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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 11
13 June 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 819 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 120-120.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 121-121.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 124-124.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 128-128.
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Abstract ( 755 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 701 )
Articles

Simulation of continuous droplet impinging on solid surface based on SPH method

PAN Jianping, ZENG Qingyun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 13-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.001
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Abstract ( 629 )
In order to study the continuous droplet impinging on solid surface, a pure Lagrange and meshless method, namely the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used. The spreading, rebounding and splashing processes of the continuous droplet impinging on solid surface are simulated with the SPH, and the results are compared with experiments. It is shown that in the continuous droplets impinging on solid surface, there are many uncertainties with respect to the free surface of droplets. The effects of the secondary droplets and the Weber numbers might be the main factors that influence the impinging diffusion of droplets. The secondary droplets help the droplet spreading and splashing. With the increase of the Weber number, the dimensionless diameters of continuous droplets change faster. The simulation results truly reflect the impact process of droplets, to provide a reference for simulation analysis of similar impinging problem.

Distribution of the collapse columns in coal fields of Shanxi Province and its genetic models

PENG Jichao, ZHANG Yu, HU Sherong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 17-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.002
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Abstract ( 335 )
By collecting massive amount of data from local coal fields in Shanxi Province, a map of the distribution of the collapse columns in this area is generated. The distribution of the collapse columns is discussed combined with the data of coal geology and hydrogeology, as well as the formation condition of the collapse columns. The collapse columns are mainly developed in such areas: 1) near the margin of the basin, such as Datong basin and Qinshui basin; 2) the area with river and karst spring, for instance, Xishan of Taiyuan, Huozhou and Yangquan areas; 3) the area along the Shanxi graben system. According to the tectonic evolution and the formation condition of the collapse columns in Shanxi Province, the following conclusions are made. The formation of the collapse columns is controlled by the tectonic movement and its tectonic condition which is"Two uplift-Two tectonic inversion". During the uplift, the karst well development and the formation mechanism of the collapse columns are combined with the hydrothermal dissolution, the vacuum corrosion and the gravitational collapse. During the tectonic inversion, the stability of the layer above the karst is destroyed and the formation mechanism of the collapse columns is combined with the gravitational collapse and the circulation collapse. This study may help discover the distribution law of the collapse columns in deeper layers, and has the theoretical and practical significance concerning the coal mine safety and effectiveness.

Sedimentary characteristics and genetic mechanism of sublacustrine fan in the second member of Liushagang formation of the Fushan Sag

LIN Zhengliang, LI Hongjing, MA Qinglin, LI Yuan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 23-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.003
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Abstract ( 306 )
By comprehensive use of drilling data, analysis assay, core data, etc., the sedimentary characteristics of sublacustrine fan in the second member of Liushagang formation in the western area of Fushan Sag, Beibuwan Basin are studied. Through drilling calibration and with the seismic attributes analysis, the spatial distribution of sublacustrine fan is described in detail. The research shows that the sublacustrine fan formed along the side of slope belt, and was controlled by the faulted slope break background formed by synsedimentary faults. The slumps of the northern braided delta front were transported via multi-fault-terrace to the lake bottom and the sublacustrine fan was formed. The fan was with the characteristics proximal to source area, and of multi-superimposed development. They were formed during the late of the lowstand period, including the turbidite and slump types. The trigger mechanism of the fan is the intensive volcanic activities within the sag. There are thick dark mudstones in the upper and the lower parts of the fan, which constitute the main source rocks in the sag and are significant for petroleum exploration.

Sand body and fluid prediction based on pure seismic information

XI Cheng, SHI Zejin, WANG Changcheng, LI Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 29-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.004
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Abstract ( 258 )
According to the characteristics of the lateral heterogeneity geological changes of channel sand body, this article uses the pure seismic information, in which low frequency information is well preserved, to predict the sand body and fluid by extracting pure seismic amplitude information by doing relative impedance inversion and using the low-frequency incremental attribute. According to the prediction results of sand body and fluid, well location optimization can be performed. Five wells were suggested and four of them had high yields. The research result can be used as a basis for the next step of the production of the oil field well deployment, and it also can be popularized in similar geological conditions blocks.

Productivity prediction model and analysis of horizontal well in fractured heavy oil reservoir

GAO Ying, ZHU Weiyao, QIN Shenggao, YUE Ming, ZHANG Xueling, LIANG Shoucheng
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 34-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.005
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Abstract ( 260 )
Based on the dual fractal dimension in the fractal theory, the linear density of fractures and the equivalent permeability are characterized by the fractal dimensions of the fracture width and the tortuosity. The seepage field around the horizontal well bore is divided into two regions: the inner seepage region and the outer elliptical nonlinear seepage region. A mathematical model for the two-region coupling steady flow is established based on the conservation law of mass and the motion equation, and the productivity equation is obtained. It is shown that the larger the fractal dimension of the fracture width, the greater the linear density of the fractures, and the larger the equivalent permeability. The greater the tortuosity fractal dimension, the lower the equivalent permeability. Increasing the horizontal well length can have a great impact on the productivity improvement. As the power- law exponent increases, the influence on the productivity of the horizontal well grows, when the power-law exponent n is greater than 0.75. The increase of the threshold pressure gradient leads to a larger decrease rate of the productivity.

Combined extraction of rare metals Ga-Nb-REE from the fly ash

LIU Huidong, TIAN Heming, ZOU Jianhua
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.006
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Abstract ( 374 )
Alkali sintering-multistep leaching experiments are carried out to extract the rare metals Ga, Nb and REE (rare earth elements) from the fly ash in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) generated from the Anwen Coal-fired Power Plant in Chongqing, Southwest China. It is shown that, the roasting of the CFB fly ash with 1.5 times Na2CO3 under 860℃ for 30 minutes, followed by the water leaching (Solid/Liquid (S/L)=1:10; 90℃; 2 hours) extraction of Ga and the acid leaching (HCl solution, 6 mol/L; S/L= 1:20; 60℃; 2 hours) extraction of REE, can achieve extraction rates of 84.70% and 80.07% for Ga and REE, respectively. The leaching rate of Niobium (Nb) enriched in the acid leaching residue, is lower than 1% in the above two steps. Adsorption and desorption experiments of Gallium from the Ga-rich water leaching filtrate using the D201 ion exchange resin and NH4Cl solution (0.5 mol/L) are carried out both under a temperature of 40℃. The adsorption rate (27.99%) and the desorption rate (37.33%) of Ga are unsatisfactory. The conditions of the follow-up experiments would be adjusted in order to enhance the separation and extraction effect of Ga. The extraction process of Nb from the acid leaching residue and the separation of REE from the acid leaching solution also need to be further studied. With the above combined extraction technology for Ga, Nb, REE and subsequent studies, a high value-added fly ash product is expected. The environmental pollution pressure caused by the Anwen fly ash might be alleviated.

Prediction of water-reducers influence on strength of backfill body using GA-SVM model

ZHANG Qinli, LI Hao, LIU Jixiang, LIU Qunwu, CHEN Qiusong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 44-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.007
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Abstract ( 316 )
To improve the working performance of filling slurry, increasing strength and density of backfill body is a research direction of mine filling method. Filling ratio experiments showed that adding appropriate amount of water reducers during the preparation of the filling material could increase the compressive strength of the filling body. In order to obtain economic and efficient water reducers and parameters, four kinds of water reducers, i.e., naphthalene, amino, wood, and calcium binding aliphatic were used for new filling materials. A match experiment with certain mine backfilling materials was carried out, and a GA-SVM prediction model was established to optimize the selection. The four kinds of water reducers were used as the input data and the 28 days compressive strengths of filling body were confirmed to be the synthesized output data. Some training and validating samples were established through indoor experiment; a support vector machine (SVM) regression model was established. Then, the model parameters were optimized through the genetic algorithm (GA). The results show that the best tailing concentrations of the four kinds of water reducers were 0, 0.35%, 0.30%, and 0.60%, and that the compressive strength of filling body could be 4.20 MPa. Compared with the experiment results, the relative error of the prediction result can be controlled within about 1%. This model provides a new method to optimize sedimentation parameters.

Numerical investigation of impact erosion in liquid-solid two-phase flow of the backfilling pipe

GUO Jiang, ZHANG Bixiao
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 49-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.008
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Abstract ( 284 )
Based on engineering fluid mechanics and the mechanical model of particle transportation, discrete particle model and ductile impact erosion model were applied for investigating pipe impact erosion influenced by slurry characteristics in complex backfilling pipeline in a mine, aiming to study the impact erosion mechanism of backfilling pipe during transportation. The results show that pipe impact erosion was largely influenced by slurry velocity, viscosity and particle size, while slightly influenced by particle shape. At high flow velocity, compared with straight pipe, in which the erosion zone is distributed relatively uniformly in the pipe wall, the bended pipe had the most serious impact erosion zone with the maximum erosion value in the range of 15°-30°and 60°- 75° at low flow velocity, the main impact erosion zone transferred to the exit of the bended pipe. The erosion increased with increase of particle size when the particle had a small diameter, but decreased when the particle reached the diameter of 600 μm.

Erosion characteristics and quantitative calculation of Y-type gas production wellhead

AI Zhijiu, MENG Zhangjie, CHAI Xiwei, CHAI Xijun, CHEN Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 54-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.009
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Abstract ( 200 )
In an application of nitrogen unbalanced drilling technology and coiled tubing technology to one domestic oil field, integrated wellhead of drilling and well completion was adopted. Because of the large gas flow in the process of drilling and well completion, the high-speed flow carrying rock particles led to erosion of the wellhead and the decline of bearing capacity of wellhead, resulting in increasing risk of well control. This paper combines the erosion simulation and quantitative calculation to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the gas flow characteristics of Y-type gas production wellhead and the relationship between the defect depth and time. Safety times in production for different Y-type gas wellheads are calculated to provide a theoretical basis for high pressure application of integrated wellhead. It is shown that under the same condition, erosion depth increases with gas production and decreases with the increasing wellhead pressure.

A new type of structural material S280

ZHONG Ping, ZHANG Yeqin, ZHONG Jinyan, LIU Mutong, XIAO Kui
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 59-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.010
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Abstract ( 236 )
A highly alloyed ultra-high strength stainless steel S280 has been in use for many years. After quenching and aging, the microstructure of S280 is composed of highly dislocated lath martensite and some carbides which strengthen the alloy. The steel enjoys excellent combined mechanical properties, the typical mechanical property values are as follows: the ultimate strength of 1920 to 1930 MPa, the plane fracture toughness KIC of 95 to 100 MPa √m. The corrosion resistance of the new ultra-high strength steel S280 is much better than that of AerMet100 and 300M in the NaCl solution. The steel S280 can meet the requirements of aerospace applications, and be widely used for the high strength parts with corrosion resistance.

Effects of diamond arrangement on drilling performance

ZHANG Wenjiao, QU Yandong, KONG Xiangqing, YANG Kaihua
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 63-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.011
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Abstract ( 345 )
The study of the relationship between diamond macro arrangement in drill bit and drilling performance is helpful for the design of orderly arranged diamond drill bit as well as for getting better understanding of fracture mechanism of the rock. ANSYSLSDYNA was used to simulate the rock drilling using flat impregnated diamond drill bit with three kinds of diamond arrangements, namely curved arrangement, ray arrangement and uniform arrangement. The effects of diamond arrangement on the drilling performance were observed. Indoor drilling tests were conducted on the brazed diamond drill bits with the aforementioned structures. The results showed that drill bits with curved arrangement of diamond had the best performance, followed by that with uniform arrangement of diamond, and finally that with ray arrangement. The results of indoor drilling tests are in perfect accord with those from numerical simulation.

Track planning for unmanned aerial vehicles based on improved PH curves

LIU Yonglan, LI Weimin, XIAO Jinke, LÜ Chengzhong, XU Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 69-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.012
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Abstract ( 381 )
Track planning is one important factor of UAV mission planning. To aim at the shortage currently existing in track planning, a method of track planning based on improved PH curves is proposed. The characteristic of PH curves' continuous curvature is combined with the fast search of particle swarm optimization algorithm, by which choosing PH curves' control point is optimized. The optimal PH path that avoids the obstacles in the environment meets the constraint of maximum curvature, and continuous curvature can be obtained quickly. Simulation results show the validity of the method.

Application of APVI/II flight procedure based on combined navigation of Beidou II and baro-altimeter

HUANG Jin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 75-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.013
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Abstract ( 876 )
APVI/II flight procedure is to rely on a satellite positioning system to provide navigation guidance instead of relying on the ground navigation aids. China has built its own Beidou II satellite navigation system, but the current vertical navigation accuracy has not reached the requirements for APVI/II procedure. Therefore, integrating the Beidou II satellite positioning and barometric altitude improves the Beidou II vertical altitude accuracy to satisfy APVI/II operation requirement. Global networking construction of Beidou system will be completed in 2020. Its GEO satellite sends satellite-based enhancement signal, which enables wide application of APVI/II. This paper analyzes the algorithm and safety of the flight procedure based on combined navigation of Beidou II/barometric altitude, demonstrating the feasibility of application of Beidou II system in APVI/II flight procedure in China.

Research on a Y type double inflow double outflow valveless water piezoelectric pump

WANG Hongchen, YANG Li, ZHANG Limin, WANG Guiwen, DONG Jingshi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 79-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.014
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Abstract ( 330 )
To increase the quantity of flow for the piezoelectric pump with single input channel and single output channel of Y type, a valveless piezoelectric pump with double input channels and double output channels in Y type is presented. The design and working principle of the pump are described. The central displacement of the actuator and the volume variation for the pump are analyzed according to the dimensions, coordinates and the mechanical model of the piezoelectric vibrator. The quantity of flow for the double Y channel piezo- pump is calculated and contrast experiments for the single and double Y channel piezo- pumps are presented. Both theoretic and experimental results have shown that the efficiency and flow rate of the double Y channel piezo-pump are greater than those of the Y single channel pump.

The effect of abnormal savda munziq on hepatocarcinoma cell morphology of abnormal savda rat

WANG Yanjiao, ABDUWAYIT Resalat, UPUR Halmurat, HELIM Resalat, ABDUREYIM Ayupjan, BAKRI Iskandar
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 84-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.015
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Abstract ( 572 )
To find how the abnormal savda munziq affects the hepatocarcinoma cell morphology of abnormal savda rat, rats were under the stimulations of dry cold environment and dry cold feed and abnormal physical stimulation to establish a model with the abnormal savda according to Uyghur medicine theory. They were raised by sterilized edible water with 0.1 mg/mL of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) solution to establish the hepatocarcinoma model. The rats were treated with high and middle and low doses (6.0, 3.0, 1.5 g/kg) in three groups during the whole period. There were the abnormal savda and HCC model group, low dosage group, middle dosage group, high dosage group, normal control group, and HCC control group, with 24 rats in each group. The animals were anesthetized and killed at the 20th week, then HE staining and observation of morphological characteristics of livers were performed. The results revealed the followings: Albeit no significant differences were found between low dosage group and model groups in morphology, compared with the model groups in high dosage or middle dosage, hyperplasia of connective tissue decreases and the degree of interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells reduced significantly, cell edema alleviated, reductions of organelle nonuniform, glycogen and mitochondria were significant in the model group. Our findings indicate that the abnormal savda munziq can depress the transformation of hepatocyte to hepatocellular carcinoma in the process of chimeric rats.

PROMETHEE method for hesitant fuzzy multi-criteria decision making based on possibility degree

FENG Xiangqian, TAN Qianyun, ZHANG Huarong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 90-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.016
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Abstract ( 277 )
For hesitant fuzzy multi-criteria decision making problems, the concept of the possibility degree of the hesitant fuzzy elements is introduced and the PROMETHEE method based on the possibility degree is proposed. First, a comparison formula for the hesitant fuzzy possibility degree based on the probability criterion of a uniform distribution is derived, and its properties are shown. Then, a novel method of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic multi-criteria decision making is developed based on the idea of PROMETHEE, in which the multiple steps may be integrated into one formula to simplify the computational process. Finally, the rationality and the feasibility of the method is verified in an illustrative example.

Log mining, behavioral analysis and improvement of government website search system

YE Xiaorong, SHAO Qing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 94-102. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.017
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Abstract ( 286 )
In this paper, secondary development was conducted on the search system of one e-government website by adding the log mining module, behavioral analysis module and system improvement module, to improve the search quality and optimize website content. Log mining, processing and analysis of user behaviors have been achieved in the improved search system. The log mining module is able to record, filter and identify the query log. The behavioral analysis module analyzes the characteristics and rules of user behaviors from three aspects including the query process, clustering analysis and hotspot query words, and obtains the results of weights of the webpage and hotspot query words. The system improvement module makes the query results more precise, provides new function of search hotspot and personalized webpage, improves the content of e-government website, and exchanges the data with public opinion system. In this way, the search system and e-government websites will provide users with better service.
Reviews

Reservoir stimulation in hot dry rock resource development

WANG Guiling, MA Feng, LIN Wenjing, ZHANG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 103-107. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.018
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Abstract ( 688 )
As a clean renewable resource, hot dry rock is widely distributed in China. Based on preliminary estimation, the available hot dry rock resources buried beneath the earth surface between 3 and 10 km account for 90% of the total geothermal resources. However, it is challenging to get these resources efficiently. The key technology for development of these resources is reservoir stimulation, which should guarantee a large reservoir volume for heat exchange, and the extraction well should keep sufficient flow rate and be sustainable for long-term heat extraction. This paper summarizes research progress of reservoir stimulation and related key technologies in world hot dry rock stimulation projects, aiming to promote the development of hot dry rock resources and research of related technologies in China.

A review on CO2 geological storage technologies and chemical behaviors of isotope in salty water layer

LIU Zijian, ZHANG Nan, ZHANG Fengjun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 108-113. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.019
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Abstract ( 310 )
Deep saline aquifer is a major geological storage site for CO2. The geochemical behaviors of deep saline aquifers differ each other due to their different geological backgrounds and geochemical environments in their geological histories. This paper reviews the research progresses on geological storage space and storage capacity, types of geological storage and chemical behaviors of isotopelabeled CO2 in saltwater layer. It is shown that though current researches on CO2 geological storage have made progresses in phenomenon experiments, simulations and field experiments, many theoretical and technical problems of the behaviors of CO2 after injecting underground remain unresolved. The choice of monitoring methods for CO2 geological storage mainly depends on the specific site condition and risk profile. Future technological developments may focus on the evaluation of storage site and monitoring technologies of reservoir response.
Focus

Reflections on earth science development trend: Geodynamics and formation mechanism of superlarge mineral deposits

LIU Guanglian, ZHANG Aikui
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 114-119. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.11.020
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Abstract ( 719 )
Earth science has been profoundly transformed in the direction of system science. Grasping the development trend of earth science is helpful for understanding the general direction of earth science research. This paper inquires into the trend of earth science development, focusing on two frontier issues in earth science, geodynamics and superlarge deposits. Geodynamics is pivotal for studying earth formation and evolution, including lithospheric plate dynamics, mantle dynamics, core dynamics and core- mantle dynamics. The key to geodynamic studies is the power source of earth, involving integrity of the whole earth and interactions of earth spheres. Superlarge deposits, especially non- conventional ones, are formed with specific factors under specific conditions. The formation mechanism of superlarge deposits is also related to the interaction of earth spheres. Based on discussion of the aforementioned issues, earth science is considered to develop toward holistic and systematic orientation. Studies of a single earth sphere cannot meet the requirement of earth science development. Earth science research needs to be oriented toward systemization.
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 694 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 650 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 776 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 122-122.
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Abstract ( 607 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 123-123.
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Abstract ( 776 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 125-125.
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Abstract ( 688 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 126-126.
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Abstract ( 378 )
Science and Technology Fund

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (11): 127-127.
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Abstract ( 1034 )

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