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   Science & Technology Review
2014, Vol.32, No. 31
08 November 2014

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Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 94 )

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 113 )

Science Programmes Lead to the Future

CHEN Guangren, ZHU Yu, SU Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 15-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.001
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Abstract ( 999 )
Developed and published scientific programme aims to focus on the important fields of science, major issues ahead of the deployment of forward-looking, focusing on support, centralized research and development. This paper selected and reported 28 major science programmes below of international organizations, scientific and technological powers released and launched in 2013. They are: ① Aviation and aerospace: The state programme"Russia's Space Activities for 2013—2020", China"Space Program in 2013", the UK"National Space Technology Programme", Japanese new version of"Basic Plan for Space Policy", the US NASA"Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan", India"Mars Orbiter Mission", South Korea"2040 Space Prospect", the US NASA"Asteroid Redirect Mission", Russia"State Programme on Aviation Industry Development in 2013—2015", the US DARPA"Experimental Spaceplane (XS-1) Program"; ② Life sciences: the EU"Human Brain Project", the US NIH"Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Technologies Initiative","Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non- Communicable Diseases (2013—2020)"; ③ Earth sciences: China CMA"Weather Research Program (2013—2020)", China CMA"Climate Research Program (2013—2020)", the US "Arctic Research Plan: FY 2013—2017", China CMA"Application Meteorology Research Program (2013—2020)", China CMA "Research Program for Integrated Meteorological Observation (2013—2020)", Japan"Basic Plan on Ocean Policy", China"Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution","International Ocean Discovery Program (2013—2023)"; ④ Energy and material: the EU"Graphene Flagship", the US"Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative"; ⑤ Comprehensive R&D: China"Circular Economy Development Strategy and the Immediate Plan of Action", China "Depth of Integration of Information Technology and Industrialization Special Action Plan (2013—2018)", South Korea"The Third Science and Technology Basic Plan", France "Investments for the Future Programme", the EU"Horizon 2020".

Molecluar Evolution and Expression Patterns Under Abiotic Stresses of Beta-amylase Gene Family in Grasses

YANG Zefeng, XU Shuhui, WANG Yifan, ZHANG Enying, XU Chenwu
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 29-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.002
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Abstract ( 321 )
Beta-amylase (BAM) plays a central role in the complete degradation of starch tometabolisable or fermentable sugars during the germination or maltingof cereal grains. It was found to be involved in the abiotic stress responsesof crops. A genome-wide survey of BAM genes in 5 grass species was performed, including rice, maize, sorghum, Setaria, and Brachypodium, by describing their phylogenetic relationships, functional divergence, and adaptive evolution. The phylogeny classified the gramineous BAM genes into 10 clusters of orthologous genes (COGs), and the genes in the same COG shared the syntenic region. Functional divergence analysis provided statistical evidence that both the shift in the evolutionary rate pattern and cluster-specific alterations of amino acid physiochemical properties contributed to COG-specific functional evolution of BAM genes in grasses. In addition, 3 COGs were found to be influenced by positive selection through maximum likelihood analysis. The expression patterns of rice BAM genes were investigated, and the resultsrevealed that they were differentially expressed under the treatments of abiotic stresses. These observations may provide useful references for further functional detection of BAM genes in grasses.

Alcoholysis of Salix Psammophila Liquefaction

ZHANG Xiufang, WANG Kebing, YAN Xiaolin, ZHAO Yibin, GUO Xiaomin
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 37-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.003
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Abstract ( 206 )
With the gradual exhaustion of coal, oil, natural gas and other non-renewable resources and the worsening environment, the production of liquid fuels and organic chemicals through renewable biomass resources becomes more and more an important issue. In this study, with the ethanol as solvent and the dilute sulfuric acid as catalyst, the Salix psammophila, an abundant biomass resource in Inner Mongolia is used as the raw material of the alcoholysis liquid, and the effects of the solvent concentration, the reaction temperature, the dosage of Salix psammophila, and the dosage of catalyst on the liquefaction rate are investigated. Through the orthogonal experiment, the best liquefaction conditions are found: The solvent is ethanol, the ratio of liquid and solid is 60:1, the reaction temperature is 170℃, the sulfuric acid concentration is 0.06 mol/L, and the reaction time is 2 h. Under these conditions, the effect of liquefaction of Salix psammophila is the best and the liquefaction rate reaches 90.94%.

An External Railway Geometric Parameter Measurement System Based on GPS

FU Qinyi, LIU Zhiping, LI Kunwu
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.004
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Abstract ( 288 )
An external geometric parameter measuring system is designed using the GPS positioning technology. The traditional track inspection technology and GPS positioning technology are combined into the system. The system is composed of a four-componentsatellite system, track inspection apparatus carrying a receiver, control network and GPRS station. The track observation network is built at first while GPS base stations are already set up. At the same time, the GPS receiver is loaded on the existing track inspection instrument as a moving station. The data acquisition module of the measurement system consists of GPS base stations and a moving station. Then, real-time location information is collected by the GPS stations while the track inspection instrument walks along the track. The positioning data are processed by the double differencing carrier phase algorithm. The integer ambiguity resolution based on LAMBDA ( the least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjust method) is the key problem of the GPS positioning. Next, the position of the antenna center is calculated. Finally, using internal geometric parameters and antenna center positioning data, the external railway geometric parameters are calculated. The results of the static experiment and field test confirm the validity of the measurement system. On the one hand, the static observation error is within 0.5 mm while the dynamic measurement error is less than 15 mm, on the other hand the labor cost of the system is low due to high automation.

Propagation of Gaussian Vortex Beams in an ABCD Optical System

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 46-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.005
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Abstract ( 213 )
In order to study propagation of Gaussian vortex beams in an ABCD optical system, an analytical propagation equation of Gaussian vortex beams with a unit topological charge through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived based on the generalized Huygens-fresnel integral formulae. According to the obtained analytical representation, the light intensity distributions and the phase distributions of a Gaussian vortex beam in several observation planes in the free space are illustrated and analyzed by numerical examples. The results show that with the increase of propagation distance, the beam spot is enlarged obviously, but its intensity decreases. Meanwhile, it is also found that the isophase line of a Gaussian vortex beam is a ray emanating from the singularity in the original input plane, but with the increase of the propagation distance, the isophase line changes from radial to arc and finally takes on a spiral shape.

Analytical Model in Elliptical Flow Period of Tight Sand Gas Well Considering Stress Sensitivity

CAI Zhenhua, LIAO Xinwei, SHANG Baobing, AN Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 50-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.006
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Abstract ( 270 )
The flow phases of fractured gas well in a conventional reservoir usually cover a linear flow period and a radial flow period. The elliptical flow period is usually regarded as a transition phase and thus ignored. The tight gas is the most realistic unconventional gas in China. Tight gas reservoirs are featured with low permeability and strong stress sensitivity. The pressure transmits slowly and every flow period is fairly extended. The elliptical flow phase at a tight gas well keeps a quit long time, even lasts for a couple of years. Therefore, the elliptical flow stage can't be ignored. When it comes to well test analysis, the conventional model is usually hard to match the double log curve in the field. To describe the flow phases more accurately, a flow model in elliptical coordinates is built through conformal transformation. The stress sensitivity coefficient is utilized in the model to consider the stress- sensitivity of tight gas reservoirs. After perturbation transforming and variable separation, the controlling equation is transformed into the Mathieu equation. Then it can be solved with a corresponding method. It's found that the stress sensitivity makes a higher pseudo-BHP drop and an end of derivative curve up warp. This model can simulate the flow period of tight sand gas well more accurately, and is significant to well testing of tight gas reservoir.

Horizontal Steam Flooding Pilot Test for Thin Shallow Super Heavy Oil of Chunfeng Oilfield in Junggar Basin

ZHU Guilin, WANG Xuezhong
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 55-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.007
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Abstract ( 260 )
The deterioration of the production performance after multi cycles of steam huff and puff necessitates the development of the supersede technology, in the Chunfeng Oilfield in Junggar Basin reservoir. In view of the shallow burial depth, the high pore high seepage, the permeability, the low formation temperature (22-28 ℃), the thin reservoir thickness (2-6 m, averaging 3.5 m), the high underground crude oil viscosity (50000-90000 mPa·s),and the horizontal well thermal recovery,the horizontal steam flooding pilot test for the thin shallow super heavy oil of Chunfeng Oilfield is developed and carried out. The test area includes geological reserves of 102×104 t, 5 steam injection wells, 21 production wells. Both steam injection well and production well are horizontal wells, with the well spacing of 100 m, the distance between two rows of 140m, the horizontal section length of 200 m, the steam injection rate of 5 t/h, the production injection ratio of 1.2. 3 observation wells are drilled to monitor the real-time reservoir temperature and pressure. The pilot test lasted 19 months,and the steam flooding shows good performances with the indications as the single well daily oil production, the water cut, the periodical recovery percent of reserves, and with the recovery percent of OOIP being comparatively analyzed. In view of the heavy oil production declining, the steam flooding yields a production increase of 48% as compared with the steam soaking. The horizontal steam flooding pilot test for the thin shallow super heavy oil is confirmed to be feasible. With the pilot test,the conception of the high temperature micro- steam channeling production is formed, and the dynamic monitor and control system is established. together with a series technologies, including the horizontal well high temperature steam channeling management technology, the use of the horizontal well steam stimulation, the high deviated angle and the injection-production integration pump. Results provide some guidance toward the efficient development of the reservoirs.

Research and Application of Amido Polymer Anti-collapse Drilling Fluid System in Sulige Gas Field

ZHANG Ming, LI Tiantai, LI Da, YI Deqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 61-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.008
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Abstract ( 240 )
During the drilling operation of horizontal wells in Sulige gas field,tight hole and severe mud-making formations are often encountered in shales. A new high inhibintion amino anti-sloughing drilling fluid system is developed to solve these difficulties. An evaluation of its capability shows that the inhibitor has a good compatibility with common drilling fluid,and is useful to maintain drilling fluid stability under a high temperature and improve the filtration property of drilling fluid. The organic amine base drilling fluid system has good inhibition,a strong anti-temperature,anti-calcium and anti-pollution ability,and creates less damage to the formation. It is a clean water-based drilling fluid system. The results of field application show that the drilling fluid can improve hole stability, solve poor reheology during drilling across shale formation,realize formation protection,and meets the need of drilling in Sulige gas field, having a broad prospect of applications.

Tahe Oilfield Gas Pipeline Corrosion Characteristics and Rules

ZHANG Jiangjiang
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 65-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.009
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Abstract ( 351 )
Carbonate oilfield in Tahe oilfield for marine sedimentary formation, formation fluid with high salinity, high Cl-, high CO2, high H2S characteristics, and the injection gas well gas injection, soaking and production process, containing dissolved oxygen, make the corrosion environment even worse. Through mining based liquid water analysis, pipeline operation condition analysis and gas injection technology research for gas injection wells of carbonate rock reservoir, analysis, application of XRD diffraction intensity of scanning electron microscope, energy spectrum analysis and point corrosion image analysis VMS test analysis methods, study on the reaction of corrosion products and morphology of downhole and surface pipeline characteristics, through the pipeline in gas injection well tubing downhole, wellhead and Christmas tree and ground production pipeline hang into the three in material for monitoring coupon, to study the gas injection, soaking and production process in different monitoring sites of pipeline's corrosion rate, morphology and rule of law, to: from the bottom, wellhead to the ground pipeline, with the increase of corrosion pit monitoring period, deepen and strengthen, the corrosion rate increased; the process of gas injection, soak process to the process of corrosion degree gradually become larger, longitudinal corrosion capability is strong; gas injection and production process of 35CrMo, P110S and P110 three kinds of pipeline with corrosion resistance material change difference. And the analysis of mechanism model and a gas injection, soaking and production process control of injection well bottom, wellhead and ground pipeline corrosion characteristics and rules.

Experimental Study of Coal Surface Adsorption Uniformity in Low Temperature Environment

YUE Gaowei, WANG Zhaofeng, XIE Ce
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 71-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.010
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Abstract ( 232 )
The isosteric adsorption heat is an important parameter to measure the solid surface inhomogeneity during its adsorption. In this paper a high/low temperature adsorption experiment device is utilized to test the gas adsorption of anthracite coal of Jiulishan coal mine, lean coal of Xinyuan coal mine and gas-fat coal of Panbei coal mine at different temperatures ranging from 30 to -30℃. Then according to the relationship of isosteric adsorption heat and adsorption capacity, the influence of coal surface inhomogeneity is discussed at ordinary temperatures (30, 20℃) and low temperatures (-10, -20, -30℃). The analytical results show that the gas adsorption capacities of different coal ranks all increase with the decrease of environmental temperature. In an ordinary temperature environment (30, 20℃ ) the isosteric adsorption heat of coal decreases as the gas adsorption capacity increases, which indicates that the coal surface energy of adsorption is heterogeneous. But when cooling to -10, -20, or -30℃, the isosteric adsorption heat is almost irrelevant to the adsorption capacity of coal, which indicates that the coal surface energy of adsorption is uniform. So the Langmuir equation of the coal gas adsorption theory is more suitable to a low temperature environment (below 0℃).

Application of Curvature Gradient Tensor Matrix in Magnetic Anomaly of Burnt Coal Area

YAN Jianbo, ZHOU Wenna
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 75-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.011
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Abstract ( 247 )
This paper introduces the curvature gradient tensor matrix (CGTM) method to identify the edge of burnt coal areas more accurately and to interpret the magnetic anomaly in more detail. The characteristics of CGTM of the magnetic anomaly in the burnt coal areas are discussed and analyzed. The characteristics indicate that the larger and smaller eigenvalues of CGTM can be used to identify the burnt coal areas and normal areas of the coalfield. In the model tests, the Theta map and vertical derivative edge detection methods were compared with the CGTM. The results demonstrate that the CGTM method is superior in edge detection of geological sources. The effectiveness of the method was also demonstrated. Finally, the method was applied to interpretation of the magnetic anomaly of Wuda coalfield. The results obtained by CGTM method had good agreement with other known geological data. It shows that the method could accurately and effectively identify the edge of coalfield fire areas and normal areas, and is useful for interpreting the magnetic anomaly of coal fire areas.

Summaries of Neutron Fluence Rate Effects on Hardening and Embrittlement of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

WANG Rongshan, XU Chaoliang, HUANG Ping, LIU Xiangbing
Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 80-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2014.31.012
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Abstract ( 247 )
The effect of neutron fluence rate on hardening and embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is summarized. It is indicated that the effect of neutron fluence rate on hardening and embrittlement has different influences on low-Cu (Cu≤0.08%) and high-Cu (Cu>0.08%) RPV steels. The irradiation hardening and embrittlement have no relationship with neutron fluence rate up to 1×1012 n·cm-2·s-1 (E>1 MeV) in low-Cu RPV steel, but do not show definite connection if the fluence rate >1×1012 n·cm-2·s-1 (E>1 MeV). The hardening and embrittlement have nothing to do with the fluence rate if the plateau in Cu-related hardening is reached. The behavior of Cu-containing steels is more complex at the pre-plateau fluence.

Science & Technology Review. 2014, 32 (31): 7-7.
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