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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 26
18 September 2014

Spescial Issues

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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 1-1.
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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 85-85.
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Spescial Issues

Research Progress in the Treatment of Melanoma

GUO Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 15-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.001
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Abstract ( 331 )
Melanoma is an aggressive malignant tumor with poor prognosis by traditional therapies. Since 2011, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs such as BRAF inhibitors (Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib) and MEK inhibitor (Trametinib) have brought a hope. Whereas new immunological therapy drugs, including anti-CTLA-4 antibody (Ipilimumab) and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody, have brought a brain storm to the melanoma therapy. The modes of treatment of melanoma are gradually getting rid of the traditional treatment strategy and entering a new historical stage. In the foreseeable future, the research of some new targets, various small molecular targeted drugs, immune targeting therapy of drugs, as well as combination of small molecule targeted drugs and immune targeting drugs will be the mainstream treatment of melanoma. A new era of melanoma therapy is coming. This paper briefly summarizes the advances of molecule-targeted chemotherapy, immunological therapy and chemotherapy.

Research Progress in Breast Cancer Treatment

LI Jinfeng
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 22-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.002
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Abstract ( 243 )
Breast cancer is the highest incidence of malignant disease in women and seriously affects their health physically and mentally. We have achieved great progress in treatment of breast cancer in recent years, expecially in some aspects such as breastconserving therapy and axillary-conserving treatment. The latest advancement of treatments in early and late stages of breast cancer is summarized.

Progress in Cancer Bio-immunotherapy

WU Yanhong, WANG Huiru, DENG Zhenling, GE Keli, ZHANG Shuren
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 27-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.003
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The cancer immunoediting theory dipicts the significance of immune system in cancer development and progression. The success of antibodies targeting the suppressive immune component has emphasized the importance and effectiveness of immunotherapy in cancer treatment. Combined with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapy including antibody therapy, cytokine, cancer vaccine, adoptive immune cell transfer and oncolytic virus is a potential and promising treatment for cancer. This review will mainly introduce the progress in antibody therapy, cancer vaccine, adoptive cellular immunotherapy and oncolytic virus, as well as point out the problems and future development in cancer bio-immunotherapy.

New Advances in Clinical Treatment of Radiation Oncology

XIAO Shaowen, ZHANG Shanwen
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 37-41. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.004
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Abstract ( 545 )
Radiotherapy is a very important clinical treatment means. This article summarizes the latest advancement in the clinical treatment of radiation oncology, including radiophysics, radiobiology and clinical oncology. The aim is to tell the reader the current situation and advances of radiotherapy and its function in comprehensive therapy of oncology.

Recent Advances in the Study of Driver Genes for Chinese Lung Cancer

QIAN Xiaoyan, SHI Yuankai, HAN Xiaohong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 42-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.005
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Abstract ( 388 )
Lung cancer is the leading morbidity and mortality malignant tumor in China. Cancer cells keep growing under the action of driver genes and are sensitive to driver gene inhibitors. Recent years have witnessed continuous developments of driver gene detection technology and driver gene-targeted drugs. This review focus on the driver genes in lung cancer, detection of driver genes and targeted therapy of driver genes, giving a glimpse of the application prospect of driver genes for Chinese patients with lung cancer.

Advances in Radiation Therapy of Tumor

OUYANG Weiwei, LU Bing, TANG Jintian
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 47-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.006
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Abstract ( 566 )
Due to the development and combination of computer technology, radiation physics, radiation biology, molecular biology and imaging analysis technology, the radiation therapy has made revolutionary progress. The radiation therapy has been developed from 2D to 3D radiotherapy, from the conventional radiotherapy to the precise one. This article summarizes the advances in radiation physics, radiation biology, and clinical radiotherapy and forecasts the future of radiotherapy.

Progress in PM2.5-caused Tumor Neovascularization and Metastasis

MENG Mei, ZHOU Quansheng
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 52-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.007
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Abstract ( 382 )
PM2.5 refers to the particles with 2.5 μm or less in diameter, which can easily go through the barrier of respiratory track and enter the blood circulation. PM2.5 can induce various malignant tumors including lung cancer, and it has become a new cause of cancers. Recent studies have revealed that PM2.5 may stimulate synthesis and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and various vascular growth factors, promote vascular endothelial cell-mediated tumor angiogenesis, activate tumor cells and allow cancer cells to directly firm tumor vasculature through vasculogenic mimicry, and induce the trans-differentiation of cancer stem cells into tumor endothelial cells, enhancing tumor neovascularization. In addition, PM2.5 can escalate tumor cells and many other cells to secrete chemokines and cytokines which recruit bone marrow and blood while cells into tumor tissue, and bring about local chronic inflammation. PM2.5 may also induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in an increment of cancer cell stemness, migration, and metastasis. Furthermore, PM2.5 may damage vascular homeostasis system, increase vascular permeation, opening a door for tumor cell metastasis. Taken together, PM2.5 plays important roles in tumor neovascularization and metastasis; whereas, its mechanisms are enigmatic. Thus, more extensive study of the mechanisms of PM2.5-induced tumor neovascularization and metastasis will provide a reliable theory, strategy, and new approach for prevention and treatment of PM2.5-caused malignant tumors in the future.

Environmental Pollution and Epidemic of Common Cancers in China

ZOU Xiaonong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 58-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.008
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Abstract ( 405 )
In the process of cancer occurrence and development, more than 70% of the carcinogens and promoters are associated with environmental pollution or human behaviors. Arsenic, asbestos, benzene, smoking, air-pollution, etc. have been classified by IARC as environmental pollutants that are carcinogenic to human. Research in some high risk areas for cancer in China shows that food contaminated by nitrosamines, fungus and aflatoxin, or infected by human papillomavirus, occupational exposure to air polluted by radon, and exposure to indoor air polluted by burning smoky coal are causes of cancers It is an effective approach to control the risk factors to reduce the hazards of cancer. The current study reviews the environmental pollution, the epidemic of cancers of esophagus, stomach, liver, cervix uteri, lung, and their typical cases to provide scientific references for working on cancer prevention.

Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Trend in China

CHEN Wanqing, ZHENG Rongshou, ZHANG Siwei
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 65-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.009
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Abstract ( 516 )
Cancers have been becoming a major disease threatening human health and social development in China, along with its rapid economic development and an increasing older population. Since 1970s, cancer incidence and mortality in China have risen steadily. It is helpful to understand cancer status and trends through the analysis of cancer registry data so as to provide reliable evidences for making effective cancer control strategy and policy. In this paper, the cancer incidence, mortality and time trend of cancer in China are summarized and analyzed based on the dataset from National Central Cancer Registry and three national death surveys. There are about 3.09 millions cancer new cases diagnosed and 1.96 millions cancer deaths annually. Lung cancer, female breat cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer have been the most common cancers. Cancer incidences of most cancers have been increasing over the past 20 years, especially in latest 10 years, mainly due to the aged population. Effective control act should be taken to face the increase of disease burden from cancers in China.

PM2.5 Pollution in China and Its Harmfulness to Human Health

WANG Gengchen, WANG Pucai
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 72-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.010
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Abstract ( 346 )
The situation of PM2.5 pollution in China is serious at present. Among 74 cities starting PM2.5 monitoring in 2013, about 92% cities have PM2.5 concentrations exceeding the state standard limit value. The most polluted areas in China are the Beijing- Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta region and the Pearl River Delta region. Some poisonous species contained in PM2.5 may have a direct influence on human health. Some research results indicate that diseases such as respiratory system and cardiovascular system are evidently affected by PM2.5 pollution. Moreover, PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition are directly related to lung cancer. Therefore, some key problems, like PM2.5 toxicology, exposure-response relationship and so on, should be further studied, and the health risk assessment on PM2.5 pollution must be strengthened as well.

Effect of Uighur Medicine Abnormal Savda Munziq on Pathological Morphologyof Breast Tissueand theLevel of Serum Sex Hormonesin the Model of Galactophore Hyperplasia

ANAYTUL Mihrigul, TAX Ayxam, HUJABDU Halida, UPUR Halmurat, AMAT Nurmamat
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (26): 79-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.26.011
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Abstract ( 462 )
This paper discusses the therapeutic effect and its possible mechanismof abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) on galactophore hyperplasia (GH) in rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely the control group, model group,positive control (tamoxifen) group, ASMq high-dose group, ASMq middle-dose group, and ASMq low-dose group. The rat pathologic model of GH was established by estradiol/progesterone injection and drug intervention (tamoxifen 1.8 mg/kg; ASMq high, middle and low dose: 15, 7.5, 3.75 mg/kg). The effect of ASMq on the morphological structure of breast tissue in the GH rat model was studied using an optical microscope and the concentration of sex hormones in serum was observed by radio immunoassay. The result indicates that ASMq can reduce the degree of hyperplasia of the epithelial cells and fibrous tissue, improve the pathological changes of breast tissue of model rats, regulate the serum hormone level, decrease the concentration of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and elevate the level of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Significant differences were found compared with the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, we conclude that ASMq can recover the morphological damage of breast tissue in the GH model, and at the same time, it can reduce the serum E2 level and increase serum P level, improving the state of imbalance between E2 and P.

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