28 April 2015, Volume 33 Issue 8

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  • LU Yongxiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 13-17. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.001
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    This paper reviews the life of Albert Einstein, his brilliant achievements, his scientific thought and scientific spirit, his outstanding contributions to modern physics, his noble personality and his upholding of scientific values, as well as some enlightenments that we can obtain from his activities.
  • Articles
  • BI Yinli, XIE Wenwu, LI Shaopeng, SHANG Haili
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 18-23. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.002
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    Potassium deficiency exists in the coal mining subsidence area of Shendong coal mine. In this study, three kinds of clay minerals (quartz, potassium feldspar and illite) were mixed in different ratios and taken as the test matrix for investigating impacts of the amount of silicate bacteria C6X strain inoculum on effects of potassium release with different matrixes under different water control conditions. The aim is to find the most reasonable conditions for silicate bacteria C6X strain to release potassium to improve potassium deficiency in the studied area. In this way, the local soil can be utilized reasonably and effectively. The results show that the silicate bacteria increased the content of available potassium in the matrix. The changes of inoculation affected the effects of potassium release of the matrix. The best inoculum sizes of different substrates were all 10%. The optimum moisture content of the four substrates decreased with enhancement of the viscosity of clay mineral, being 120%, 100%, 70% and 55% of the maximum water holding capacity of the corresponding matrix. When the mass ratio of quartz: potassium feldspar: illite was 1:1:3, the effect of potassium release on the substrates of the silicate bacteria C6X strain was the best, being 1.44%. Therefore, the corresponding soil with moisture content of 55% can be best improved with 10% of silicate bacteria inoculation.
  • LUO Lijin, WAN Li, CHEN Hong, XU Fule, JIA Wei, NIE Yilei, WEN Cuilian
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 24-29. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.003
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    In this paper, an optimum mixture design is used for the preparation of cold-adapted multiple species inoculant. Based on the Design Expert software, a quadratic model is established as a function of the component fractions of species, such as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Trichoderma viride and the flora A25-3, on the enzyme activity of the CMCase, the FPase, the cellobiohydrolase, the proteinase and the α-amylase. The response values satisfying all expectations are optimized,and the most excellent combinations of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Trichoderma viride and the flora A25-3 are 0%, 37.24% and 67.76%, respectively. The result of the verification experiment on the formulation is consistent with the prediction. The straw degradation experiments show that the multiple species inoculant has a high level of degradation efficiency for the straw at a low temperature. It suggests that there is a great application prospect of the multiple species inoculant under cold conditions.
  • HU Min, SHI Haibin, LI Weiping
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 30-35. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.004
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    The soil amendments play an important role in improving the soil salinization. In this paper, the coal fly ash, the FGD gypsum, the dual modifier (desulfurization gypsum + cow dung) are selected as the soil amendments, meanwhile, the compositions and application rates of the amendments and the irrigation amount are taken as the main influencing factors in the oil-sunflower-planting tests in the field to study their effects on the saltinizition soil pH values, the TDS, and the oil-sunflower seedling emergence rate in the early period of improvement. It is shown that the highest reduction amount of the soil pH value is achieved by the T7 treatment (application of the desulfurization gypsum of 29.86 t/hm2, high irrigation), reaching 2.36. The highest reduction amount of the soil TDS is achieved by the TN6 treatment (application of the dual modifier of 22.40 t/hm2, low irrigation), reaching 81.32%, but they are only 1.45 and 76.06% in the control treatment (no applications of amendments). The highest oil-sunflower seedling emergence rate is achieved by the TN1 treatment (application of the dual modifier of 14.92 t/hm2, high irrigation), reaching 70.83%, 37.16% more than the control treatment. Application of the soil amendments can effectively reduce the soil pH value and the TDS, improve the soil conditions significantly, and promote the crop growth Furthermore, the effect of amendments can be enhanced with the proper regulation of irrigation.
  • SHI Baoli, LI Zheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 36-40. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.005
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    In this paper, the N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide is used as the monomer to graft onto the PVDF membrane under the UV irradiation. The anti-fouling performance of the PVDF membrane is observed under different experiment conditions. The modified membrane is characterized by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is shown that the surface of the membrane becomes smooth, and the hydrophilic group is introduced onto the membrane. And the anti-fouling performance is the best when the monomer concentration is 0.7 mol/L, and the illumination time is 3 min. The main advantage of this method is that the membrane is easily modified by the water phase.
  • MA Feng, SUN Hongli, LIN Wenjing, GAN Haonan, WANG Guiling
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 41-47. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.006
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    Selection of ideal target site to establish the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) trial project in China has strategic significance to China in the process of energy conservation and coping with global climate change. Four types of target sites, namely plate tectonic activity, recent volcano, sedimentary basins and acidic rock areas are defined by their differential heat generation characteristics based on profile analysis using the national terrestrial heat flow map, Curie depth map, neotectonic map and acid rock distribution map. Eight indexes including heat flow, reservoir lithology, caprock thickness, Curie depth, tectonic stress, radioactive heat generation rate, temperature gradient and regional economics are used for establishing the target site evaluation system. Ten potential sites are evaluated comprehensively based on the index matrix system. The results show that Yangbajing, Yangjiang, Zhangzhou, Fuzhou could be the optimum target sites. Heat structure section analysis of two potential target sites was carried out to demonstrate the rationality of the matrix evaluation.
  • ZHENG Fei, LIN Chun, CHEN Weisheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 48-52. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.007
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    Infrasound monitoring method has been widely applied in disaster monitoring, especially in earthquake monitoring. One to 10 days before an earthquake, abnormal infrasound waves can usually be received. However, the formation mechanism of the abnormality remains unclear. This paper takes the Sumatra earthquake in 2004 as an example to study the abnormal infrasound signal received before the earthquake and simulate production of the infrasound through finite element modeling. The interaction between atmosphere and deformation of the earth surface caused by dynamic behavior of geologic bodies in the final stage of earthquake incubation caused the observable infrasound. Infrasound was obtained by numerical simulations. Satisfactory agreement between the observed and the simulated infrasound suggests that the proposed model is reasonable. The results show that the atmosphere before the earthquake may have low-frequency sound, and its frequency was focused on the 10-3 Hz order of magnitude. There was a good correlation between earthquake and abnormal infrasound signals. The abnormal infrasound signal may be a valuable way for earthquake prediction.
  • YANG Yi, YANG Chao, XU He
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 53-57. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.008
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    This paper presents an analytical static study of the plane truss with rigidity damage. Firstly, an equivalent structure with cyclic periodicity is built. The rigidity damage of the bar can be expressed as an additional loading in the governing equations of a substructure. Then, by using the U-transformation technique, the equations may be uncoupled into independent equations. The nodal displacements are solved in the analytical form. Lastly, a calculation example is taken, and the obtained nodal displacements are compared to the those of a perfect structure. It is shown that the variations of the displacements are reasonable. This paper provides a means for analyzing the influence of the rigidity damage on the plane truss structure.
  • WU Bin
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 58-62. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.009
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    When a 3D vertical crack propagates on the interface between bi-materials, there are three route choices. To study this problem, a crack propagation model of the 3D vertical crack on material interface is established. A linear spring layer model is used to simulate the imperfect interface and calculate the shear displacement and the shear stress along the interface. Then, the distribution of the energy release rate is calculated along the edge of the crack. The influencing factors of route choices, such as the crack length, the interface parameters and the elasticity modulus, are analyzed. It is shown that the interface shear displacement increases with the increase of the crack length, which means that the interface slips easily. The larger the interface parameters, the smaller the energy release rate and the interface shear displacement will be. In other words, the crack propagation through and along the interface might be greatly hampered if the interface parameters increase. When the crack is in the harder material, it might penetrate the interface and goes into the softer material easily.
  • WU Nan, ZHU Weiyao, SHI Chengfang, YE Jigen, LONG Yunqian
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 63-67. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.010
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    This paper studies the seepage law in heterogeneous reservoir to find out the flowing law and distribution of fluids at different development stages for revealing the internal relations between flow field and reservoir characteristics. Based on hydrodynamics theory and streamline cluster equation, this paper proposes that the seepage region which has similar fluid flowing law and reservoir characteristics is a micro- flow unit. The seepage flow mathematical model of the contribution rate of flow (CRF), nonuniform distribution curve of flow units (NDCFU) and the difference coefficient of flow intension (DCFI) has been established, and the principle for dividing high and low velocity flow area is based on the flow contribution rate of flow units. Simulation of constantrate water flooding dynamics in an injection-production unit of the inverted 5-spot pattern and plotting by means of streamline cluster equation show that the high velocity flow area had sufficient driving energy, occupying 53.7% of the entire flow unit area, but providing 61.7% of the total flow, and contributing most to the production. The low velocity flow area occupied 46.3% of the entire flow unit area, but only provided 38.3% of the total flow.
  • LI Xiangliang, DU Qingjun, XIA Zhizeng, REN Xiaoyun, LIU Lingling
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 68-72. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.011
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    A numerical simulator describing foam generation, coalescence and migration during the process of foam flooding in porous media was developed based on the established mathematical model. Taking the pilot test area of foam flooding in west block of Chengdong Oilfield as an example, this paper analyzes the rate distribution and influential factors of foam generation, natural coalescence and oil-contacting coalescence in each grid by using the numerical simulator. The results show that foam generation rate increased with average permeability, gas saturation and foam mole fraction in gas phase, while it decreased with increasing oil saturation. Natural coalescence rate increased with average permeability, gas saturation, oil saturation and foam mole fraction in gas phase. Oil-contacting coalescence rate increased with oil saturation and foam mole fraction in gas phase.
  • FENG Chengcheng, CHEN Xuechai, LIU Kefu, ZENG Fan, QING Hong, DENG Yulin
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 73-76. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.012
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    The Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The main pathological characteristics of the PD are the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of Lewy bodies. The MPTP (1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 -tetrahydropyridine) is a kind of much studied exogenous neurotoxins, known to cause parkinsonism in humans with selective neurotoxicity to dopamine neurons in the substantial nigra. The induction of the parkinsonism in humans by the MPTP suggests that endogenous or xenobiotic neurotoxins may elicit the Parkinson's disease. The salsolinol, a very similar kind of the MPTP, is a type of products from the condensation of the aldehydes and dopamine (DA) and has neurotoxicity. The reaction of the DA and the acetaldehyde to obtain the salsolinol is an enzyme reaction. The salsolinol synthase is an enzyme for synthesizing the salsolinol from dopamine and acetaldehyde. It is closely related to the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD). The previous research shows that the Sal synthase sees a high amino acid similarity to the ubiquitin, with only difference of four amino acids between Sal synthase and ubiqutin. The finding reveals that the enzyme may play an important role in the cell process. The salsolinol synthase gene is obtained through the site-directed mutagenesis with the ubiquitin gene by the long primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mutation gene is cloned into the prokaryotic GST fusion protein expression plasmid pET30a-GST, to form the pET30a- GST-Sal synthase plasmid. The recombinant plasmid is transformed to E.coli BL2l and the expression of the GST-Sal synthase fusion protein is induced by the IPTG. The protein is purified through the affinity chromatography methods. It is shown that the four site mutations are fully consistent with the expected results, and a prokaryotic system expressing the GST-Sal synthase fusion protein is successfully constructed. The GST-Sal synthase fusion protein with high purity could be obtained after it is high efficiently expressed in the E. coli BL21 and purified with the affinity chromatography.
  • AIZEZI Renaguli, WUSHOUER Palida, AIMAITI Nuermaimaiti
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 77-83. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.013
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    This paper developed an Alzheimer's disease rat model carrying abnormal Savda syndrome and studied its behavioral changes. First of all, an abnormal Savda syndrome rat model was developed by using the classical method then β-Amyloid 1-40 was injected into hippocampus to establish Alzheimer's disease in these rats. After observing the biological characteristics and testing behavioral changes with Morris water maze test and step down test, the abilities of learning and memorizing of different model groups were compared. Compared with the normal group, the daily food and water intake was increased in the abnormal Savda syndrome group and the AD group (P<0.01), the body weigh was decreased in the abnormal Savda syndrome group, the AD group and the AD carrying abnormal Savda syndrome group (P<0.01). The numbers of crossing the effective area were reduced in the abnormal Savda syndrome group, the AD group and the AD carrying abnormal Savda syndrome group (P<0.01) with respect to the normal group. The number of crossing the effective area was smaller in the AD carrying abnormal Savda syndrome group (P<0.05) than that in the AD group. The learning and memory scores were significantly lower in the abnormal savda syndrome group, the AD group and the AD carrying abnormal Savda syndrome group (P<0.01) than those in the normal group. Compared with the AD group, the learning and memory scores slightly lowered in the AD carrying abnormal Savda syndrome group without any significant statistical difference(P > 0.05). In this research, the Alzheimer's disease carrying abnormal Savda syndrome rat model was developed successfully.
  • HUANG Danping, LI Jing, YU Shaodong, TIAN Jianping, HU Yong, LIN Haibo
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 84-88. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.014
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    In order to obtain the field flowmeter data that can not be transmitted as electrical signals automatically, the binarization is necessary. The current method can not eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination in processing the flowmeter data. Therefore, an improved weighted average algorithm combined with a rectangular box is put forward. The method of the summed-area table is used to calculate the sum of the gray values in each rectangular area of the flowmeter image, which reduces the running time effectively. Meanwhile, the method of the class space combined with the cohesion is applied to automatically adjust the parameters. With the C++ programming and the method, the image processing time is 1.6 ms. For the same image, the image processing time by the Wavelet Packet and the Niblack Method is 9.3 ms. Therefore, the image processing speed is significantly improved by the method. The experiments show that the binarization of the unevenly illuminated image is improved with the method and a better image is obtained from the flowmeter data. Hence, the accuracy of the flowmeter is improved.
  • LI Xiangrong, LIU Yunquan, ZHAO Hailong, ZHAO Shuo, WANG Guohui
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 89-93. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.015
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    Vulnerability analysis and assessment simulation was carried out with main-battle tank weapon system as the research object according to implementation procedure of degraded state (DS) assessment method. First, DS values revealing loss of functions of each sub-system were identified based on analysis of each sub-system functions. Function damage trees were created using deductive method from top to bottom. To realize threat-target interaction, instant velocity of debris behind armor was simulated using Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method. Component level vulnerability assessment simulation system was developed by Visual C 6.0 platform. Function modules were designed, and one case was run and simulated results were analyzed. It showed that relative space between one component and hit point and whether there are defense components directly affect damage state of the component. In component level vulnerability analysis, not only vulnerability area but also defense and shelter need to be considered. Research in this paper is one important part of component level vulnerability assessment of armored equipment and may provide a foundation for battle damage assessment and exact support simulation.
  • Reviews
  • ZHAO Shuai, SU Xiaonan, LI Yuanyuan, LI Haitao
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 94-100. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.016
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    As a major mechanism for the epigenetic regulation, the histone methylation has a crucial impact on the decoding of the genetic information. The histone methylation can be recognized by a class of so-called "reader" modules to mediate the downstream functional outcomes. In this paper, we review the structural aspects of the reported histone methylation readers (e.g. "royal family" members, PHD finger, BAH), and illustrate the molecular basis underlying the site- and state- specific readouts of the histone methylation. This review also covers the concepts of the combinatorial readout and the modification crosstalk in the epigenetic regulation.
  • ZHENG Tao, HE Qingyuan, LIU Lanxiang, HAN Hongbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 101-105. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.017
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    The interstitial fluid (ISF) in the brain parenchyma is one of the most important ingredients of the microenvironment of the nerve cells and plays an important role in homeostasis of the central neural system. Due to the limitation of the traditional technologies, the possible source, the flow and the drainage process of the ISF remain unclear in many respects. Recently, with the development of the molecular tracing imaging technology and related measurement methods, some new anatomical and physiological parameters of the ISF are identified to provide new insights into the mechanisms of the generation, the drainage of the ISF and its function and clinical applications. The development of technical methods also provide a foundation for the study of the relationship between the ISF and the connectomes. This paper reviews the source, the flow and the drainage of the ISF and its physiological and pathological significance.
  • QIU Xiaoping, ZHANG Yige, CHEN Weijun, SHAN Guoping, CHENG Xiaolong
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 106-111. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.018
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    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a close-cycle radiation therapy using various measurements’feedback to modify the initial plan. It intends to improve radiation therapy by systematically control the variations during the course of treatment and use them to reoptimize the initial plan. In this process, beam field and delivery dose should be routinely customized to each individual patient so that they can achieve a much safer dose escalation. This paper introduces the background and basic concept of ART, and discusses the basic ART method, as well as their advantages and disadvantages by analyzing the application of off-line and on-line ART programs in recent years. Its application in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer is reviewed, and the feasibility and effectiveness of a variety of hardware and software technologies are discussed. The current research achievement has demonstrated the value of ART in tumor treatment. Future research direction may be oriented to improvement of its technical specifications and clinical application.
  • Focus
  • GAO Jiping, PAN Yuntao, WU Yishan
    Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33(8): 112-119. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.08.019
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    Compared to highly cited papers, less attention is paid to uncited papers. Taking 43 journals in the spectroscopy indexed by JCR in the 2013 as an example, this paper analyzes the 12462 uncited papers published from 2003 to 2012 from the perspectives of country, institution and topic distributions. With regard to the country distribution and the institution distribution, it is found that the uncited papers are mostly produced by the institutions and universities in Belarus, Ukraine, China, Russia, South Korea and other countries, whose mother tongues are not English. With regard ro the topics, the overlay network analysis in the time zone shows the topic distribution in different periods, including the Raman spectrum, the infrared spectrum, the mass spectrometry, the fluorescence spectroscopy and so on. Furthermore, from the distribution analysis, the possible influencing factors of the uncited papers may be identified.