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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 15
13 August 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 506 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 103-103.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 104-104.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 107-107.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 112-112.
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Abstract ( 725 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 632 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 646 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 650 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 12-13.
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Abstract ( 853 )
Exclusive

Precision cancer medicine: Concept, technology and perspectives

HANG Bo, SHU Yongqian, LIU Ping, WEI Guangwei, JIN Jian, HAO Wenshan, WANG Peijun, LI Bin, MAO Jianhua
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 14-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.001
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Abstract ( 1301 )
Precision medicine is defined as an approach to personalized diagnosis and treatment, based on the omics information of patients. Human cancer is a complex and intrinsically heterogeneous disease in which patients may exhibit similar symptoms, and appear to have the same pathological disease, for entirely different genetic reasons. Such heterogeneity results in dramatic variations in response to currently available anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, oncology is one of the best fields for the practice of precision medicine. The availability of omics-based big data, along with rapid development of biotechnology, paves a way for precision medicine. This article describes the concept, foundation and significance of precision medicine, and reviews the recent progresses in methodology development and their clinical application. Then, various current available biotechniques in precision medicine are evaluated and classified into indirect (biomarker-based detection and prediction) and direct (patient-derived cells and tissues for direct anti-cancer drug screening) categories. Finally, perspectives of precision medicine as well as its facing challenge are briefly discussed.
Articles

Evaluation of phosphogypsum filling water quality using game theory and matter-element analysis theory

LI Xibing, FAN Yun, LAN Ming, SHANG Xueyi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 22-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.002
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Abstract ( 445 )
To study the influence of phosphogysum filling on the ground water environment, a phosphogysum filling water quality combination weighting-matter-element evaluation model is established based on game theory and matter-element analysis theory. 9 influence factors are chosen as evaluation indexes which include mercury, total arsenic, sexivalent chromium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, total phosphorous and fluoride. Game theory is included in the model where combination weighting is adopted to avoid the defect of traditional matter-element evaluation methods that use a single weight. A comprehensive evaluation on the seeping water quality from different sampling points is conducted based on "Quality Standard for Ground Water". The results are as follows. Firstly, the matter-element analysis method based on the game theory includes combined influences from different evaluation factors on the water quality, the evaluation result being more comprehensive, systematic and factual. Secondly, water quality in the unfilled region reaches water quality level 1, a lower water quality is found in the filled region, and the circulating water has the lowest water quality in this study, i.e., water quality level 5. Finally, a phosphogysum filling water environment protection scheme is proposed and scientific evidence is provided for the safety in mines and environmentally friendly mining.

ELM prediction of critical flow velocity in large-capacity long self-flowing transportation of super fine tailings slurry

WANG Xinmin, ZHANG Guoqing, ZHANG Qinli, LI Shuai
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 27-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.003
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Abstract ( 158 )
To accurately predict the critical flow velocity of Sijiaying's large-capacity super fine tailings slurry in long self-flowing transportation, a new ELM prediction model is developed. The ELM model takes pipe diameter, grain diameter, slurry density and volume concentration as input factors, and critical flow velocity as output factor. By comparing it with traditional BP neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs), the superiority of ELM in improving precision and efficiency is demonstrated. It is revealed that ELM model's relative error is blow 5%, which is lower than BP model's 9.56%. With the hidden node number being 110 and 200, the training times of ELM are 0.02 s and 0.05 s, respectively, which both are far below the corresponding SVM's 0.04 s and 0.095 s. The random choice and good adaptability of hidden node number makes the new ELM model superior in improving precision and efficiency.

Characteristics and oil and gas enrichment pattern of turbidite reservoir in the middle of third member of the Shahejie formation in Niuzhuang sub-sag

CUI Jie, ZHANG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 32-37. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.004
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Abstract ( 335 )
The characteristics of turbidite reservoir and oil and gas distribution and enrichment pattern in the middle of third member Shahejie formation in Niuzhuang sub-sag have been investigated through core observation, thin section identification, property test and fluid inclusion analysis using drilling core, logging and oil testing data. The turbidite reservoirs in the study area are mainly lithic arkoses, containing fine sandstone, with middle-high porosity and low permeability. The space types in the reservoir are mainly primary pores, and secondary pores also develop, with moderate compaction dominated by carbonate cementation and siliceous cementation in the secondary place, and feldspar dissolution is the most common dissolution. The oil content has no apparent corresponding relationships with physical properties of the reservoir, but is controlled comprehensively by buried depth, formation pressure and physical properties of the reservoir. In plane, oil layers have a ring type distribution around hydrocarbon generation center and oil source fault, and areas with high formation pressure and oil source fault development are the favorable places for oil and gas enrichment. Oil and gas accumulation is determined by the spatial allocation relationship of hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, and the timing allocation relationship of thermal evolution of hydrocarbon source rock and physical evolution of the reservoir. Reservoirs of shallow buried depth are oil-free, whereas those in deep areas tend to be oily. Reservoirs of similar buried depth tend to be oil-free in areas with poor physical properties and oil-rich in areas with good physical properties, and oil is likely to accumulate in fault-abundant and overpressured formation areas.

Comprehensive benefits evaluation of CO2 displacement in tight oil reservoirs exploitation

LIN Lijun, YANG Zhengming, WANG Xuewu, HE Ying, LIAO Zuocai
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 38-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.005
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Abstract ( 329 )
Tight oil reservoir has big geological reserves but its exploitation is of high cost, so how to achieve economic exploitation has gradually been received attention. In this paper, we take the C oil field as an example, and adopt the combination well spacing of vertical and horizontal wells to establish a geologic model, then discuss the exploitation effect of CO2 displacement under five different permeability levels and eight different row spacing distributions. Finally, we deeply analyze the economic benefit of CO2 displacement under different oil prices with the help of economic evaluation criteria. Through the above research, we obtain the following conclusions: When the permeability is between 0.1×10-3 μm2 and 1×10-3 μm2, the C oil company should choose the CO2 displacement exploitation rather than waterflooding under the current oil price; although decreasing the row spacing will enhance oil recovery, it will decrease the economic benefit, so the C oil company should adopt the appropriate row spacing according to their own current situation; prolonging the productive life will increase the production rate of recovery, but that is no good to the economic benefit, so the C oil company should choose the appropriate productive life by self-condition.

273 K isothermal evaporation of the Zabuye salt lake brine, Tibet, China

JIANGXu, NIE Zhen, ZHOU Baohua, BU Lingzhong, WU Qiang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 43-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.006
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Abstract ( 551 )
Zabuye salt lake is located in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau, China. With its brine rich in mineral resources, the lake is of great economic value. Those resources can be effectively exploited using solar pond technology. As a foundation for solar pond technology, evaporation experiments on salt lake brine were conducted in this study. An isothermal evaporation experiment was carried out at 273 K on the winter brine from Zabuye salt lake. According to the experiment, the crystallization path of salts has been obtained, and the precipitation sequence during 273 K isothermal evaporation was halite (NaCl), mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O), natron (Na2CO3·10H2O), sylvite (KCl), and zabuyelite (Li2CO3), which is different from that of the metastable phase diagram of the quinary system Na+, K+//Cl-, CO32-, SO42-—H2O at 298 K. In the experiment, lithium was enriched effectively in the brine, with its concentration up to 3.66 times compared with that of the original brine. Potassium precipitated as sylvite in the late stage of the evaporation process, and the content of potash reached 17.13% in solid phases. Although borax precipitated during the whole evaporation process, high grade borax cannot be obtained in the experiment. The data of the isothermal evaporation experiment at 273 K can be used as the foundation to exploit the Zabuye salt lake brine resources.

Effects of adding nano-Al particles into electrolyte on the performance of micro-arc oxidation coating formed on pure titanium

ZHOU Linyan, GU Yajing, OUYANG Xiaoqin, XIAO Shenghui, ZHANG Binbin, WAN Ying, WANG Chunxia, FENG Changjie
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 50-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.007
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Abstract ( 251 )
The micro-arc oxidation technology is employed to prepare an Al2O3/TiO2 composite coating on pure titanium with Al particles addition into electrolyte. The surface morphology of micro-arc oxidation composite coating is investigated by Quant 200 SEM. The properties of Al2O3/TiO2 composite coating are investigated in terms of the hardness and abrasion resistance of micro-arc oxidation with different Al particle concentrations. The results show that micro-arc oxidation technology can be introduced to prepare Al2O3/TiO2 composite coating. The addition of Al particle into the electrolyte can improve the compactness, abrasion resistance and hardness of micro-arc oxidation composite coating. The termination voltage of micro oxidation increases from 460 V to 515 V, the hardness increases from 811 HV to 1232 HV, the average friction coefficient decreases from 0.68 to 0.57, and the wear weightlessness reduces from 1.0 mg to 0.58 mg when the content of Al particles is 3 g/L.

Experimental condition optimization of bacterial desulfurization based on path coefficient analysis

AI Chunming, WU Aixiang, WANG Hongjiang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 54-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.008
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Abstract ( 258 )
Acidophilus bacteria desulfurization column leaching is used to explore the effect of the desulfurization of metal sulfide ore and the feasibility of inhibiting the spontaneous combustion. Uniform design is used in the experiment in which factors investigated include initial pH value, liquid arrangement intensity and average particle size of ore. Regression analysis of desulfurization rates by liquid shows that the liquid arrangement intensity influences the desulfurization most, the ore particle size less, and the pH value the least. Liquid arrangement intensity and pH are positively correlated with the desulfurization rate, but ore particle size negatively. The result of SEM shows that the sulfur content of the ore surface is reduced to 15% or less from about 43%. The ore flammability is lower, with the surface desulfurization rate being 65%.

Effects of parameters setup on energy consumption of air conditioning systems

QIU Zejing, LUO Chao, MA Zhitong, ZHENG Xin, DUAN Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 60-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.009
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Abstract ( 222 )
An office building in Shenzhen was selected as an example to study the effects of indoor temperature setup, air supply temperature difference, cold and cooling water temperature difference on energy consumption of air conditioning systems, based on the established physical and mathematical model. The results show that indoor temperature setup has relatively large influence on the air conditioning load and energy consumption. With indoor temperature setup increasing by 1℃, the air conditioning load decreases by 5.6%, and Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) increase by 7.2% and 4.75% . With air supply temperature difference increasing by 1℃, the air conditioning load decreases by 4%, and COP and EER decrease by 5.2% and 4.64%. With cold water temperature difference increasing by 1℃, the cold water transfer factor increases by 7.85%. With cooling water temperature difference increasing by 1℃, the cooling water transfer factor increases by 8.68%.

Research and application of downhole electromagnetic relay transmission technology

HU Yuefa, YANG Chunguo, GAO Bingtang, WANG Lishuang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 66-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.010
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Abstract ( 259 )
In the drilling process real-time downhole engineering parameters and geological parameters can be obtained by the MWD technology which has greatly promoted the development of drilling technology. Electromagnetic MWD technology has unique advantages, but it is vulnerable to formation resistivity restriction and results in a smaller depth of electromagnetic signal transmission. Therefore, the transmitted depth of electromagnetic signal is the greatest constraint in the development and application of EM-MWD. The relay transmission technology is the best way to improve the transmission depth of electromagnetic signal. For this reason, in this paper theoretical research of electromagnetic signal transmission characteristics is conducted, and the electromagnetic excitation mode of repeater and the antenna structure are determined. Then an electromagnetic signal relay transmission model and a repeater development program are established. On this basis, the repeater and application experiments are developed. Experimental results show that the downhole electromagnetic relay transmission technology can improve the depth of EM-MWD. The transmission depth can be increased more than 70 percent by each repeater. Therefore, the use of EM-MWD is greatly expanded.

Research on time-delay compensator for active vibration control based on MCS algorithm

MA Tianbing, ZHANG Jianjun, DU Fei, QIAN Xingguang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 72-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.011
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Abstract ( 258 )
The minimal control synthesis (MCS) algorithm is a kind of self-adaptive control algorithm, which has been widely used in automatic control field because of simple calculation, intuitive structure, good non-linear ability and the ability against antiinterference. In order to solve the problem of time-delay of vibration active control, which may cause the algorithm's instability problem, a time delay compensation factor is designed for improving the traditional MCS algorithm on the basis of the Smith predictor using the time-delay compensation principle. Then a controlled manipulator commonly used in industrial production is chosen for building the dynamic model and simulation study. The result shows that the improved MCS algorithm can not only overcome the problem of delaying buckling in an active vibration control strategy, but also has a good effect of delaying compensation control.

Numerical study on the stability of different front window angle cars in crosswind

ZHANG Furen, ZHANG Jinlong, QU Xian, LE Huan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 76-81. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.012
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Abstract ( 285 )
The aerodynamic characteristics of cars driving in crosswind are studied by numerical simulation. A real car model is established and the front window angle is modified by the three-dimensional software of UG. Then numerical simulations for these models are taken using the computational fluid mechanics method. The characteristics of the body outflow field in crosswind are analyzed as well as the influences of different front window angles on the aerodynamic characteristics. As a result, the body outflow field becomes no longer symmetrical and this leads to aerodynamic side force coefficient up to 0.927, aerodynamic drag coefficient increased by 38.5% (up to 0.392) and aerodynamic lift coefficient increased by 15.6% (up to 0.281). Meanwhile, the airflow separation from the bottom at the rear is postponed and the number of vortexes is reduced since the front window angle becomes larger. The areas of positive and negative pressures are smaller. When the front window angle is 35°, there is the best aerodynamic characteristic in crosswind.

Influences of butt joint on the behavior of stressed laminated timber deck of modern timber bridge

FU Meizhen, LIU Yongjian, YAO Xiaorong, LI Na, ZHANG Zhiwei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 82-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.013
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Abstract ( 274 )
For the problem that the behavior of the stress laminated timber (SLT) deck of modern timber bridge is influenced by butt joint, the design methods of Ritter and Crews and the specifications of Canada, Europe and America are discussed, and the calculations contrasted through a practical engineering project. The results show that butt joint may reduce the strength and stiffness of the SLT deck, and that reasonable butt joint frequency and spacing should be considered in order to ensure the safety of the structure. The Ritter's design method is relatively safe among the various kinds of design methods and can meet the specifications. Therefore, it is recommended because the application of SLT deck in China is still in its early stage at present. The SLT deck has a larger emergency capacity of stiffness than that of strength under dead load and live load, the calculated value of bending stress is 69.2% of the design value, and the calculated value of deflection is 90.7% of the permissible value using the Ritter's design method, so the stiffness requirement should have a priority in the design consideration.

Therapeutic effect of Haizao Yuhu decoction with/without seaweed and liquorice anti-drug combination on goiter rats in preferred dosage conditions

LIU Yunxiang, ZHONG Gansheng, LIU Haiyan, LI Yiwen, OU Lina, ZHAO Tong, LIU Ming
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 87-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.014
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Abstract ( 338 )
To explore the therapeutic effect of HaizaoYuhu decoction with or without seaweed and liquorice anti-drug combination on goiter rats, Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. The blank group were gavaged normal saline, the other groups were fed propylthiouracil copy goiter model,with the Euthyrox as a positive control drug. Continuous administration of drugs was used once a day for 28 days To detect the thyroid coefficients, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH and TRH, the thyroid tissue morphology in each group was observed by HE staining. The result showed that the thyroid coefficients of each group are lower than those of the model group and have a significant difference (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, T3 and T4 of each group have a trend of increase but no significant difference. TSH of each group decreases obviously and has a significant difference (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, TRH of full formula group decreases obviously and has a significant difference (P<0.05), full formula group without seaweed, full formula group without liquorice, full formula group without seaweed and liquorice have a trend of decrease but no significant difference. According to the result, Haizao Yuhu decoction full formula group can better recover goiter and callback indicators in preferred compatibility proportion conditions than full formula group without seaweed, full formula group without liquorice, and full formula group without seaweed and liquorice.
Reviews

Progress on research and application of extreme wettability surfaces

SONG Jinlong, LU Yao, HUANG Shuai, LIU Xin, XU Wenji
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 92-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.15.015
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Abstract ( 438 )
Based on the related theories of extreme wettability surface, the fabrication methods of the extreme wettability surface are reviewed, analyzed and summarized. The application of the extreme wettability surface to self-cleaning, anti-fogging, anti-icing and-frosting, corrosion resistance, response switch, oil/water separation, water equipment with high loading force, no loss transport of liquid, directional transport of liquid, and materials with blood compatibility is discussed The problems needed to be resolved for real industrial applications of the extreme wettability surface are pointed out. Fabrication of superamphiphobic surface with good mechanical property and high bearing capacity of static/dynamic pressure is the main trend.
Special Column of Science

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 101-102.
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Abstract ( 338 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 105-105.
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Abstract ( 622 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 106-106.
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Abstract ( 721 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 108-109.
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Abstract ( 652 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 110-110.
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Abstract ( 520 )
Science and Technology Fund

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (15): 111-111.
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Abstract ( 860 )

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