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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 10
28 May 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 748 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 120-120.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 121-121.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 124-124.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 128-128.
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Abstract ( 735 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 742 )
Exclusive

Materials genome enables research and development revolution

WANG Hong, XIANG Yong, XIANG Xiaodong, CHEN Liquan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 13-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.001
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Abstract ( 1252 )
Materials research and development today still depends primarily on scientific intuitions, experiences, as well as trial-anderror experiments. This process is time-consuming and costly, and has increasingly become the bottleneck for technological and social advancement. In June 2011, President Obama of the United State announced Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) as part of Advanced Manufacturing Partnership, aiming to accelerate process from materials discovery, development, manufacturing, and deployment process and cut the cost at the same time by integrating computational materials design, high-throughput experimentation, and data management. China began to show great interest in more efficient materials research and development as early as June 1999 by organizing the 118th Xiangshan Science Forum on Integrated Combinatorial Approaches for Materials Discovery and Optimization. In December 2011, The S14 Xiangshan Science Forum on System Engineering in Materials Science was jointly sponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), in response to the MGI. In addition, a series of conferences and forums were held across the nation from 2012 to 2014, to discuss MGI and China's strategy. A consensus has been reached among Chinese materials community including universities, industry, and research institutions. Both CAS and CAE submitted Strategic Consultation Report on Materials Genome to the State Council of China in 2014, respectively, proposing to launch China's Materials Genome Program as soon as possible. In this article, we introduce the basic concepts of MGI, review the global progress and trends, and make recommendations on the national policy, strategy and technological pathways of China's Materials Genome Program.

Multiscale materials computational methods

SHI Siqi, XU Jiwei, CUI Yanhua, LU Xiaogang, OUYANG Chuying, ZHANG Yanshu, ZHANG Wenqing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 20-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.002
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Abstract ( 545 )
Multiscale models and simulations play a significant role in the "Materials Genome Initiative". This article reviews computational methods at spatial scale from quantum to microscopy, mesoscopy, and macroscopy, and at temporal scale from picosecond to nanosecond, and microsecond. The corresponding techniques ranging from first- principles calculation to molecular dynamics, macroscopic thermodynamics/kinetics models and simulations, and finite element methods are introduced.

Progress in high-throughput materials synthesis and characterization

WANG Haizhou, WANG Hong, DING Hong, XIANG Xiaodong, XIANG Yong, ZHANG Xiaokun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 31-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.003
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Abstract ( 4141 )
Over the last 40 years, high throughput experimentation has been demonstrated to be an effective approach to generate huge amount of material data in a short period of time, and it is now considered a key element of Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) to fulfill its promise to deliver materials of emerging importance with much faster paces and lower costs. In this article, the briefly history for high throughput materials synthesis and characterization is recalled. A series of representative techniques are reviewed, their limitations are identified, and the challenges and future trends are analyzed. In perspective, a facility consisting of in-situ real time materials processing, characterization and analysis based on synchrotron light sources or spallation neutron sources, as well as the original position statistic reflecting mapping technology for non-uniform materials are likely to play important role in the future generation high throughput material experimentation.

Materials databases and constructing national public service platform of materials data

YIN Haiqing, LIU Guoquan, JIANG Xue, ZHANG Ruijie, QU Xuanhui
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 50-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.004
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Abstract ( 459 )
Materials data play an increasingly vital role in national security, performance safety, scientific and technological innovation and smart manufacturing in the age of information technology. In 2011, the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) was launched in the US, of which materials data together with materials computation and materials experimentation and characterization consist of the three tools for accelerating the materials development continuum and reducing the cost. Both the researchers and production managers come to realize the significant role materials data play. The attributes of materials data, such as variety, complex interrelationship, acquiring process as well as the intellectual property issues, drive the process of collection, storage and application ever more complicated. In this paper, the characteristics, classification and status quo of materials data are described. The strategies and obstacles are systematically analyzed for materials data development and database construction. A national platform of materials data for research and public service, a materials data hub in China, is essential and urgently required for MGI implementation. Four aspects are emphasized, that is, materials data repository, infrastructure and cloud service, data mining and international collaboration. The materials data repositories for civil and military uses will be constructed. On the platform, the standards are crucial for materials data and database and big data application, which need to be set up first. The customized database and data push will bring great benefit for materials database users. Materials data science will definitely become a brand new subject in materials science, including materials informatics and materials dataology.

Materials-genome approach speeds up optimization of thermoelectric materials

SHI Xun, YANG Jiong, CHEN Lidong, YANG Jihui, ZHANG Wenqing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 60-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.005
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Abstract ( 513 )
The method of Materials Genome Initiative greatly speeds up the optimization of thermoelectric materials. Based on theoretical calculations and materials' database, this approach rapidly finds out the important factors that affect materials' properties, which can be used in the study of current materials by providing helpful directions and guidance. In this work, filled skutterudites and diamond-like compounds were selected as two examples to demonstrate how Materials Genome Initiative speeds up the optimization of thermoelectric properties. Starting from perspectivesof electron and phonon transport, this method can easily find out a few best chemical compositions from hundreds (or thousands) of possibilities to realize high thermoelectric performance. This work demonstrates that thermoelectric material is a typical example that can use the materials genome approachto speed up experimental study.

Applications of combinatorial material chip technology in research and development of new materials

XIANG Xiaodong, WANG Hong, XIANG Yong, YAN Zongkai
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 64-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.006
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Abstract ( 762 )
Combinatorial material chip technology is a key element of the high-throughput materials experimentation which enables fulfillment of the Materials Genome Initiative. A typical combinatorial materials library contains 10 to 108 samples on a single substrate, and their compositions, structures, and properties are rapidly characterized. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made in combinatorial materials synthesis and characterization techniques. Combinatorial materials screening has been widely applied in almost all fields of materials research. In this article, examples were chosen from 15 categories of materials, such as electronic materials, magnetic materials, photonic materials, optical materials, energy materials, dielectric materials, catalysts, and alloys, to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the combinatorial methodology in new materials discovery, materials and devices optimization, as well as fundamental physics research.

Applications of "Materials Genome Engineering" based methods in Nickel-based superalloys

WANG Xin, ZHU Lilong, FANG Jiao, LIU Jun, QI Haiying, JIANG Liang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 79-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.007
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Abstract ( 478 )
"Materials Genome Engineering" is industrial application oriented. Exploring and using materials computational tools, experimental tools and databases, it emphasizes the integration and development of these three key capabilities to solve materials issues critical to national welfare and people's livelihood. This paper presents the applications of several "Materials Genome Engineering" based methods in nickel-based superalloys, namely high-throughput alloy fabrication, high-throughput thermodynamic and kinetic data acquisition, multi- scale and multi- dimension microstructure characterization, and miniature specimen testing. Quantitative predictive and descriptive capabilities to reveal the relationships among material composition, processing, structure, and property will undoubtedly be faced with great challenges, but they will progress steadily in this context. "Materials Genome Engineering" based methods will promote the research and development of nickel-based superalloys, accelerating the transition from laboratory work to industrial application.
Articles

Formation mechanism of high metamorphism coal belt in the south of the Northern China plate

PENG Jichao, HU Sherong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 87-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.008
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Abstract ( 298 )
This paper aims to confirm the formation mechanism and the age of high metamorphism coal belt in the south of the North China plate. Considering the collison history of the North China plate and Yangtze plate, we analyze the distribution features of magmatic rock and coal rank. The coal seam belongs to the Shanxi Formation, lower Permian. Using the "gravity isostasy" principle and the theory of "paired metamorphic belt" proposed by Miyashiro, we construct the heat flow model to explainthe source of heat which caused the formation of high metamorphism coal belt and draw the following conclusions:1) Since the collision of the Yangtze plate and North China plate, there was a high-temperature and low-pressure belt in the foreland basin in the south of the North China plate, which promoted the coalification and led to formation of a high metamorphism belt; 2) According to the geological data and tectonic characteristics, the strike of high metamorphism coal belt was the same as the tectonics strike in the Indo-Chinese epoch, which is nearly east-west. Therefore, we speculate thatthe high metamorphism coal belt formed in the Indo-Chinese epoch. The magmatic rock in Yanshanian played an important role in the process of coal metamorphism in the south of the North China plate, but the coal metamorphism in Jincheng and Jiyuan areas was controlled by platecollision which formed the abnormal heat flow.

Unconformity characteristics and its petroleum geological implication in key tectonic change stages, Sichuan Basin

WU Saijun, WEI Guoqi, YANG Wei, XIE Wuren, WANG Nai, ZENG Fuying
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 93-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.009
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Abstract ( 367 )
With great discoveries of natural gas in the Sinian System- Lower Cambrian, new understanding of the paleotectonic framework has been formed. The uplift and depression structure is distributed in north-south trending in that geological time. Three key tectonic change stages are Tongwan Stage, Caledonian Period and Indo- Chinese Epoch. The analysis of unconformity characteristics is an important technique in the research of tectonic evolution. Therefore, analysis of unconformities of key tectonic change stages is helpful for further understanding their influence on paleotectonic evolution. Based on the analysis of drilling, outcrop, seismic data, combined with regional geological data, we discuss the unconformity characteristics and paleotectonic evolution in the Sinian Period-Early Cambrian and their influence on gas accumulation in the Sinian System. The results showed that: 1) Three key tectonic changes formed, which are the Sinian System-Lower Cambrian (Tongwanian), Upper Cambrian-Permian (Caledonian Period) and Upper Triassic-Jurassic (Indo-Chinese Epoch), seven regional unconformities; 2) The unconformity characteristics consist of superposition and migration. Superposition mainly reflects the structural inheritance, and migration mainly reflects the change processes of paleostructure. Tectonic evolution of the Gaoshiti-Moxi zone could be divided into stages of puberty, adjustment and stabilization on the basis of unconformity characteristics; 3) Superposition of unconformity and mound-beach system in uplift zone controls karst reservoir development in the Sinian System. Unconformable surfaces can be used for migration and accumulation channels for oil and gas. Unconformity migration is helpful for analyzing the formation and vanishment of paleotectonic traps. The analysis of unconformity characteristics in key tectonic change stages is significant for the later evolution and hydrocarbon migration of uplift and depression tectonic areas in Sinian Period-Early Cambrian.

Statics and characteristic dynamic study on a infilled frame structure

CHI Weisheng, KONG Lingyang, DU Juan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 101-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.010
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Abstract ( 162 )
In this paper, static and dynamic characteristics of infilled wall structure were studied using the finite element analysis software MIDAS/Gen. The fundamental frequency of 0.9252 Hz was obtained by modal analysis. High-order modal participation factor was far less than the low-order modal participation factor, i.e., low-order modeplays a dominant role in the vibration. Time-history curve was selected based on two frequency bandsof the response spectra, and time-history analysis results were more than 80% of the response spectrum analysis results. The static and dynamic characteristicsof infilled wall structurewere obtained through response spectrum analysis and time-history analysis of this model, and the weak part of the structure was indicated, which may provide reference for the design and analysis of similar structures.

Attenuation of N-methyl-salsolinol mediated apoptosis of THP- 1 cells by the conditioned medium from co-cultures of SH-SY5Y and U87 cells

WANG Fuli, DENG Yulin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 107-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.011
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Abstract ( 495 )
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, some studies have found that total T cell pool was changed in PD. However, little is known about peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the pathogenesis of PD. Recent studies have demonstrated that endogenous neurotoxin 1,2(N)- dimethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (N-methyl-salsolinol, NMSal), an analogue of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2, 3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the brain, could induce degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and cause neuroimmune dysfunction in PD. In the present study, we examined the effect of conditioned medium from NMSal treated co-cultures of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and glioma cell line U87 cells on human monocyte THP-1 cells. The results showed that the conditioned medium attenuated apoptosis of THP-1 cells mediated by NMSal. The conditioned medium inhibited the swelling and rupture of mitochondrial membrane, reduced the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2, and decreased expression levels of caspase3, Bax and FADD of THP-1 cells induced by NMSal. These indicated that the interaction of neurons with astrocyte could affect cell amount and immune function of PBMC, then affecting the progression of PD.

Protective effect of trinosin on the liver of chronic mountain sickness rat model

SULAIMAN Xiakeerjiang, GAO Zhen, MAIMAITIYIMING Dilinuer, SHAN Lianlian, ZHANG Xiangyang, AIKEMU Ainiwaer
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 113-119. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.10.012
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Abstract ( 634 )
To study the protective effect of trinosin on the liver of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) rat model, CMS was induced in 50 of 60 SD rats,which were randomly divided into CMS model group, nifedipine control group, high, medium, low dosage trinosin groups and blank control group (10 each). Fifty rats were in low pressure oxygen cabin for 30 days except for the blank control group. After continuous gavage administrationfor 15 days according to their weights,we tested the indexes of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), homocysteine (Hcy), interleukin- 6 (IL- 6), C- reactionprotein (CRP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH- PX), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST). The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the CMS model group and nifedipine control group had higher levels of PAP, Hcy, IL-6, CRP, MDA, ALT and AST (P < 0.05), but lower levels of SOD and GSH-PX (P < 0.05), indicating the rat liver was damaged under hypoxic condition. Compared with the CMS model group, the high dosage trinosin group had lower levels ofHcy, IL-6, CRP, MDA, ALT and AST (P < 0.05), but higher levels of SOD and GSH-PX (P < 0.05), indicatinghigh dosage of trinosin had protective effect on the liver of CMS rat model.
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 628 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 729 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 871 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 122-122.
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Abstract ( 691 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 123-123.
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Abstract ( 734 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 125-125.
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Abstract ( 132 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 126-126.
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Abstract ( 275 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (10): 127-127.
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Abstract ( 726 )

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