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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 16
28 August 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 374 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 6-6.
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Abstract ( 650 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 666 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 10-11.
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Abstract ( 624 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 104-104.
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Abstract ( 749 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 105-105.
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Abstract ( 706 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 108-108.
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Abstract ( 681 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 112-112.
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Abstract ( 782 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 720 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 680 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 758 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 763 )
Exclusive

An Interpretation of“Another Earth”——Kepler-452b found by NASA

WANG Liang, WU Xiaoshu
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 13-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.001
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Abstract ( 900 )
NASA announced the discovery of a new habitable extra-solar planet Kepler-452b, which has the closest match of planet characteristics to Earth. Its host star has a spectral-type of G2, which is the same as the sun. We introduced the latest progress made by the Kepler telescope, and made a detailed explanation of the detection, validation, and habitability of Kepler-452b.
Special Issues

An update on genome research of biofuel sorghum (Sorghum bicolour)

LUO Hong, ZHANG Limin, XIA Yan, WU Xiaoyuan, WANG Cong, LIU Zhiquan, JING Haichun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 17-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.002
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Abstract ( 551 )
Research of sorghum genomes has been accelerated by the development of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics toolsand has accumulated a large amount of genomics data. This review describes the structural and sequence characteristics of sorghum genome and discusses its evolutionary background from the perspective of comparative genomics. We also highlight new findings obtained through exploiting the genomic informationand future directions of sorghum genome research to develop it into a dedicated biofuel crop.

Genomic evidence of the origin and domestication of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.)

JING Chunyan, ZHANG Fumin, GE Song
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 27-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.003
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Abstract ( 477 )
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated about 10000 years ago and has been one of the most important food crops in the world. Owing to the genetic differentiations within and between rice and its wild ancestral species, the origin and domestication of rice have been controversial for a long time. Many previous investigations, especially recent genomic evidence suggested that two subspecies of rice originated independently from early differentiation populations of the wild ancestral species while quite a few domesticated genes associated with important agricultural traits might occur only in one subspecies at first and spread into the other one by introgression. Therefore, the origin and spreading mode of domesticated genes is crucial to understanding of the domestication of rice. Fortunately, the recent development of high-throughput genomic sequencing technologies and related approaches of population genomics offer us an opportunity to research population genetic differentiations within and between rice and its wild ancestral species at the genome scale, which has been the key to reveal the mystery of rice origin and domestication.

Advances of technologies and research in plant metabolomics

LIU Xianqing, LUO Jie
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 33-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.004
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Abstract ( 226 )
Metabolomics is an emerging omics technology after genomics and proteomics and it tends to qualify and quantify all metabolites of small molecular weight in an organism of cells. Plant metabolites are extremely diverse in terms of their classes, content, and functions, and plant metabolomics therefore is an important part of metabolomics. Plant metabolites are the readouts of physiological status of a plant, and the investigation of the change and regulation of plant metabolites as a whole will lay a foundation for the dissection of plants' growth, development and their interactions with the environments. Plant metabolomics has been widely applied in investigating the accumulation pattern of metabolites and the underlying genetic basis, the identification of genes involved in metabolism, and is one of the hotspots in modern plant biology. In this review, we summarize current development of the technical platforms in plant metabolomics, as well as its applications in plant biology.

Correct judgment method of contaminated plants in hybrid wheat using SSR markers

LIU Lihua, PANG Binshuang, LIU Yangna, LI Hongbo, WANG Na, ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Xiaoxu, ZHAO Changping
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 39-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.005
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Abstract ( 298 )
Correct judgment of contaminated plants in wheat hybrid is the premise for accurate identification of seed purity. In this study, taking the hybrid wheat variety "Jingmai1100" as an example, we propose a method for judging contaminated plants in hybrid wheat using SSR markers on the basis of analysis of 180 wheat hybrids: 1) Not less than five polymorphic SSR markers on parents of different genotypes should be screened; 2) Polymorphic SSR primers are used to detect the genotype of parents and hybrids, and each plan's genotype is recorded according to the recording principle of hybrid genotypes; 3) True hybrid genotypes should be judged accurately, with the following principle: No matter whether there is the homozygous locus in parents, as long as the individual has both parents' genotype, it should be regarded as a true hybrid genotype; 4) Judgment of contaminated plants in hybrids: When the individual is different from true hybrid on multiple SSR loci, it could be regarded as a contaminated plant.

Genome-wide analysis and identification of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase gene family in maize (Zea Mays.L.)

ZHANG Zhongbao, LI Xianglong, WU Zhongyi, WEI Jianhua
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 46-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.006
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Abstract ( 191 )
On the basis of maize genome database and bioinformatics method, we obtained maize ITPK family genes and their positions on chromosome and duplication information. ITPK proteins were classified according to their phylogenetic relationship. A total of 6 ZmITPK genes were systematically identified from maize and located on 4 chromosomes. Multiple alignment and motif display results indicated that all ZmITPK proteins share two or three conserved ATP-grasp-4 domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ZmITPK family could be divided into three groups. Microarray data showed that the ZmITPK genes had tissue-specific expression patterns in various maize developmental stages and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results indicated that ZmITPK2 and 3 were induced by drought stress in the maize inbred lines Han21 and Ye478. While, all of ZmTIFY genes were not induced by three pathogens.
Papers

Geochemistry of trace elements in the anthraxolite from Xiangxi

ZHANG He, WANG Chongjing, CHEN Jianming, CAO Daiyong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 51-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.007
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Abstract ( 344 )
The Element XR was used to analyze the geochemical characteristics of elements in the anthraxolite. The results show that the element abundance of anthraxolite is apparently different from that in shale and surrounding rock. Furthermore, V(1039.40 μg/g), Ni(345.90 μg/g), Sr(227.67 μg/g) and Mo(64.70 μg/g) have significant enrichment. Analysis of the occurrence and enrichment pattern of the four elements shows that the enrichment of V and Ni in anthraxolite is the comprehensive effect of three aspects, including the trace element characteristics in crude oil, strong chelation and evolution of crude oil. With the absolute content of the element not reduced or even incremental, the loss of other elements and organic matter extrudes the relative enrichment of V and Ni to some extent. Mo shares the similar occurrence and enrichment mechanisms with V and Ni. The concentration of Sr may be related to the dissolution of Sr in the stratum during the migration process of crude oil, and the organic complexation in the heat evolution process of oil in the reservoir, but it may also be related to the unclear geochemical behavior of the element Sr.

Transport-transformation, toxic effect and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water

LIU Xiaohui, DONG Wenping, QIAO Guangming, WANG Yufan, WANG Weiliang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 56-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.008
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Abstract ( 465 )
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised significant concern in recent years for their persistent input into the ecological environment and potential threat to human health. Research of PPCPs in water started late in China, and is far from extensive, compared with that in western countries. This paper reviews the sources and types of PPCPs and discusses their transport-transformation in water, toxic effect and risk assessment. Suggestions are provided for the environmental risk assessment of PPCPs at present, aiming to effectively reduce potential risks of PPCPs and provide reference for further in-depth research.

Phenomenon of fire in the initial stage of fuel dispersion

DU Haiwen, HAN Tianyi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 61-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.009
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Abstract ( 182 )
During fuel dispersion of fuel air explosive, the fuel may be ignited or deflagrated, which significantly decreases energy output of the fuel air explosive. In this paper, numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to obtain the temporal and spatial distribution of deflagration gaseous products, fuel and air to investigate factors related to fire phenomenon in the initial stage of fuel dispersion. The results show that the amount of deflagration gaseous products is the main factor influencing the fire phenomenon in the initial stage of fuel dispersion. For the liquid-solid fuel formula, the optimal fuel-to-explosive mass ratio is in the range of 0.95%~1.7%.

Numerical simulation of damage effect of hyper velocity weapon on ground target

DENG Guoqiang, YANG Xiumin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 65-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.010
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Abstract ( 246 )
The material is described by a fluid-elasto-plastic theory model, and the impact effects of HVIW are analyzed by SPH meshless method. The numerical simulation results are as follows. With impact velocity increasing, solid penetration, semi fluid penetration and fluid penetration are successively present. In the fluid penetration step, the direct penetration depth will substantially decrease and trend to constant, and the total crater depth will increase very little. Around the projectile front face a static high pressure field will form, accompanied by a dynamic stress wave filed mainly by plastic shock wave. A double wave shape will appear in subsonic fluid penetration, but a strong shock wave, similar to air blast, will appear in hypersonic fluid penetration. However, it attenuates rapidly, with an attenuation index up to 2.5, and the higher impact velocity, the larger attenuation index.

Evaluation of expressway safety system using set pair theory and variable weight principle

CUI Hongjun, LI Lin, LI Hao, DU Zitao, MA Xinwei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 72-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.011
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Abstract ( 168 )
According to the current situation that highway accidents happen frequently, it is necessary to evaluate the highway safety system in order to effectively reduce the incidence of traffic accidents and establish a sound mechanism for highway management. Through the identical-different-contrary analysis of every safety index of the system and the connection degree, an evaluation analysis method using set pair theory is presented. Considering the actual situation of expressway safety system, a punishment-excitation variable weight determination method is also given. By combining the set pair theory and calculating the connection degree, a set pair variable weight comprehensive evaluation method is proposed. Taking the evaluation of the Huji Expressway Safety System for example, the rationality of the evaluation method is verified. The method is simple in calculation and the evaluation results are objective and scientific, and it has great application and popularization values on the safety evaluation of highway systems.

Serum metabonomics research of hyperuricemia rat model

SHERIP Dildar, ZHAO Long, ZHANG Xiangyang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 77-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.012
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Abstract ( 392 )
The serum metabonomic variation in hyperuricemia rats was investigated in order to explore the application of metabonomics in research of hyperuricemia. The animals were divided into two groups at random, i.e., the normal group (n=10) and the model group (n=10). The rat model was treated with yeast extract powder(YEP)as 21 g·kg-1·d-1 and OA paired 20 g/L mother liquor with sterile distilled water. The two group's serum was collected and its 1H nuclear mannetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra was acquired. Compared with the normal control group, the model group′s glycoprotein, pyruvic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine were all increased, however, formaldehyde, VLDL, unsaturated fatty acid, and acetone were reduced. Significant changes in serum metabonomics found in the hyperuricemia rat models might reflect to a certain extent the pathological changes of hyperuricemia rat models.
Reviews

Current linear regulators of grid-connected photovoltaic inverter: A review

WAN Xiaofeng, HU Hailin, YU Yunjun, XIN Jianbo
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 81-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.013
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Abstract ( 380 )
The grid-connected photovoltaic inverter is the interface between photovoltaic energy sources and the grid, and it plays a key role in controlling the quality of grid at the point of common coupling. The current control methods of the PV grid-connected inverter is numerous, and there are a variety of current regulators, but there is a big difference between the regulators in control structure, realization method and effect of control. The PV grid-connected inverters are overviewed in the view of the current linear regulator. The main linear current regulators: proportional-integral, proportion resonance and deadbeat regulators are compared and evaluated in terms of advantage and disadvantage of algorithm, complexity of realization, real-time performance, steady-state error, etc. Some possible future research fields of the linear current regulator are discussed.
Focus

Historical evolution, incompatibility arguments and suggestions on “eighteen incompatible medicaments”

OU Lina, ZHONG Gansheng, LIU Haiyan, CHEN Shaohong, LIU Jia
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 88-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.014
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Abstract ( 731 )
This paper reviews the antagonism theory and "eighteen incompatible medicaments", as well as the relevant provisions about them in the Pharmacopoeia of China. It provides suggestions for further research concerning the "eighteen incompatible medicaments" through analysis of their historical evolution and the status quo. The incompatibility arguments of the "eighteen incompatible medicaments" are discussed from aspects of literature review, experimental studies and clinical reports. It is found that clinical studies focus on retrospective summary of clinical reports, analyzing clinical safety evaluation and rules of compatible applications. Experimental studies are mostly carried out from aspects of chemical material foundation, pharmacology and toxicology.

On critera for identification of adaptation to climate change

LI Kuo, XU Yinlong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 95-101. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.16.015
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Abstract ( 638 )
Adaptation to climate change is an important measure to cope with climate change problems at present. Critera for identification of adaptation to climate change are the foundation to draw up lists of adaptation technologies, which are the important component of methodology on adaptation to climate change. Based on the analysis of climate change and its impact, the connotations of climate change problems that human face are identified. According to the definition of climate change, the core criterion for identification is confirmed, which is the pertinency of climate change problems. The key rests with how to distinguish the adaptation aspect from routine aspect of technologies. On the other hand, adaptation technologies and mitigation technologies are compared. It is an important criterion to discriminate between mitigating effects and adapting effects. According to the above critera, the existing adaptation technologies in different regions and different fields can be recognized and selected. It can provide guidance for the research on adaptation technologies to climate change in future, and establish a solid base for constructing the technology system of adaptation to climate change.
Special Column of Science

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 102-103.
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Abstract ( 301 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 106-106.
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Abstract ( 706 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 107-107.
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Abstract ( 752 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 109-109.
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Abstract ( 792 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 110-110.
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Abstract ( 708 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (16): 111-111.
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Abstract ( 706 )

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