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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 4
28 February 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 422 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 354 )
Exclusive

Interpretation of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics Abstract

SHEN Bo, YU Tongjun, GE Weikun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 13-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.001
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Abstract ( 902 )
This article explains in details about the background, content, academic significance and contribution to the social development of the invention of GaN-based blue light emission diode (LED), which was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. It also analyzes the development trend of the nitride wide bandgap semiconductors. Based on the story of assiduous research work of the three Nobel prize winners, and the evaluation standard of the Nobel prize committee, the article makes comments on the positive experiences from this awarding to our country, in terms of the construction way of physical science, the relationship between fundamental and applied physics, and the standard of evaluating the research achievements.

Super-resolution fluorescent microscopy: commentary on the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

XI Peng, SUN Yujie
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 17-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.002
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Abstract ( 1039 )
The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded to three scientists (Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner), for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy. Based on the principle of the resolution in optical microscopy, we gave an in-depth analysis of the origin of super-resolution microscopy. We also present an outlook for the future development of optical microscopy.
Articles

Abnormal variation of ionospheric total electron content before the 24 August 2014 M 6.0 California earthquake

HUANG Zhi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 22-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.003
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Abstract ( 538 )
On 24 August 2014, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck north central California near the coast. This paper first examined temporal and spatial variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observed by a network of the global positioning system receivers in the US. It was found that the TEC value significantly decreased 2 d before the earthquake around the epicenter compared with that of reference days (previous 25 d low bound or median). Further, spatial analysis of global TEC variation was performed with the global ionosphere map developed by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe. The results showed that extreme decrease of TEC from a relatively large area of the epicenter to a small area around the epicenter was up to 40 h, and the amplitude and relative variation of extreme decrease of TEC were significant. The extreme decrease of ionospheric TEC observed before the California earthquake agreed with the conclusion from the statistic analysis of earthquakes occurring in Asia. However, more data need to be accumulated to explore the spatial precursor of earthquakes in North America.

Attenuation of nitrate in a deep confined aquifer during artificial recharge process

WU Xiancang, ZHAO Qi, HUAN Ying, ZHANG Wenjing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 28-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.004
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Abstract ( 141 )
In recent years, excessive exploitation of groundwater has caused many environmental, geological and ecological problems, so artificial recharge has been adopted in many places. However, whether artificial groundwater recharge will lead to negative effects on groundwater environment needs further research. In this study, water quality data was collected from August 13, 2012 when the recharge began, to January 16, 2013 to study attenuation of nitrate in a deep confined aquifer during artificial recharge process. In this deep confined aquifer, the attenuation of nitrate was dominated by denitrification. The pH, electron donor, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO) which can affect denitrification were studied. The results showed that the pH and electron donor had basically no influence on nitrate attenuation, which was mainly influenced by water temperature and DO in this study. During the recharge process, because of decrease of water temperature and increase of DO, the half-life of nitrate increased rapidly after a stable period.

Three-dimensional visualization of streamline placement for groundwater flow field: Research and applications

ZHAO Yingwang, WU Qiang, CHEN Shilei, LI Xueyuan, BIAN Kai
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 33-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.005
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Abstract ( 415 )
The complexity of geological conditions and the occlusion of 3D streamlines reduce the readability of the streamline charts. After discussing the constructing process of streamlines, we narrow down the problem to placement of initial particles. Considering the geological properties of groundwater flow and the local placement method, we propose the principle for global placement, which was checked based on the hydrogeological conditions of Yingjun No. 1 Mine of Shanghaimiao mining area in Etuokeqian Banner, Inner Mongolia. The obtained streamline charts clearly represent the groundwater flow and uncover the control action of a window. The results demonstrate the rationality and validity of the global principle and provide visual and scientific data for mine water research and management decision.

Framework and approach for environmental risk assessment of nuclear power plants

CHEN Yan, ZHENG Peng, CHEN Haiying, ZHANG Chunming, LI Xiaolong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 37-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.006
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Abstract ( 277 )
This paper studies the concepts and key elements of environmental risk assessment, focusing on development of accident risk assessment of nuclear power plants and radiation protection for non-human species, and proposing a framework for environmental risk assessment of nuclear power plants. In this framework, we try to adopt the analytic hierarchy process to calculate the endpoints'weights to the environmental risk of nuclear power plants and discuss its risk characterization with supposed source term, which would be a useful tool to support the environmental risk administration of nuclear power plant.

Research and application of magnetized surfactant for reducing dust

NIE Baisheng, LU Hongqi, GUO Jianhua, ZHOU Xiangyu
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 44-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.007
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Abstract ( 229 )
With the mechanization and the increased speed of the mining, the dust concentration in working faces gets more and more higher, and becomes a big threat to the health of the workers. In this paper, the dust-reduction mechanisms of the magnetization and the surfactant are analyzed. The parameters of the magnetization and the surfactant are determined by experiments based on the coal samples of a coal mine in Shanxi province, and it is shown that the best surfactant is LDLC, the best concentration is 0.1%, the best duration of magnetization is 60 seconds and the best strength of magnetization is 1000 mT. At the same time, the magnetic tube and the accessory equipment are designed. And the field test shows that after the test, the concentration of the total dust is reduced to 72% as compared to the usual dust-reduction measure, and the dusts of 2.5 μm are reduced to about 60%, so the environment of the working face is significantly improved.

Experiments on fine separation of microspheres from fly ash of Luohuang coal-fired power plant

LIU Huidong, SONG Hongjian, WEI Jianpeng, LIU Jingjing, LI Qingqian
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 49-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.008
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Abstract ( 237 )
The petrological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the fly ash from Luohuang coal-fired power plant of Huaneng Group in Chongqing, China were studied using XRF, XRD, Siroquant, SEM-EDS, and optical microscope. Experiments of sink-float separation, magnetic separation and size grading were carried out based on analyses of those characteristics for improving the utilization rate and added value of the fly ash. As the experimental result indicated, cenospheres of 0.15% were separated by means of the water-medium sink-float separation first; then magnetic microspheres (with Fe2O3 content of 44.65%) were available through the wet low-intensity magnetic (260 mT) separation; finally an air classification of the remaining non-magnetic microspheres was applied to obtain microspheres with six different size fraction: 89.6, 40.2, 21.3, 12.7, 8.1 and 4.9 μm. According to the above fine separation procedure, a variety of fly ash sphere products adapting to special application fields can be acquired, improving both the utilization rate and added economic value of Luohuang fly ash. Meanwhile, the environmental pressure caused by the fly ash will be relieved effectively.

Optimization of drifting ventilation method for high-altitude mine

GONG Jian, HU Nailian, CUI Xiang, WANG Xiaodong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 56-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.009
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Abstract ( 145 )
In order to solve the drifting ventilation problem in high-altitude mines, a comprehensive evaluation model for ventilation is established based on the basic theory of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Three kinds of compound drifting ventilation methods are evaluated with a poly-metallic ore in Tibet autonomous region as the engineering background. First, evaluation indexes of ventilation system are selected from three aspects: technology, economy and security, according to the special environment of negative pressure and hypoxia in high-altitude mines. Then, the weight matrix of each evaluation index is determined objectively through the AHP method. Finally, the closeness is analyzed with the combination of TOPSIS method and the superior degree of each ventilation method is calculated. The results show that the second ventilation method, i.e., far-pressing-near-absorption, is the optimal. The optimization results calculated by AHP-TOPSIS method are scientific and reasonable and in line with the actual production, which can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of drifting ventilation method for high-altitude mines.

Safety analysis of EEMD-based blasting vibration energy

RAO Yunzhang, WANG Liu, SHAO Yajian
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 61-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.010
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Abstract ( 267 )
A new appraisal method for safety of blasting vibration equivalent energy based on EEMD technology is proposed to deal with the safety criterion defects for blasting vibration and choice-making dilemma of mother wavelet and decomposition scales of wavelet packets equivalent energy. To begin with, the blasting vibration wave is EEMD-decomposed and the principal IMF components causing damage is identified. Then, the energy and frequency of principal IMF components are calculated, as well as equivalent energy computation considering the natural frequency of compounds for safety appraisal is conducted. It is deduced that the safety threshold of blasting vibration equivalent energy in the mine is 1.0×10-7 J, based on collected blasting vibration field data, calculated equivalent energy of signals, and situation of on-site destruction.

Optimization and performance evaluation of high efficiency foaming agent for high-temperature and high-salinity harsh reservoir of Tahe Oilfield

TIAN Jiang, YANG Zhe, FANG Jichao, ZHAO Jianhui, WANG Kai, DING Qinfang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 66-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.011
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Abstract ( 749 )
This paper explores the feasibility of foam flooding for high-temperature and high-salinity reservoir in Tahe Oilfield to improve the oil recovery. The foaming agent was selected by means of Ross-Miles method with the evaluation indexes of foam comprehensive value, and its stability, surface/interfacial tension and foaming properties under high temperature and high pressure were evaluated. Its stratum adaptability and oil displacement efficiency were also evaluated. The results indicate that under the hightemperature and high-salinity conditions in Tahe Oilfield, the optimal foaming agent was amphoteric surfactant HTS-1, which had satisfactory stability and reduced the oil-water interfacial tension to 10-1 mN/m. It has improved foaming and foam stability at high temperature and high pressure, and the higher the pressure, the better the foam stability. Single core experiment demonstrated that foam flooding has wide stratum adaptability, and the foam plugging performance will be improved with the increase of permeability and be reduced over a certain permeability. Oil displacement experiments show that foam can plug the high-permeability layer, leading to fluid diverting and higher oil displacement efficiency, and increase water flooding recovery by 17%.

Experimental and mechanism research of damage of clean fracturing fluids to coalbed methane

ZHOU Jun, YI Xiangyi, LU Yuan, QIU Xiaolong, YE Jinliang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 72-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.012
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Abstract ( 718 )
Coalbed would be damaged by fracturing fluid, which affects coalbed methane production. Clean fracturing fluid is studied through experiments on the diffusion of coalbed methane desorption and seepage damage mechanism to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of coalbed methane well fracturing fluid. Coal 3 from Qinshui basin is selected as test samples to conduct the desorption test after injecting fracturing liquids into the samples by using independently developed CBM desorption experimental apparatus and permeability test by microscopic distribution of fluid simulation experiment system. Research shows that permeability of coal is damaged by 30% and the desorption amount of damage rate is 24%. Clean fracturing fluid may postpone the coalbed methane desorption time and reduce the absorption rate. And then through the electron microscope scanning and wettability analysis, the damage mechanism of coal by clean fracturing fluid is found out.

Optimization design of airfoil for wind turbine blade based on vortex panel method

ZHANG Yongheng, LIN Zhimin, WANG Liangbi, YAN Jun, LIU Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 76-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.013
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Abstract ( 251 )
To solve the problems in the inverse design of airfoil for wind turbine blade, the stream function equations expressed by vorticity were solved and the velocities at the panel nodes were directly obtained. The other parameters such as pressure coefficient, lifting coefficient as well as torque coefficient can be calculated via the Bernoulli equation. A new airfoil was obtained by using vortex panel method, taking NACA2412 as the original geometrical shape and the pressure coefficients of NACA2412 airfoil as the target. Optimization design for a small wind turbine was conducted by incorporating the newly obtained airfoil. Numerical test showed that the inverse design based on vortex panel method had high accuracy and wide adaptation. By using bump function to represent the geometry of the airfoil, optimization designs can be achieved for different initial airfoil geometry and wind turbine blade.

Stress and tightness analysis and improvement of pressurized vessel for experimental test of steam condensation on the cold surface of AP600

YANG Lin, HAN Liyong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 80-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.014
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Abstract ( 272 )
This paper introduces at first the structure of the pressurized vessel for AP600, which was developed by University of Wisconsin, and the stress and tightness of the pressurized vessel are analyzed. Then an improved structure of the pressurized vessel is developed so that the pressurized vessel can support a higher pressure for the experimental test of steam condensation on the cold surface. The stress of the improved pressurized vessel is analyzed by ANSYS. The calculation result shows that the pressurized vessel can not only support a higher pressure but also meet other thermal measurement requirements of the test.

Effect of Uyghur medicine ASM on cytobiology behavier and Rho/ROCK signal transduction pathway in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

ZHANG Minfang, YUAN Fang, TANG Jianan, XIE Fenglian, UPUR Hamurat, HU Hanhua
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 85-90. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.015
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Abstract ( 144 )
This paper studies the effect of Uyghur medicine abnormal savda munzip (ASM) on the proliferation, invasion and the expression of Rho/ROCK signal transduction pathway related proteins in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. After being treated with ASM (10, 20, 25, 50 mg/mL) and Y-27632(10 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation of HepG2 cells was detected using the four methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The alteration of the cells invasive ability treated with ASM and Y-27632 for 24h was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cell invasion assay. Western Blot was used to determine the effect of these drugs on the expression of RhoA, ROCK1 and ROCK2. The results revealed that ASM suppressed the proliferation of HepG2 significantly with a dose-effect relationship: for groups of ASM with 10 and 20 mg/mL, inhibition increased with the time of ASM action; for groups of ASM with 25 and 50 mg/mL, no significant increase of inhibition was found. ASM suppressed the invasive ability of HepG2. SEM results showed that the formation and growth of hepatoma cellular pseudopodia were inhibited by ASM. ASM with doses 25 and 50 mg/mL decreased the expressions of ROCK1 and ROCK2 significantly, but there was no significant effect on RhoA expression. The study suggests that ASM suppresses the proliferation and invasive ability of human hepatoma HepG2, the mechanisms of which could be associated with less expression of ROCK.

Sex ratio and winter home range of Tianshan red deer (Cervus elaphus songaricus) by noninvasive method

ZHOU Canlin, MUHAMMAT Askar, TURDY Risalat, HALIK Mahmut
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 91-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.016
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Abstract ( 255 )
Red deer feces was collected from the National Forest Park at east Tianshan mountains and Karawushen mountains to study the sex ratio and home range using noninvasive method. The sex ratio was 1.78:1-2.89:1 obtained by SRY gene identification, and 1.62:1-2.40:1 by morphological identification of the feces, which do not differ significantly by T-test. The home ranges of male and female red deer were 1.02-1.57 km2 and 1.57-1.71 km2, respectively, without significant difference. The home ranges of some deer were overlapped in the National Forest Park at east Tianshan mountains, which is decided by their habits and characteristics.

A software platform for evaluating the capability of nuclear power plants' response to nuclear emergency

ZHANG Liguo, QU Jingyuan, TONG Jiejuan, LIU Tao, ZHAO Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 97-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.017
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Abstract ( 275 )
Adequate emergency response to nuclear accident in nuclear power plant is a critical way to ensure the safety of human health and environment. Therefore, it is all along one of the key questions for the industry that what means the capability of a licensee of NPP that is good enough for a victorious response to an accident. The paper will introduce the research and development of a software platform to help evaluate the capability of NPP's response to nuclear accident using the philosophy and method proposed by the team in charge of developing the mechanism to evaluate licensee's capability of emergency preparedness and response. The functions required by the evaluation software platform are described, including user administration, performance indicator calculation, data maintenance, administration of inspection findings resources, representation of evaluation results, internal management, comprehensive assess, maintenance of information on NPPs, maintenance of evaluation criteria and so on. How these functions are implemented in software engineering is also presented.

Safety monitoring system for heavy duty vehicles running on rampway

SHI Peilong, LIU Rui, YU Qiang, ZHAO Xuan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 104-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.018
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Abstract ( 237 )
For the safety problem of heavy duty vehicles running on rampway, a study and design of a safety monitoring system is presented. First we analyze the 923 downhill traffic accidents in Shaanxi to acquire their major causal factors, and confirm the monitor control indexes for the safety monitoring system. Then, the monitoring indicators, signal acquisition module, signal processing module, data communication module, and human-computer interaction intelligent instrument are designed and implemented based on Freescale MC9S12DG128B SCM. Finally, we conduct road experiments for the monitoring system. The results show that the monitoring system for heavy duty vehicles running on rampway could provide an effective way to monitor the security parameters of heavy duty vehicles and alarm, with intellectualization, visualization, security and stability. The safety of heavy duty vehicles when running on rampway is improved.

Preparation, properties and applications of calcium phosphate nanostructured materials

QI Chao, ZHU Yingjie, WU Jin, CHEN Feng
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 111-119. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.04.019
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Abstract ( 552 )
As the important inorganic component of biological hard tissues, calcium phosphate materials have high biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability. Therefore, they are widely investigated and used in various biomedical fields, such as bone and tooth repair and replacement, drug delivery, gene transfection and diagnostic imaging. The chemical composition, structure, crystallite size, morphology, and crystallinity of the synthetic calcium phosphate materials, which are strongly influenced by their preparation methods, play a decisive role in their applications. Therefore, to develop various synthetic methods for the desirable materials is important for their applications. This paper reviews recent research progress of our group in the preparation, characterization, properties and applications of calcium phosphate nanostructured materials, focusing on the preparation methods, including room-temperature synthesis, solvothermal/hydrothermal synthesis, microwave-assisted rapid synthesis, electrospinning, and phosphorus-containing biomolecules based synthesis, and their applications in drug delivery, protein adsorption and release, and bioimaging. The future research trends are also discussed.
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 471 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 407 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 719 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 122-122.
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Abstract ( 506 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 123-123.
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Abstract ( 476 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 125-125.
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Abstract ( 112 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 126-126.
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Abstract ( 319 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 127-127.
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Abstract ( 936 )
Columns

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 6-6.
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Abstract ( 503 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 512 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 519 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 120-120.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 121-121.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 124-124.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (4): 128-128.
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