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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 6
28 February 2014


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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 1-1.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 94-96.
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Humanist Feelings of A Scientist

ZHANG Kaixun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 15-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.001
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Abstract ( 1079 )
Humanist feelings are not only a choice in the life, but also a tie to keep the society harmonious. The humanist feelings may turn the science advances into the progress of the civilization, and lead to the scientific wisdom that people aim for. The humanist feelings of scientists are reflected in three aspects: The meticulous scholarly research, the participation in public affairs and the philosopher's temperament, which foster the science and make it close to its ultimate value, the humanity value.

Single Sand Body Description of River Facies:Lower Karamay Formation of Triassic in Area 1Z & Area 34, Northwest Junggar Basin as Examples

HE Miao, JIN Zhenkui, LI Tingdong, GUO Xiujuan, YANG Ting
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 17-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.002
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Abstract ( 755 )
With Area 1Z and Area 34 in Karamay Oilfield as examples, the stratigraphic division and correlation framework of Districts One and Three is built. Based on the previous results, the outcrop data and the logging interpretations, and the environment of river sediments, the braided river and the meandering river are divided into 3 subfacies and 4 microfacies. Five identification methods of single sand bodies and their applications are analyzed. Using these 5 methods, the single sand bodies of Area 1Z and Area 34 are divided into 3 categories (7 types in all). Also, statistical analyses are made on the width, the thickness, and their ratio for each type. It is shown that the width and the thickness of river single sand bodies are positively related. Finally, the distributing maps of single sand bodies of each period are obtained, with single channels of braided rivers mostly consisting of sheet-like and interweave banded single sand bodies, and single channels of meandering rivers mostly consisting of banded and interweave banded single sand bodies.

Information Query of Topological 3D Geological Section Based on GIS Technique

SUN Zhenming, AI Chunming, LI Mei, WU Jianjun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 25-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.003
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Abstract ( 604 )
Although the automatic generation system of three-dimensional geological sections was well studied and implemented, the topology relationship between stratum and fault or collapse column was lack of consideration, and the sections were generated without further practical applications. To solve this problem, a topology analysis algorithm of the three-dimensional geological section data is proposed, and some useful functions, such as those querying the stratum thickness, calculating the shortest distance from the pickup point to the water-bearing stratum, are realized using the algorithm. The practical application in the Wangjialing coal mine shows the validity of the method.

Hydrodynamic Performance of Human Occupied Vehicle

LIU Feng, HAN Duanfeng, WANG Xiaobo, MA Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 29-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.004
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Abstract ( 465 )
The hydrodynamic performance is one of the key technical indicator of human occupied vehicle (HOV), and hydrodynamic calculation is significant especially at the overall design stage. This paper studies the calculation method of the hydrodynamic performance of HOV. Ellipsoids with a slenderness ratio of 6:1 were selected as the study subject, and the way of meshing was studied. The calculation results were obtained and compared with the tested results, which showed that the method is fairly accurate, verifying the feasibility of the calculation method. Finally, several typical working conditions were selected to estimate the hydrodynamic performance of light load HOV. The related hydrodynamic coefficients were obtained, providing theoretical basis for the overall design of the HOV.

Adsorption Properties of Graphite Oxide for p-Nitrophenol

ZHA Fei, ZENG Huichong, CHANG Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 34-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.005
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Abstract ( 426 )
The graphite oxide was prepared from the powdered graphite via the Hummers method. It was characterized by the methods of the FT-IR, the XRD and the SEM. It is shown that the graphite oxide contains various oxygen-containing functional groups such as C—OH, —COOH and C—O—C, which increase the layer spaces. Adsorption experiments indicate that the graphite oxide has an outstanding adsorption ability for the p-nitrophenol. With the adsorption temperature at 298 K and the pH value at 7.0, the adsorptive capability of the graphite oxide is up to 80.69 mg/g, 6.1 times of that of the graphite powder. From the adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic functions, it is shown that the adsorption can be described by the Langmuir isothermal equation and is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The kinetic study shows that the adsorption can be fitted by second-order dynamic equations.

Geochemical Characteristics and the Group Division of Light Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil from Gaoyou Sag

SONG Ning, GUO Haiying, HOU Pengfei, YANG Shuaishuai, WANG Guangli, HU Jiandong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 40-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.006
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Abstract ( 440 )
Gaoyou sag has the greatest potential in oil and gas reserves in Subei Basin. This paper investigates the characteristics of C6, C7 light hydrocarbons from nine oilfields in Gaoyou sag, their Mango parameters, the transformation star diagram and maturity degree of crude oils, and makes comparisons among them. C6 light hydrocarbon is rich in n-hexane, and relatively poor in benzene. Among the components of C7 light hydrocarbon, the contents of n-heptane, methyl cyclohexane and dimethyl cyclopentane have little difference, indicating the organic matter sources are both sapropelic type and humic type. The average Mango parameter K1 of the light hydrocarbons is 0.97, suggesting that the oils have similar sedimentary environments. The K2 of the up petroleum system is large, averaging 0.31, indicative of large terrestrial input. The K2 of the middle petroleum system is smaller, averaging 0.22, indicative of large water input. Comparison of the light hydrocarbons, their transformation star diagrams, heptane value, and isoheptane index indicate the up petroleum system is in high maturity and has good preservation conditions, while the middle petroleum system is in low maturity, and the down petroleum system is under the mature stage. The analysis of the crude oils in Gaoyou sag and their group division may provide help for oil and gas exploration in this area.

Sedimentary Facies and Evolution of the Permian and Triassic Strata in the North of Sichuan Basin

ZHAO Yongqing, XIONG Zhifu, LIU Yanting, JI Chunhui, DENG Jinhua, TAN Qinyin, DU Zhanhai
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 45-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.007
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Abstract ( 456 )
The sedimentary facies of the permian and triassic strata in the north of Sichuan Basin is detailedly studied on the basis of sedimentary facies of single wells, seismic data as well as surface outcrop data. Two depositional systems are recognized, and they are carbonate platform and carbonate ramp. On the basis of depositional facies analysis and comprehensive consideration of paleogeography, sedimentary environment, the sedimentary evolution of permian and triassic stratan is cleared. The process is from carbonate ramp to carbonate platform. The sedimentary system of lower Permian Qixia formation, Maokou formation and upper Permian Wujiaping formation are carbonate ramp, and the sedimentary system of changing formation is rimmed carbonate platform. Till the late Early Traissic Epoch, the north of the Sichuan basin evolved to uniform carbonate platform. The result may be a reference to the exploration of Sichuan Basin.

Geometrical Constraints and Capillary Bundle Model for Sand Production in Sandstone Reservoir at Particle Scale

NIE Xiangrong, YANG Shenglai, ZHANG Xing, DING Jingchen, CHEN Hao
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 54-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.008
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Abstract ( 453 )
The sand production for loose sandstone reservoirs is studied. The stress conditions from the microscopic scale are analyzed with a clear understanding of the mechanical condition. Three geometrical constraints for the sand production are considered. For the reservoir to produce sands, the geometrical conditions and mechanical conditions must simultaneously be satisfied. The formation pore is expressed by the capillary bundle. The capillary bundle model for the sand production is established by analyzing the stress conditions between the fluid and the sand particles. A formula for the critical velocity is obtained. The critical velocity increases with the increase of the sand diameter, the porosity and the sand particle frictional angle. The critical velocity decreases with the increase of the viscosity. The formula gives results in a good agreement with experiments,and the average error is only 15.9%. This geometrical constraints are proposed which may help the mechanism of the sand production. The formula of the critical velocity presented in this paper can be used conveniently in the oil field.

Analysis of Causes for Ridge Hangover in Houhemushan Iron Mine Based on Ore-drawing Ellipsoidal Theory

WANG Shi, ZHANG Qinli, WANG Xinmin
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 59-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.009
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Abstract ( 270 )
During the production of Houhemushan iron mine, ridge hangover of two contiguous routes was difficult to recover in the lower subsection. The thought of adding another route between two primary ones venturesomely to increase recovery magnified dangerousness. Therefore, causes leading to higher quantity of ridge hangover in this iron mine were found and space between two routes was optimized by applying the ore-drawing ellipsoidal theory. Loosening ellipsoidal shapes of multi-funnel drawing were analyzed on the basis of the whole flowing characteristics of ore-rock granules. Production data of this iron mine using non-pillar sublevel caving was combined. The spatial relationship of loosening ellipsoidal shapes, based on contiguous funnels, was finally reverse calculated, providing the basis for optimizing access space. The results show that the relationship between the ranges of short half axis of loosening ellipsoid and drawing ellipsoid is bs=1.82b. The range of bs is 5.90-7.96 m. In other words, the main reason resulting in ridge hangover in this iron mine is that the spatial relationship of two contiguous loosening ellipsoids, based on contiguous funnels, is separated or tangent, and 8-10 m is suitable for the access space. This method provides a new way to analyze the reason why ridge hangover exists in a mine using non-pillar sublevel caving.

Analysis of Parameters of the AR Model for Simulation of Fluctuating Wind on High-rise Steel Frame with Prestressed Cable Support

WANG Haizhong, RAN Kexian, LIU Xuechun, YANG Maogang, WANG Hongtao, ZHAO Yulong, SONG Linlin, XU Axin
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 63-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.010
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Abstract ( 507 )
Two critical parameters of the AR model are studied in the simulation of the fluctuating wind-time step and time points, focusing on the influence of the two parameters on the simulation of a high-rise steel frame with prestressed cable supports. The simulation of the fluctuating wind is based on the AR model, the finite element software Sap2000 is used to build the structural model, a mathematical software is used to program the AR model. Various values of the two parameters are selected, the modal analysis and the time history analysis of the structure are made. The ensemble power spectrum curve and the ensemble cross power spectrum curve are compared with the target power spectrum curve, and the reasonable value can be selected through the match of two curves. It is indicated that the value of the time step has a great effect on the accuracy of the simulation, and the suitable value should be around 0.10-0.18 s, if the value exceeds the range, the ensemble power spectrum can not match the target power spectrum and the accuracy of the simulation can not be ensured. The number of time points have little impact on the simulation.

Research of Engine Exhaust Muffler Based on Finite Element Analysis of Acoustic and Unsteady Viscous Flow

XIN Jianghui, ZHANG Yuanyuan, ZHANG Yu, REN Chenglong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 68-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.011
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Abstract ( 368 )
The muffler is the main component to deal with the exhaust noise of an engine. Based on the designed bench, the spectral characteristics of the exhaust noise before and after installing the muffler are analyzed and compared to the expected NR curve, to find the bad frequency bands of the muffler performance. According to the theory of the fluid mechanics and the acoustics, based on the finite element analysis, the performances of a complex muffler in the unsteady viscous flow state are analyzed, including the pressure field, the temperature field, the flow regeneration noise field and the major frequency band of the regeneration noise, meanwhile, the transfer loss in the steady-state and the acoustic-mode of the air is obtained. It is shown that the flow regeneration noise is the major factor to deteriorate the high-frequency muffler performance. Based on the numerical model analysis of the muffler, the relation between the structure characteristic of its simple cavity and its muffler performance is obtained, and the special perforated structure of the muffler can be improved and the sound-absorbing materials are also selected. Through testing of the bench, the insert losses of the original and improved mufflers are obtained, which shows that the above analysis is reliable.

Thermal-structural Coupling Analysis of Internal Combustion Engines’ Bionic Piston Skirt

WU Bo, CONG Qian, XI Peng, YAN Zhen
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 75-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.012
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Abstract ( 620 )
In this paper, the pit non-smooth structure is used in the piston-liner system of internal combustion engines, because it has relatively little friction and wear. Pits and pores are machined on the piston skirt surface, reducing the friction and wear of the piston-liner system. In this way, the working life of the system is extended. Taking XL-2V type engine for example, the stress distribution is analyzed when the standard piston motions. Using the orthogonal experiment method, this paper has established nine types of bionic pass piston test models. Thermal-structural coupling finite-element analysis of bionic and standard pistons was carried out using the third class boundary conditions in heat transfer analysis and maximum lateral pressure. The maximum deformation and radial deformation range of piston skirts were obtained. The former affected the skirt oil film thickness and the latter affected the oil film distribution uniformity degree. Finally, the first type of bionic piston was selected, which has better performance on friction reduction and wear-resistance compared with standard pistons. The results show that the uniformly distributed pit-styled bionic pores with relatively small diameters in pistons could increase the uniformity of oil films on the surface of the piston, and at the same time reduce the stress around the skirt, thus reducing the friction and wear, reducing mechanical losses, improving stiffness, and extending the working life of pistons.

Analysis of the Blood Amino Acid Metabonomics of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

HASIM Ayshamgul, SAIMAITI Aini, KUERBAN Shajidai, ZHENG Jianhe, MA Junqi
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (6): 80-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.06.013
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Abstract ( 504 )
To investigate the amino acids in plasma samples from patients with the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and the cervical cancer and from healthy volunteers, to assess their clinical significance and to have insights into the cervical cancer amino acid metabolism and the systemic effects, 26 plasma samples from the CIN patients, 22 plasma samples from the CSCC patients and 35 samples from healthy volunteers are analyzed by the HPLC, and the partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is employed to perform the pattern recognition analysis of the HPLC spectra. It is shown that there is a significant difference in plasma amino acids between those from patients with the CIN and cervical cancers and from healthy subjects. Compared to the healthy controls, the plasma aspartate, the glutamate, the asparagine, the serine, the glycine, the histidine, the taurine, the alanine, the proline, the tyrosine, the valine, the methionine, the lysine, the isoleucine, the leucine, and the phenylalanine decrease gradually from the CIN to cervical cancers with statistical significance (P<0.05), however the arginine and the threonine decrease dominantly in the CIN plasma than those in the CSCC. These findings indicate that the tumor cells may uptake a specific amino acid selectively from the plasma to meet their needs at different stages of growth.

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