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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 30
28 October 2014

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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 88 )

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 70 )

History and Prospects of Hyperthermia

TANG Jintian, GUO Jing, YANG Bing, ZHANG Xiaodong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 15-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.001
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Abstract ( 442 )
Hyperthermia has a long history of disease treatmentin China and around the world. There are historical records of cure of diseases using hyperthermia. This article provides a comprehensive review of the history of the modern technology of hyperthermia from three aspects: The technology, products, and clinical development, introducingvarious technologies, such as microwave hyperthermia, radio frequency, ultrasound, and new technologies such as magnetic induction hyperthermia. The current hyperthermia technology has developed to a new height, with higher treatment temperature, more precise temperature control, less side effects, and better efficacy. In the field of cancer treatment, hyperthermia may become a new mainstream treatment, and will be more widely applied in common benign disease treatment as well.

Recent Advances in Noninvasive Ultrasound Monitoring of Thermal Therapy for Tumors

ZHOU Zhuhuang, WU Weiwei, WU Shuicai, YANG Chunlan, LIN ChungChih, TSUI PoHsiang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 19-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.002
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Abstract ( 298 )
Thermal therapy is a technique to kill tumor cells with heat and has become an important means for tumor treatment. It can be divided into conventional hyperthermia (41-45℃) and thermal ablation (>60℃). For thermal therapy, noninvasive monitoring of tissue temperature distribution and thermal lesion (coagulation zone) formation in the treatment area is the key to guaranteeing treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, recent advances in noninvasive ultrasound-based temperature estimation and thermal lesion detection techniques are presented. Noninvasive ultrasound temperature estimation is based on temperature dependence of such parameters as speed of sound and thermal expansion, ultrasound attenuation coefficient, backscattered energy, and B-mode ultrasound image texture feature. Noninvasive ultrasonic thermal lesion detection is based on ultrasound tissue characterization techniques. These techniques include the Nakagami statistical model, ultrasound attenuation, integrated backscatter, ultrasound elasticity imaging, mean scatterer spacing, and low-frequency acoustic emission. Future developments of noninvasive ultrasound monitoring techniques for thermal therapy are discussed. Future work may include the study of monitoring precision validation, adaptive parameter adjustment for tissue interindividual difference, reducing tissue movement interference, multi-dimensional and multi-parameter monitoring, realtime computing, and the establishment of the thermal therapy experimental data center.

Status Quo and Applications of Ultrasound Hyperthermia

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 25-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.003
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Abstract ( 319 )
In ultrasound hyperthermia, tissue absorbs ultrasonic energy to elevate the temperature of itself, while high temperature ablates diseased tissue and low temperature prompts its recovery. Ultrasound hyperthermia has the advantages of noninvasion, safety and high efficiency. High-intensity focused ultrasound with the high temperature elevation has great clinical applications to uterine fibroids, breast tumor, prostate tumor and liver tumor. It also has a bright future in treating brain tumor and nervous system diseases. Low-intensity ultrasound hyperthermia has great treatable effect on postpartum hemorrhage and nerve tissue healing. This paper summarizes the development, status quo and applications of high- intensity focused ultrasound hyperthermia and low- intensity ultrasound hyperthermia.

Clinical Applications of Microwave Thermal Ablation

SHENG Lin, ZHAI Weiming, DONG Baowei, QI Erpeng
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 30-34. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.004
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Abstract ( 441 )
Microwave thermal ablation is a high and new technology emerging through the combination of modern physics and medicine in the 1970s. It has been widely used to cure benign and malignant tumors since the 1990s when this technology was put into use in the clinic, which is comparable with surgical operation in treatment and curative effect of small liver cancer. Moreover, microwave thermal ablation has some effect in treatment of lung cancer and kidney cancer. In addition, patients who are attacked by benign tumors, such as thyroid nodules and uterine fibroids, benefit from the development of this technology. Oncotherapy will enter a brand new development stage with further development and spread of this technology.

Application of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early Therapeutic Evaluation of Malignant Tumor Treatment and Accurate Lymph Node Staging

TANG Jiao, ZHAO Yu, LIU Zhigang, WANG Hui
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 35-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.005
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Abstract ( 165 )
Over the past decade, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to study the early therapeutic evaluation of malignant tumor treatment and identification of benign and malignant lymph nodes. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) technology is one of the fMRI technologies, which issensitive to the microscopic motion of water molecules and allows for noninvasive characterization of biological tissues based on their water diffusion properties. The degree of restriction of water diffusion in biological tissues is related to tissue cellularities and the integrity of cell membranes. Thus, DWI may demonstrate early changes in cancers at the cellular level, such as the breakdown of cancer cells or the distortion of the microenvironment. This paper reviews published articles concerning both the early therapeutice valuation and identification of benign and malignant lymph nodes. As a noninvasive screening method with its high resolution and functional imaging features, DWI has shown superiority compared with PET/ CT, bearing considerable development prospects.

Novel Magnetic Bone Cement for Tumor Magnetic Hyperthermia

WANG Xiaowen, HU Yanwen, LI Liya, CUI Ruirui, PAN Lin, GUO Jing, WEI Lanbin, HE Liu, XIE Liuqian, TANG Jintian
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 40-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.006
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Abstract ( 336 )
Magnetic bone cement is a novel magnetic medium that generates heat under alternating fileds for bone tumor treatment as well as recovery of bone fracture. Seven kinds of metal microspheres were chosen to test their heat-generating abilities and magnetic properties. The selected materials were then mixed with calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) at different powder liquid ratios. The setting time, mechanical tests, magnetic properties, and heat-generating abilities of the cement were analyzed. The results showed that the novel CPC-based magnetic bone cement had satisfactory heat-generating ability, which could be further applied for magnetic hyperthermia clinically.

Anticancer Effect of Magnetic Targeting Hyperthermia on Mouse Pancreatic Cancer

WANG Lufang, TANG Jintian, OUYANG Weiwei, DONG Jian, ZHAO Lingyun, WANG Xiaowen, HU Bing
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 45-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.007
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Abstract ( 300 )
This paper aims to assess the therapeutic effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on mouse pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. In vitro and in vivo experiments were respectively established using the unique mouse pancreatic cancer cell line (MPC- 83). Apoptosis and morphological changes of the MPC-83 were measured with flow cytometry and microscopy after heating to 42, 46, and 50℃ with water bath for 30 min. Four-week-old female Kunming mice were selected to establish subcutaneous pancreatic cancer model. The therapeutic effect (46℃ and 50℃) was evaluated by detecting various influences including pathological examination. Flow cytometry revealed the apoptosis and necrosis rate of MPC-83 were 46.13% (46℃) and 89.33% (50℃). Fourteen days after hyperthermia, the tumor growth rate were -0.64±0.73 and -0.72±0.79, which were significantly lower than that in each control group (P<0.05). Compared with control groups, tumor growth in the experimental group was markedly inhibited. Pathological examination showed that magnetic nanoparticles were distributed between tumor cells, and some of them were ingested by phagocytes. Fourteen days after hyperthermia, there were no subcutaneous nodules with only the MF remaining. In each control group, tumor cells grew very well, and hyperchromatic nuclei and pathological karyokinesis were seen simultaneously. MFH can reach perfect therapeutic temperature and heat tumor tissue specifically, inhibiting the growth of mouse pancreatic cancer and prolonging the survival time of the mice apparently. MFH has satisfactory therapeutic efficacy for mouse pancreatic cancer.

Thermal Field of Water-cooled Microwave Ablation Antenna with Three Antennas

LIU Youjun, YAN Kai, NIE Xiaohui, GUO Xuemei, NAN Qun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 50-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.008
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Abstract ( 267 )
The single antenna of water- cooled microwave antenna for treating tumor cells with a diameter less than 3 cm has satisfactory therapeutic effect, but it is not ideal for large tumor cells. Based on a new type of microwave antenna with three antennas, this paper discusses its characteristics under different power and time, including the effective ablation area and temperature distribution. Bovine liver was ablated in vitro under different microwave power and time, the temperature rising curve was recorded at the measuring points, and the ablation size was measured. The results show that within 15 min, the maximum ablation area under 40 W was 25.627±2.400 cm2, the maximum ablation volume was 81.655±3.500 cm3, and the aspect ratio of the ablation area was within 0.660±0.020. Within 15 min, the maximum ablation area under 60 W was 49.803±2.900 cm2, the maximum ablation volume was 244.965 ± 4.000 cm3, and the aspect ratio of the ablation area was 0.777 ± 0.010. When the tumor diameter <5.3 cm, and the longitudinal diameter <6.9 cm, 40 Wis recommended for use. When the tumors are larger and with a quasi-circular shape, 60 W is recommended for use. Low-power and prolonged treatment helps clinicians to accurately control the ablation range, avoiding ablation of other organs and tissues.

Treatment of Gastric Cancer with DF Regimen Combined with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotheraphy with Cisplatin

WU Zhibing, WU Kan, LI Xiadong, JING Saisai, ZHENG Zhishuang, TANG Rongjun, LAI Jianjun, WANG Jiahao
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 55-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.009
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Abstract ( 159 )
This study aims to observe and compare the efficacy and side effect of weekly docetaxel combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin intravenous treatment and weekly docetaxel plus 5-fluorouracil intravenous combined with intraperitoneal perfusion (CHPP) with cisplatin treatment. Ninety patients with advanced gastric cancer were randomized into intravenous chemotherapy group (45 patients) who received docetaxel 36 mg/m2, iv, 1wk×3wk, CF 200 mg/m2, iv, d1-5, 5-Fu 500 mg/m2, iv, d1-5, DDP 25 mg/m2, iv, d1-3, repeated every four weeks for two cycles and intravenous chemotherapy plus CHPP group (45 patients) who received docetaxel 36 mg/m2, iv, 1wk× 3wk, CF 200 mg/m2, iv, d1- 5, 5- FU 500 mg/m2, iv, d1- 5, DDP 75 mg/m2, CHPP, d1, and abdomen hyperthermia treatment with radiofrequency. The results show that all patients were assessable for response in intravenous chemotherapy group and CHPP group. The overall response rate of intravenous chemotherapy group was 44.4%. The response rate of CHPP group was 66.7%, including one CR. There was statistical difference between two groups (P=0.038). The clinical beneficial response (CBR) in intravenous chemotherapy group and CHPP group were 64.4% and 82.2%, respectively. There was apparent statistical difference (P=0.0458). The major toxicities were myelosuppression, nausea/vomiting and neurotoxicity. There was no significant difference in side effect between the two groups. Docetaxel administered by weekly infusion plus 5-fluorouracil combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy with cisplatin in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer is more effective than intravenous treatment. The side effect of two groups was similar. CHPP therapy was well tolerated.

Clinical Analysis of Multi- center for Tumor Chemotherapy Combined with High Power Microwave-hyperthermia

ZHANG Yueshan, GUO Fang, TANG Tiegang, HUANG Jianjin, WANG Lijun, DU Xing
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 59-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.010
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Abstract ( 235 )
This paper compares the difference in efficacy of tumor hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy and their adverse reactions through comparative observation. The former 13608 cases underwent whole body mild hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy with high-powered microwave hyperthermia machine, and the latter 15408 cases underwent standard chemotherapy. We analyzed the mechanism of chemotherapy under microwave hyperthermia and the relationships among temperature control, time, course, and efficacy of treatment. The effective rate of treatment of high-powered hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy was 81.15%, and that of standard chemotherapy was 39.03%. The results show that the curative effect of the former is significantly better than that of the latter, and the adverse reactions were apparently reduced. Hyperthermia is becoming an effective therapeutic method for tumors.

Clinical Research Improvement of Life Qualities by BSD2000 Deep Hyperthermia Combined with Chemotherapy in Elderly Cancer Patients and Clinical Care

ZHAO Tingting, DING Li, WANG Hui, WU Xiaonan
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 63-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.011
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Abstract ( 299 )
This study aims to evaluate the improvement of life qualities of elderly cancer patients in advanced stage treated with BSD2000 deep hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy. The short-term efficacy and adverse effects of the treatment were observed and strategies for clinical care were discussed. Forty- one patients with advanced cancer received BSD2000 deep hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in Beijing Hospital from October 2009 to March 2013. Before treatment, their life qualities were evaluated. After treatment, the improvement of their life qualities was observed, and theefficacy and adverse effects of the treatment were evaluated. Psychological care and preparations were taken before treatment. Careful monitoring and treatment for adverse effects were given during treatment. The results show that the lifequalities of the 41 patients were improved apparently, and the pain was reduced. The overall efficacy of the treatment was 58.54% withno severe side-effects. BSD2000 deep hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy is able to improve the life qualities of elderly cancer patients in an advanced stage with satisfactory efficacy and acceptable adverse effects. Psychological care and careful monitoring help to reduce the incidence of complications during the treatment and promote recovery of the patients.

Identification Method of Gas and Water Layers in Extra Shallow Unconsolidated Formation: Taking the Heidimiao Reservoir in An Area of Daqing as an Example

ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Jianfeng, ZHAO Yuqiu, WANG Boyun
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 67-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.012
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Abstract ( 275 )
The compaction degree of the Heidimiao reservoir in a Daqing area is very low, the digenesis is poor, but the physical properties of the formation are good. Therefore the electrical characteristics of the gas layer are so close to those of the water layer that it is difficult to distinguish two kinds of reservoir layers. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes to take the neutron logging as the sensitive curve of the gas layer based on the analysis of the relations between above mentioned properties. With the neutron logging curve as the central key, the cross-plots of the deep lateral resistivity, the density, the acoustic travel time are established to determine the lower limitation standard of the gas zone interpretation. According to the different matching relationships between the resistivity and the acoustic travel time or the spontaneous potential and, alternatively, between the neutron logging and the density, or the acoustic travel time in gas and water layers, a comprehensive and qualitative method is proposed to determine the gas layer by using the multi-curve overlapping combined with the gas logging data. In order to further enhance the gas response characteristics, the comprehensive judgment parameters are calculated by the multi-curve to interpret the gas layer quantitatively. Better results are achieved in distinguishing gas and water layers by using the cross- plots between these parameters and the spontaneous potential curve. The interpretation coincidence rate of the gas layer reaches 84.4% according to the verification by the results of 15 gas test wells' interpretation and their gas testing conclusions.

Determination of the Composite Coal Mine Initial Trenching Position Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process

BAI Runcai, WANG Huanyu, LI Yanfei, LI Xuejian
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.013
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Abstract ( 217 )
The determination of open-pit reasonable trenching position has important influence to open-pit mine production continue and stripping control. The essay applicate the basic decision theory of analytic hierarchy, construct hierarchical analysis model of comprehensive evaluation of open-pit mine trenching position scheme, combined with the coal storage and present situation of mining in Inner Mongolia Baorixile open-pit mine, explain the feasibility and the necessity of the coal mine ditch in the mined out area of three mining the upper coal seam and exploit the lower coal seam. According to the choosing principle of open- pit trenching position and the mine special geological and topographic conditions, design two trenching position optimization, and analyzes the influence of various factors on the lower coal seam trenching position selection. Using the analytic hierarchy process, analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme comparison, eventually determine the most reasonable trenching position scheme. The result shows that: the evaluation result of analytic hierarchy process accords the actual situation, simple calculation, and has stronger practicability.

Molecular Mechanism of Far- infrared Therapy and Its Applications in Biomedicine

WANG Yang, SHUI Shanshan, WANG Xia
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (30): 80-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.30.014
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Abstract ( 311 )
Physical therapy is an integrating domain of medicine resorts to physical modalities for the work-up, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders and defects. As a representative physical therapy, far-infrared radiation (FIR), an invisible electromagnetic wave with wavelength ranges 3-1000 μm, has been an adjuvant treatment for various diseases with good clinical effects, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease; however, the molecular mechanism through which FIR works remains elusive. In the present study, by systematic literature review and text mining, we analyzed the effects of FIR on signaling transduction networks including cell cycle, cellular self-defense, second messages and post-transcriptional regulators. The results showed that the possible mechanisms of FIR therapy were closely associated with the inhibition of growth, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, increased nitric oxide production and modulation of the expression profiles of some circulating miRNAs and heat shock proteins, and through which, it may be a beneficial compliment to some chronic diseases without any side effects. Finally, we summarized the application of FIR therapy in the field of biomedicine.

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