine was established by three parts: the aerodynamic load simulated through the wind pressure model as which the wind turbine was simplified; the hydrodynamic load calculated by potential theory and Morison equation; the damping force and mooring load gained by damping matrix. A 1/50 scale model was made for hydrodynamic test, in which the effect of heave plate is verified. Meanwhile, natural frequencies, damping coefficients and RAOs of the models in regular waves were obtained and the numerical results match well with the test data. The influences on the platform response characteristics by the aerodynamic load were studied numerically through statistic data and response spectrums under no wind condition and operation condition. The results have shown that the numerical model is efficient and is able to reflect the motion behavior of the platform; heave, pitch and surge RAOs can meet the requirements of platform design. Both the natural periods and the attenuation coeffcients of heave and pitch were increased by heave plate, and the stability of system is improved as a result. The aerodynamic load has beneficial effects on reducing the pitch response amplitude operator, though, will amplify pitch and surge response in resonance zone.

Elastic-plastic Constitutive Relation Equivalent Method of Composite Main Arch Circle

QIAO Wenjing, SONG Yifan, SUN Kedong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 21-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.002
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Abstract ( 255 )
The arch segment of masonry arch bridge strengthened by composite main arch circle method is researched based on the theory that original arch and reinforcing layer can work together and coordination deformation. An ideal elastic-plastic constitutive relation of concrete and masonry that can be applied to finite element analysis is deduced. This ideal elastic-plastic constitutive relation is applied to reinforced arch segment, numerical model is established by finite element software ANSYS and is checked by test. The result show that the finite element numerical adopted this ideal elastic-plastic constitutive relation of concrete and masonry is close to measured value, ultimate bearing capacity of the finite element numerical reduced by 6.8%—9.2% compared to measured value. The results show that an ideal elastic-plastic constitutive relation of concrete and masonry is reliable when masonry arch is strengthened by composite main arch circle method, this method can be applicable in the analysis of the same kind of bridge structures.

Use of Commercial Oxygen Probe During the Production of Lead and Zinc Smelting

ZHOU Ping, LIU Shuaishuai, LIAO Zhou, XIA Mingjun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 26-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.003
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Abstract ( 237 )
This paper proposes a fast method to measure the oxygen potential in the lead-zinc smelting furnace, by using the commercial probes to test the oxygen potential of the slag in an running furnace. In the measurement process, the response time of the signal of the electric potential and the temperature is 10~15 seconds, which means that the measurement time can be controlled within 20 seconds. The oxygen potential's logarithm is in the range of -11.37 to -10.32, that is, the oxygen potential is in the range of 10-6.37~10-5.32Pa. The main elements in the slag are tested and analyzed for different samples which are, respectively, obtained by air-cooled and water-cooled methods. The oxygen potential is obtained according to the relationship between the Gibbs free energy and the temperature, as well as between the Gibbs free energy and the oxygen potential. It is shown that the conditions of the oxygen potential measured by the probes agree with the theoretical analysis from the oxygen potential diagrams.

Entropy Fuzzy Matter Element Analysis Method of Mining Method Selection

CHEN Jianhong, DENG Weixia
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 30-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.004
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Abstract ( 390 )
The selection of mining method is related to the economic and resource benefits of mines, and is the core of mine construction and production. The choice of mining method is a complex systematic engineering, which is featured by multiple decision factors, coexistence of certainty and uncertainty, and at the same time the traditional experience contrast method has subjective randomness. To aim at the evaluation and selection of mining methods, an information entropy and fuzzy matter element analysis method is proposed in this paper. In the process of evaluation and selection, decision factors such as mining cost, dilution rate, and loss rate are selected. the detailed steps are as follows. Firstly, the factors of selected mining methods are transformed to evaluation matrix; secondly, the weight vectors of the factors are obtained by the information entropy and fuzzy matter element analysis method; lastly, the relative closeness of all the methods are given by utilizing entropy fuzzy matter element theory. A domestic mine is taken as an example. Three mining schemes are evaluated by the proposed method in terms of, security, technology, and economic indexes. Their relative closeness are 96.18%, 81.02% and 92.18%, respectively, and the optimal method is then determined, which has better consistency with the fuzzy optimum seeking method. The new method lays a basis for the selection of mining method, and is simple, intuitive, accurate and reliable, with a high utilization of information.

Wellbore Stability of Sandstone Formation

CAO Yuan, YU Baohua, DENG Jingen, YAN Chuanliang, YUAN Junliang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 34-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.005
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Abstract ( 306 )
The creep happens in the deep sandstone formation of an oilfield in South China Sea. It is necessary to analyze the sandstone creep behavior to ensure the safety drilling in the field. Creep experiments were carried out with sandstone cores from the field, and creep rates under different differential stress were determined. The experimental data were treated by regression based on the Xiyuan model with a high regression accuracy. The creep rate of the oilfield sandstone based on the Xiyuan model shows that an improving drilling fluid density can greatly improve the safety drilling cycle. The regular tripping and casing and cementing shrinkage hole can also be used to prevent the sandstone creep.

Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Dynamic Propagation of Deviated Well

PENG Chengyong, ZHU Haiyan, LIU Shujie, YAN Chuanliang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 37-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.006
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Abstract ( 453 )
The near wellbore fractures are very complex in deviated well. If the perforations are not along with the maximum principal stress direction, a micro-annulus between the cement sheath and rock formation interface is likely to generate. For a long time, it has been difficult to simulate the three-dimensional geometries of hydraulic fracture in deviated well. In this paper, using viscoelastic continuum damage pore pressure cohesive elements and considering casing, cement, formation, perforation and the micro annulus, a three-dimensional numerical simulation model of hydraulic fracture dynamic propagation of deviated well is established. Then, considering the dynamic evolution of permeability and porosity of the pay zone, the hydraulic fracture dynamic propagation of a 20° deviated well in the Bohai Basin oilfield is calculated, and the calculated well bottom-hole pressure curve is consistent with the field hydraulic fracturing treatment curve. The hydraulic fracture and micro annulus initiation and propagation mechanism are analyzed. The micro annulus initiates and propagates simultaneously alone the well axial and circumferential directions at the initial stage of hydraulic fracturing, and then it closes with the propagation of the hydraulic fracture. The two hydraulic fracture wings of the deviated well are almost symmetrical, and easily propagate into the caprocks where the in-situ stress is smaller, that is, the fracture height of the deviated well is hard to control.

Effect of Clay Bound Water on the Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Curves and the Correction

ZHANG Chong, ZHANG Chaomo, ZHANG Zhansong, HUANG Cheng, MAO Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 44-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.007
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Abstract ( 414 )
The capillary pressure curve is one of the main tools to study the rock pore structure. On the basis of an oil-bearing shaly sandstone volume model and the HSK equation, combined with experimental data of the semi-permeable membrane and the mercury injection capillary pressure curves and the cation exchange capacity, the influence of the clay bound water on the capillary pressure curve is analyzed, and a method of correcting the mercury injection capillary pressure curve is proposed. It is shown that for the shaly sands, under the conditions of low salinity of the formation water and high cation exchange capacity, the mercury injection capillary pressure curve and the semi-permeable membrane capillary pressure curve are different. The mercury injection capillary pressure curves of six samples are corrected by using the method. For the shaly sands of medium to high porosity and permeability, the mercury injection capillary pressure curves after correction can better reflect the pore structure of the actual reservoir; for the shaly sands of low porosity and permeability, the correction method proposed in this paper is not suitable.

Research on Petrologic Character and Genetic Mode of Lacustrine Dolomit

HUANG Peng, LI Xue, GUO Rui
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 50-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.008
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Abstract ( 215 )
The dolomite of the Sha 1 lower submember in Qikou Sag developed under the background of lake expansion. Through microscopic identification and scanning electron microscopy analysis on the dolomite samples in the studied area, it is shown that there are 5 types of dolomites developed in the area, i.e., microcrystalline dolomite, micritic dolomite, argillaceous dolomite, sandy dolomite and calcite dolomite or dolomite limestone. The cathodoluminescence, oxygen isotope and rare earth element analysis reveals two environment causes of the dolomitization: the return of penecontemporaneous penetration of dolomitization and burial diagenetic dolomitization.,Burial dolomitization on the back penecontemporaneous dolomite infiltration usually occurs at the fracture well-developed zone, through the transformation of the deep hydrothermal fluid. Different origins of dolomite developed in different regions in the studied area. These types of dolomite formation and the study on formation of environment greatly promote the dolomite reservoir prediction.

Analyses on Geologic Hazard Mechanism Based on Geo-Informatic Tupu

LIU Yanhua
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 57-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.009
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Abstract ( 343 )
The formation and evolution of geological hazards is subject to certain regional background conditions, that is, the regional geographical environment has a nontrivial influence on the spatial distribution of geological hazards. The geo-information tupu theory can express intuitively and simply the forming conditions and influencing factors of geological hazards through image thinking and expression ability of graphics language. Based on the spatial database of geological hazards, geo-information tupu theory and GIS technology, this paper indicates the relationship between the spatial properties of geological hazards and its factors in time and space distribution by tupu and analyzes the characteristics in space and the change process in time of geological hazards. The results show that the formation of geological hazards in the studied area are affected mainly by landform, stratum lithology, geological structure, rainfall and human engineering activities. The landform is the necessary conditions of forming geological hazards; the stratum lithology provides the material foundation for geological hazards to form and their deformation and destruction; geological structure has a direct or indirect control effect on the formation of geological hazards; rainfall is the main trigger factor of geological disasters; human engineering activities aggravates the formation of geological hazards.

Application of Wiener Processes on Modeling Nonlinear Degradation

WANG Haowei, XU Tingxue, HE Yingzheng
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 64-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.010
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Abstract ( 366 )
According to the situation that a Wiener process is linear stochastic process but performance degradation processes are nonlinear, an approach based on time scale transformations was proposed. Firstly, nonlinear degradation data was transformed to linear degradation data with time scale transformations. Then, the transformed linear degradation data was modeled by Wiener processes. Lastly, with inverse time scale transformations, reliability assessments of product were implemented at the former time scale. On the base of introducing Wiener processes, the method and processes of parameters estimation were presented. Taking accelerated degradation data of certain type missile electrical connectors as example, the application of Wiener processes on modeling nonlinear degradation processes with time scale transformations was detailed illustrated. Results show that the method of time scale transformations extends the applications of Wiener processes, and provides an effective approach for modeling nonlinear degradation. The method successfully realized reliability assessment of the electrical connector, and offers a feasible idea of assessing reliability for other degradation products.

Kinetics of Benzopyrene Oxidation in Water by Different Oxidants

LUO Bing, ZHANG Qingdong, CAI Xinde, LIU Xiaowen, WANG Dongying, LI Xia
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 68-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.011
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Abstract ( 205 )
In order to investigate the removal ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the most widely existent benzopyrene(Bap)is chosen as the target pollutant. Different oxidants like the modified Fenton reagent, activated persulfate and permanganate are evaluated for removal of Bap. from drinking water and the kinetic law of Bap Oxidation is studied. The result shows that modified Fenton reagent has the highest Bap removal rate (90.3%). The removal of Bap by activated persulfate reaches 86.9%. Permanganate can remove 76.7% of Bap. The removal of Bap with these oxidants obeys the first-order kinetics and the curve between the reaction rate constant and temperature is shown using Arrhenius. Meanwhile, the reaction activation energies of different oxidants are obtained, and their chemical reaction rates are slightly lower than that of the common chemical reaction, which reveals that the Bap oxidation by these oxidants is not feasible.
Reviews

Phthalate Esters in the Environment

LIANG Jing, OU Yan, GONG Zhenbin
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 73-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.012
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Abstract ( 314 )
In this paper, the research progresses on phthalate esters (PAEs) in toxicity, the sources, environmental chemical behavior, and contamination level are summarized by retrieved literatures home and abroad. It is shown that PAEs are a class of environmental endocrine disrupting compounds which mainly come from artifitial synthetic. PAEs can come into the environment through various pathways and transfer in different environmental matrices, so they exist in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and dust. Furthermore, consumer products generally contain PAEs. Therefore, the problem of environmental pollution and human health caused by the extensive use of PAEs should be paid attention to.

Development of High Performance Computer and Its Application to Petroleum Exploration

LI Min
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (2): 80-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.2.013
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Abstract ( 276 )
High performance computer (HPC) is an important tool and means to promote the industrial development. This paper points out several key problems in the development of HPC, and expounds the development trend that the processors are in a transition to a new generation of multi-core heterogeneous parallel computing system, in which the core cache design and multicore heterogeneous programming model design are the key factors. The cloud computing technology may be an important factor to promote the future HPC. Finally, to meet the needs for computers in petroleum exploration, the important role of HPC is further clarified, with the CPU+GPU heterogeneous system as the example. It is pointed out that the development platform and programming method of parallel algorithm are the main bottlenecks of HPC application in petroleum exploration. I/O features of disk, high-speed network and parallel file system are also important factors to affect the HPC application.

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