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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 17
13 September 2015

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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 3-3.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 10-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 104-104.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 105-105.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 108-108.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 112-112.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 677 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 763 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 780 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 826 )
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Progress of global satellite remote sensing of atmospheric compositions and its' applications

ZHANG Xingying, ZHOU Minqiang, WANG Weihe, LI Xiaojing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 13-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.001
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Abstract ( 1043 )
Along with the global Climate change, the air quality has attracted a great attention from scientists and governments, especially, the atmospheric components, which not only have an impact on the local environment but also have a potential feedback on the global climate change. Recently, the satellite remote sensing, as a new-technical tool for the atmospheric science, plays an important role in monitoring the atmosphere. Here, the status, the progress and the prospective of the international and domestic atmospheric satellites are reviewed in detail, mainly focusing on the aerosols, the trace gases, and the greenhouse gases. In addition, the progress of the occultation and the limb observations of space-based remote sensing is also discussed.

Distribution and variation of atmospheric total column ozone based on satellite remote sensing data

ZHANG Yan, WANG Weihe, ZHANG Xingying
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 23-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.002
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Abstract ( 698 )
Global and regional distributions and variations of the total column ozone are studied based on the total column ozone (TCO) data during the period from 1979 to 2014 obtained with different space-borne instruments including TOMS (the total ozone mapping spectrometer) series, OMI (the ozone monitoring instrument) and TOU (the total ozone unit) series. The distributions and variations of the total column ozone over the globe and some key regions are considered. The TCO differences of distributions and variations (DAV) between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are analyzed and the possible impact factors on the TCO DAV are identified. Special attentions are focused on the ozone variations in China, the Tibetan Plateau and the Polar regions. The monitoring of the Antarctic ozone hole and the Arctic ozone is also conducted using the FY-3 satellite data. It is shown that the TCO DAV sees a very nonuniform nature in the middle and high latitudes and in polar regions. The ozone loss over the polar regions continues to exist. In the Tibetan Plateau, the TCO variation is larger than in other regions of the same latitude. The mechanism of the ozone variation over the Tibetan Plateau is complicated.

Global change of aerosol optical depth based on satellite remote sensing data

LI Xiaojing, GAO Ling, ZHANG Xingying, ZHANG Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 30-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.003
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Abstract ( 406 )
The aerosol type and the concentration variation are the hotspots related to the climate change, the environment and the human-health. The AQUA/MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product issued by NASA is used to analyze the temporal and spatial changes of the multi-yearly and annual mean AODs in the whole world and in China for diagnosing the aerosol events that directly emitted or affected, such as the haze, the dust storm or the volcano eruption. The results show that the eastern Asia, the Indian peninsula, the northern and central Africa and their adjacent ocean areas have relatively high AODs. The significantly changing areas include the east area of Siberia due to the smoke by fire and the Amazon rainforest for bioaerosols by vegetation emissions. These high and sensitive AOD regions are closely related with the aerosol emission by natural and human activities, and they are also influenced by weather and terrain. In China, the regions in the eastern China with the yearly mean AOD higher than 0.5 are the haze weather areas. In particular, the Huanghe-Huaihe River basin, the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin and the central part of China have the highest mean AODs of 0.8-1.0, where serious haze weather often occurs. The highest AOD is caused by the highest emission from the industrial and agricultural productions, constructions, and heavy transportations. So, based on the reference the AOD (background 0.2, natural events impact 0.15, human living impact 0.15) obtained from the aerosol distinctive area, the annual mean AOD of 0.5 is defined as a threshold for delimiting the haze area and the pollution control district. In China, the environmental improvement depends on the cutting back the industrial emissions in the regions with annual mean AOD higher than 0.5, and the middle cutting ratio is 33% and the averaged cutting ratio is 26.5%.

Spatiotemporal variations of NO2 and NO2 over global region and China by OMI observations during 2004-2014

YAN Huanhuan, ZHANG Xingying, WANG Weihe
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 41-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.004
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Abstract ( 374 )
The satellite remote sensing technology provides an unprecedented advantage for continuous, large spatial and shortrevisit columns during 2010-2014 over Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui and Urumchi are increasing due to increased vehicles and the immature flue gas denitrification technology, while the NO2 columns over Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guizhou and Guangzhou are decreasing due to the strong control for pollution emission from large coal-fired power plants and the effective flue gas desulfurization. On a global scale, the Eastern China, the Eastern United States, Netherlands, Germany, Italy and South Africa have high NO2 levels, while the Eastern China, the Eastern United States, South Africa and India have high NO2 pollution levels. Compared with those in 2005-2009, the NO2 columns during 2010-2014 over the Eastern China, Poland, Teheran, Baghdad, Kuwait, Riyadh, New Delhi, Dacca and Santiago are increasing, while the Eastern United States, the Pearl River Delta, Shanghai, Japan, Spain, Portugal, Northern Italy and Dubai see an obvious decreasing trend. The NO2 columns during 2010-2014 over the Northern China, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River Delta, the Eastern United States, Mpumalanga are decreasing obviously. The trend with the NO2 columns higher that that of NO2 is found in cities of Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Urumchi, New York, Cologne and Moscow. monitoring for atmospheric NO2 and NO2. This paper presents the spatial and temporal distributions of NO2 and NO2 from OMI over Global region and China during 2004-2014. The results show that the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River Delta, Urumchi, Shenyang and Xi'an have high NO2 columns, while the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River Delta, Sichuan and Chongqing have high NO2 columns. Compared with those in 2005-2009, the NO2 columns during 2010-2014 over Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui and Urumchi are increasing due to increased vehicles and the immature flue gas denitrification technology, while the NO2 columns over Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guizhou and Guangzhou are decreasing due to the strong control for pollution emission from large coal-fired power plants and the effective flue gas desulfurization. On a global scale, the Eastern China, the Eastern United States, Netherlands, Germany, Italy and South Africa have high NO2 levels, while the Eastern China, the Eastern United States, South Africa and India have high NO2 pollution levels. Compared with those in 2005-2009, the NO2 columns during 2010-2014 over the Eastern China, Poland, Teheran, Baghdad, Kuwait, Riyadh, New Delhi, Dacca and Santiago are increasing, while the Eastern United States, the Pearl River Delta, Shanghai, Japan, Spain, Portugal, Northern Italy and Dubai see an obvious decreasing trend. The NO2 columns during 2010-2014 over the Northern China, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River Delta, the Eastern United States, Mpumalanga are decreasing obviously. The trend with the NO2 columns higher that that of NO2 is found in cities of Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Urumchi, New York, Cologne and Moscow.

Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide distribution in global and China-based regional scales from satellite remote sensing data

ZHANG Yeping, ZHANG Xingying, GAO Ling
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 52-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.005
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Abstract ( 149 )
With the monthly data of the TERRA/MOPITT CO column from March 2000 to December 2014, the temporal and spatial distributions and the change of the carbon monoxide content in atmosphere in the global and China-based regions are analyzed. It is shown that the CO column in the northern hemisphere is significantly larger than that in the southern hemisphere. The east China is the highest value zone of CO content over the whole world, meanwhile, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Greenland, and the Andes along the coast of the west of South America are the low value areas for the CO column. The temporal distribution of the global CO column sees a regular pattern of seasonal fluctuations, the CO column in the northern hemisphere reaches the peak in spring of the northern hemisphere and falls down to the lowest value in winter of the northern hemisphere. Similarly, the CO column in the southern hemisphere ascends to the peak in spring of the southern hemisphere and descends to the lowest value in winter of the northern hemisphere. One sees a regular pattern of monthly variation for Global CO column, with two periods of the highest and the lowest CO columns, respectively. The highest value of CO column appears from March to April and from September to October The lowest value appears in July and January. The CO column in China also sees a significant character of spatial and temporal distributions, the CO column in the east of China is much higher than that in the west of China. The high value areas of the CO column in the east of China mainly locate in the south of Hebei Province, the west of Shandong Province and the east of Henan Province. The period of the highest CO total column in China is spring, however, the periods of the lowest value of CO total column are asynchronous in the south of China and the north of China. The lowest value in the south of China occurs in summer and the lowest value in the north of China occurs in autumn. The long-term temporal change of the CO column in the global and China-based regions are also analyzed. It is demonstrated that the CO columns in the global scale and in China since 2011 are generally in a descending trend. Among the eight economic zones of China, the descending trends of the coastal economic zone in the east of China and the south of China are significant, and the rate is about 1% per year, the economic zone in the northwest of China has the smallest decreasing rate.

Global and China-based regional near-surface distributions of CO2 concentrations based on GOSAT L4B data

WANG Shupeng, ZHANG Xingying, WANG Weihe, FANG Li
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 63-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.006
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Abstract ( 206 )
CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas and the main cause of the global warming. In this paper, GOSAT L4B data sets of CO2 concentrations near the ground are used for the analysis of the global and regional distributions of CO2. It is found that the ground CO2 concentration is significantly higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. The yearly CO2 concentration growth rate is about 2 ppm. The global high-value areas are in places of large populations and developed economics in East Asia, Russia, Europe and the United States. In the Northern Hemisphere seasonal distributions of CO2 concentrations near the ground, the highest CO2 concentration appears in winter and the lowest in summer. CO2 concentration near ground in China has significantly high values in North China and the Yangtze River Delta region, with obvious seasonal variations, with the highest monthly average value of 396.5 ppm in April and the minimum value of 382.8 ppm in July.

Temporal and spatial distributions of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals based on the observation with the aura microwave limb sounder

ZHOU Lihua, ZHANG Xingying, ZHANG Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 69-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.007
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Abstract ( 191 )
OH radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere, and play important roles in the formation and the conversion of other gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the research progresses of OH radicals at home and abroad. The temporal and spatial distributions and the changes of the upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH radicals are analyzed based on the MLS (microwave limb sounder) satellite data,especially, the vertical distributions of OH radicals over China. It is shown that there are obvious seasonal and diurnal changes of the OH radical volume mixing ratio in the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere. Compared the OH radical volume mixing ratio over China with the zonal mean values of the same latitudes, it is found that the most of the observed volume mixture ratios of the day and the night are similar at the same latitudes, and there is no obvious difference between them. The profiles over some areas of China reflect the detailed vertical distributions of the day and the night. In a word, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the OH radical concentration in the middle atmosphere can obviously seen. The OH radical volume mixture ratio is also affected by the solar activity, and the annual variation is not significant.
Articles

Groundwater vulnerability to contamination near the river:A case study of the second Songhua River

YE Xueyan, YOU Chuanyu, DU Xinqiang, WANG Lixue
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 78-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.008
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Abstract ( 277 )
The groundwater vulnerability is a basic issue for the groundwater to be protected and used reasonably, so it is one of the hot topics in the hydrogeology field. The DRASTIC method and the GOD method are used to assess the groundwater vulnerability of the second Songhua River basin, and then the assessment is evaluated by using the measured values of Cr. The results show that the DRASTIC method is better, and it could reflect realistically the vulnerability of the researched area. The groundwater environment near a river is vulnerable and easy to be polluted. In order to take advantage of the groundwater resources effectively, the well of the water source should be constructed far away from the high-risk areas.

Experimental study on coal-bed methane displacement by carbon dioxide injection

WANG Jin, WANG Yanbin, FAN Jingjing, LIU Chenglong, XUE Pei
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 84-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.009
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Abstract ( 632 )
This study used the cylinder raw coal samples from Tunliu coal mine and Sihe coal mine to carry out the displacement of CH4 with CO2 experiment under the different injection pressures. Analyzed the gas adsorption characteristics in the experiment and the influence of injection pressures on the replacement of with CO2, and proposed that replacement effect was better at low pore pressure. The results are as follows. Adsorption capacity of CO2 is stronger than that of CH4 under the same condition in the process of displacement; CH4 volume ratio decreases with injection pressure decreasing, while CO2 volume ratio shows the opposite trend; When the confining pressure is 8 MPa, the CH4 output ratio reduces with linear relation and the replacement ratio of CO2 reduces with exponential relation as injection pressure increases, and indicating that the replacement is better at low injection pressure in this displacement experimental; The replacement effect of meager lean coal sample is better than anthracite under the same conditions in this experimental.

Hyperglycemia induced generation of ADTIQ and dopamine metabolism imbalance

XIE Bingjie, WU Hanyan, DENG Yulin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 90-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.010
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Abstract ( 302 )
Recent studies show that for the type 2 diabetes the Parkinson's disease is more likely to be developed than for normal diabetes, and the 1-acetyl-6, 7-dihydroxyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (ADTIQ) could be a key factor associated with the diabetes and the PD. In the present study, the SH-SY5Y cells are used as a model to investigate the ADTIQ generated conditions. It is found that the hyperglycemia could induce the increase of the endogenous methylglyoxal, which might react with the dopamine to generate the ADTIQ. Again, the hyperglycemia leads to a reduction of the dopamine in the SH-SY5Y cells and the plasma of the type 2 diabetic rats, and an increase of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the dopamine transporter (DAT). So, the hyperglycemia induces the generation of the ADTIQ and the dopamine metabolism imbalance. The generation of the ADTIQ could play a key role in increasing the risk of the PD in patients with diabetes.

Binding interaction of carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex and medicinal molecules by Scatchard method

HU Yinghui, DAI Rongji, AN Jing, QIAN Qingqing, DENG Yulin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 96-101. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.17.011
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Abstract ( 306 )
In this in vitro study, carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex was prepared to simulate the in vivo interactions between drug molecules and carbonic anhydrase. The complex was prepared by ultrasonic cell disruption, mixing and extrusion. Zeta potential and the size of carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex were -45.06 mV and 99.43 nm, respectively, indicating this complex is stable and suitable to apply for capillary electrophoresis. The complex was further added in running buffers as pseudo stationary phase in capillary electrophoresis, and 4-carboxybenzenesulfonamide (containing 2.2×10-3 mol/L 4-methyl-2-pentanone as EOF marker) was added as a sample to establish the model of the interaction between the drug and carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex using Scatchard method. The binding constant in this model was 1.172×104mL·g-1. Among the 12 drugs studied using this method, caffeic acid, L-ascorbic acid, 2,4-dichloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid, and 4-chloro-3-sulfamoyl benzoic acid had strong interactions with carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex, having higher binding constants than that of 4-carboxybenzenesulfonamide. Ferulic acid, aristolochic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, and nicotinic acid had weak interactions with carbonic anhydrase-liposome complex, having lower binding constants than that of 4-carboxybenzenesulfonamide. This method can be used to check interactions between carbonic anhydrase or other targets and drug molecules rapidly and effectively, reducing the development cycle of drugs.
Special Column of Science

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 102-103.
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Abstract ( 123 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 106-106.
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Abstract ( 645 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 107-108.
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Abstract ( 616 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 109-109.
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Abstract ( 634 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 110-110.
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Abstract ( 559 )
Science and Technology Fund

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (17): 111-111.
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Abstract ( 874 )

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