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   Science & Technology Review
2015, Vol.33, No. 24
28 December 2015

Articles
Reviews
Focus
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 3-3.
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Abstract ( 570 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 10-10.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 120-120.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 121-121.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 124-124.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 128-128.
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Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 129-129.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 700 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 766 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 759 )
Forum

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 849 )
Special Issues

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 13-14. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.001
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Abstract ( 370 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 15-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.002
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Abstract ( 238 )

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 20-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.003
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Abstract ( 430 )
Articles

Degradation of lignocellulose for preparing reducing sugar catalyzed by acidic cation exchange resin

WANG Jingyun, YUAN Yuguo, FU Nihong, ZHOU Mingdong, ZANG Shuliang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 23-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.004
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Abstract ( 1411 )
In order to learn the degradation pattern of different components of lignocellulose, we used self-made acidic cation exchange resins to catalyze the hydrolysis of straw, straw pretreated with steam-explosion and microcrystalline cellulose in this study. The effects of catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and time on the degradation of straw were studied in detail, and the results of cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis were compared. The results indicated that using resin as the catalyst and ionic liquid [Amim]Cl as the solvent, the straw can be converted with the highest TRS yield of 92% under the conditions of mlignocellulose:mcat=1, and reaction temperature between 140 and 160℃ under microwave-assisted heating for 20-40 min. Hemicellulose is more susceptible to degradation compared with cellulose. The xylose yield was 47.3% when the reaction was heated at 140℃ for 30 min and the glucose yield was 45.8% when the reaction was heated at 160℃ for 40 min. The degradations of different lignocellulose were investigated. The results indicated that the acidic cation exchange resin is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of lignocellulose and the result of microcrystalline cellulose degradation is the best.

Influence of temperature on the replacement of CH4 by supercritical CO2

FAN Jingjing, WANG Yanbin, WANG Jin
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 28-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.005
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Abstract ( 1220 )
An experiment for replacement of CH4 by CO2 was conducted under different temperatures (35, 45, and 55℃) and the same injection pressure (12.7 MPa) using ISO-300 isothermal adsorption experiment instrument for studying the influence of temperature on the replacement of CH4 by supercritical CO2. Coal samples of Tunliu mine were used as the research subjects. The results show that during the replacement and desorption process, the adsorbed phase concentration of supercritical CO2 increased with increase of the temperature and decrease of the pressure, while the concentration variation of CH4 was in an opposite way. Under supercritical conditions, laboratory measurement of the adsorption capacity is the adsorption of Gibbs. The relationship between real adsorption capacity and pressure accords with the Langmuir adsorption curve. With increasing pressure, the difference between calculated and Gibbs adsorption capacity increased. The CH4 desorption rate at unit pressure drop reached the highest at the temperature of 35℃ under the experiment pressure drop, and when the temperature was close to the supercritical temperature, the replacement effect of supercritical CO2 reached the best.

Investigation and analysis of present situation of wetlands in Hetao irrigation area in Inner Mongolia

HU Yang, LI Qingfeng, DONG Yi, YANG Yafei, ZHAO Bowen
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 34-40. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.006
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Abstract ( 1161 )
The Hetao irrigation area in Inner Mongolia has abundant and a great variety of wetland resources. However, in recent years, this area had different extents of degeneration and serious eutrophication and salinization due to human activities and their damage to the environment. Combining indoor remote sensing interpretation and outdoor survey, we investigated the present situation of wetlands in Hetao irrigation area. As per wetland formation cause, wetland water source supply and water discharge in this area, the wetlands can be classified into 7 types. It was found that the quantity and area of wetlands in this area had great relationships with the annual precipitation. In addition, the types of wetlands and surrounding vegetation in this area were relatively single, where 33 families and 81 genera of plants were found, totaling 123 varieties. The number of varieties of plants only accounted for less than 50% of the total number in this area, showing apparent regional characteristics.

Radiogenic heat production of rocks from Zhangzhou, Southeast China and its implications for thermal regime of lithosphere

WANG Andong, SUN Zhanxue, LIU Jinhui, HU Baoqun, WAN Jianjun, YANG Lizhong
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 41-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.007
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Abstract ( 1083 )
Rock density, radioelement content and rock thermal conductivity of rock from the ground surface and drilling holes within Zhangzhou region, southeast China were measured. The results show that the weighted mean value of rock density was 2.60 g/cm3, in good agreement with the average density of granite worldwide. The average radiogenic heat production of the investigated granite was 3.7 μW/m3, which is apparently higher than that of volcanic rock, mafic dykes and sedimentary rock from the same region. What is more, the main heat production was sourced from the decay of U and Th. The average rock thermal conductivity was 2.83 W/mK, approaching that of the middle-upper crustal rock. Our new data, together with previous geological, geophysical and geothermal data, indicate that the mantle contributes more heat flow than the crust to the surface heat flow, i.e., Qm/Qc>1, thus Zhangzhou region is a typical region with cold crust and hot mantle type lithospheric thermal regime.

Determination and characterization of T20 sequence boundary in PL14 in the south of Bodong sag

HUANG Shengbing, WU Keqiang, CHEN Shaoping, ZHANG Yang
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 46-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.008
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Abstract ( 1044 )
The south of Bodong sag is abundant in oil and gas resources, but its exploration lacks significant breakthrough, which might be due to unclear understanding of T20, the interface of neogene and paleogene strata. This paper determined and characterized the T20 sequence boundary applying regional control, single well analysis, classification and comparison, combined with seismic and logging data. The results show that the T20 sequence boundary should be raised to a set of weak amplitude wave group according to ancient biological, lithologic composition and stratigraphic contact relationship. The surface boundary was characterized by toplap, and located at the top of retrogradational parasequence set; meanwhile, ancient biological population and quantity were changed between the upper and lower strata. The surface characteristics were different from that of the other areas because of the difference in lithology and lithofacies between the upper and lower strata of the T20 sequence boundary.

Influence of different interwell connected pattern onprofile control of fractured-cave carbonate reservoir

JIN Fayang, LI Dong, WANG Neng, YUAN Chengdong, ZHAO Ya, SONG Wenjing
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 52-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.009
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Abstract ( 1215 )
Fractured-cave carbonate reservoir has strong anisotropism, complicated oil-water relationship and flow mechanism. Thus, the application of profile control in these reservoirs is less effective. In this study, we summarized four connecting models. On the basis of macro similarity of the reservoir property and referentiability of the connecting relationship, we designed two simplified physical models of the core, fractured-cave and fractured-net, to investigate the impact of different connecting models on profile control using polymer gel as the profile control agent. The experimental results demonstrate that in the two models, the water-free oil production period was short and the water ratio was close to 100% rapidly after water breakthrough. After profile control, both the water ratios of fractured-cave and fractured-net model were decreased. However, the water cut of fractured-net model was reduced more significantly compared with that of fractured-cave model. The increase of the water ratio for fractured-net model was slower in the subsequent water flooding. The water flooding recovery, ultimate recovery and improved oil recovery degree for the fractured-net model were all higher than those of the fractured-cave model. The role of polymer gel injection in adjusting injection profile and increasing swept volume was more apparent, and the effect of profile control was better.

Simulation of vehicle steering conditions

WU Liying, YU Qiang, XU Tongqiang, ZHANG Shuo
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 57-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.010
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Abstract ( 1054 )
To realize accurate simulation of vehicle steering conditions, we established an EPS test-bed consisting of an electric power steering system, steering resistance torque loading device and measurement & control system on the basis of the virtual interactive force between the tire and the ground. A double closed loop real-time control strategy was designed for improving the output precision of the servo motor torque. An anti-overrun control strategy was designed from software and hardware levels to guarantee security of the application process of the test platform. The simulation test of the EPS test platform was carried out on a vehicle in situ steering condition, and the hardware-in-the-loop experiment was carried out to verify the real-time performance of the experimental platform control system. The results show that the designed control system and control algorithm meet the real-time and accuracy requirements of simulation of vehicle steering conditions, and are able to provide a good test environment for development and debugging of EPS controllers.

Deformation behaviors and influence factors of high strength steel tailor welded blank in three point bending test

CHEN Shuisheng, SUN Dongji
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 64-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.011
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Abstract ( 1084 )
To understand the bending behaviors of the tailor welded blanks with the base materials of advanced high strength steel, three-point bending tests were conducted using experiment and the finite element method. A finite element model for the three point bending test was established for the tailor welded blanks. By comparing the load-displacement curve from the experimental results with the results from the finite element analysis, the maximum differrence was 10.94%, showing that the results from the finite element analysis well agreed with the test results. Based on the established model, the effects of the friction coefficient and the thickness ratio were probed. Results indicated that the uneven deformation and related weld-bead migration were observed. The influences of the friction between the tools and specimens and the thickness ratio were obvious on the bending behaviors. As the friction coefficient increased, the peak load and the maximum energy as well as the bending stress increased, while the weld-bead migration decreased first and then remained at a certain level when the friction coefficientdecreased to some extent. When the thickness ratio increased, the four aforementioned parameters increased with different degrees.

Anti-inflammatory, antitussive and expectorant effects of traditional Uyghur medicinal herb Hyssopus officinalis L. extract and its effect on asthmatic rats with airway inflammation

EKIM Mahsum, ENAYAT Xohrat, TAX Ayxam, YUSUP Abdiryim
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 69-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.012
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Abstract ( 1081 )
This paper studies the anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects of traditional Uyghur medicinal herb Hyssopus officinalis L. extract by supercritical CO2 fluid and its effect on pathological changes in lung tissue of asthmatic rats. The total number of cells and percentage of lymphocytes (Ly), eosinophils (Eos), and neutrophils (Neu) in BALF, the level of TGF-β1 in BALF and lung tissue were measured. The anti-inflammatory effect was studied by the external ear swelling of mice induced by dimethyl benzene. The antitussive effect was studied by the cough model induced by ammonia in mice. The expectorant effect was studied by a mouse model of phenoled test. They were sensitized with OVA, Al(OH)3 and DPT vaccine and then were challenged with inhalation of aerosolized OVA solution for preparation of the asthma model. The level of lung tissue and BALF TGF-β1 were determined with ELISA, and the total number of cells and percentage of Ly, Eos, and Neu in BALF were counted by light microscopy. The experimental results showed that the extract significantly inhibited xylene-induced ear edema in mice (P<0.05), reduced the number of ammonia spray-induced cough in mice (P<0.05), and promoted the phenol red excretion of the trachea (P<0.05), so that the latency was significantly prolonged in asthmatic guinea pigs (P<0.05) and a dose-dependent trend was shown. As compared with those of the asthma model group, the level of TGF-β1, total number of cells and percentage of Ly, Eos, and Neu in BALF and the level of lung tissue TGF-β1 were significantly lower in the treated groups (P<0.05). The results indicated that Hyssopus officinalis L. extract had outstanding anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects, and it inhibited secretion of TGF-β1, Ly, Eos, and Neu, reducing the airway inflammation of asthma.

Genetic polymorphism of 31 SNPs in PPARG gene and their correlation with type 2 diabetes in Kirgiz population

RUZI Zohra, SONG Manshu, NIZAM Yiliham, ZHAO Feifei, MAITIYUSUP Dolkun
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 75-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.013
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Abstract ( 834 )
The MALDI-TOF-MS(matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry)method was used for genotyping of SNP loci in PPARG gene, detection and analysis of 100 cases of(50 controls, 50 cases)unrelated Kirgiz populations, to investigate the relationship between the SNPs of PPARG gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)in Xinjiang Kirgiz population. The results showed that 23 SNPs have polymorphism(MAF≥0.05)among the selected 31 SNP loci. There were statistical differences in blood pressure, hip circumference, blood sugar, TH, and LDL between the case and control groups(P<0.01). There were significant differences in genotypes and allele frequency distribution of SNPs rs1801282, rs1899951, rs2881654, and rs2972162 between the case and control groups(P<0.05). Logistics regression analysis displays significant differences in allele frequency between the two groups (OR value is 2.639, 2.639, 1.774, 2.639, P<0.05). There were significant differences in genotypes frequency of SNPs rs1899951, rs2292101, rs2881654, rs6782475, and rs1801282 between the men and women control group(P<0.05). The results also showed that the PPARG gene SNPs rs1801282, rs1899951, and rs2881654 have correlation with type 2 DM in Xinxiang Kirgiz people.

Screening of quantitative diagnosis indices of typing abnormal Hilit syndrome in Uyghur medicine of 248 cases

MAITISIDIKE Ayinuer, AKELAMU Youlituzi, MUSHA Halida, ABUDULAIHAITI Wuerguli, UPUR Hamulati, AJI Rouzibake, AJI Mutalifuaili
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 83-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.014
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Abstract ( 732 )
Based on non-disease clinical diagnostic information, 248 patients with primary osteoporosis were selected in diagnosis specialist counseling to establish quantitative diagnostic criteria for abnormal Hilit typing in Uyghur medicine for primary osteoporosis patients. The selected factors were analyzed using multi-class logistic regression analysis, colinearity diagnostics, and principal component analysis. The contribution of various factors to the symptom was determined using modified multi-class logistic regression analysis. The chief and secondary symptoms of abnormal Hilit of primary osteoporosis were discerned by OR values. As a result, the meaningful symptoms were found in all the abnormal Hilit syndromes. The results show that the chief symptoms of the abnormal Savda type primary osteoporosis include obtuse pains in all arthroses, dark and gloomy complexion, dry and coarse skin with scales, dreaminess with nightmares, and depression. The secondary symptoms include bitter taste, dark red tongue, dark or gray tongue coating, dry and hardened feces, and thready and deep pulse. For abnormal Kan type primary osteoporosis, the chief symptoms include back and low-back aches, swelling pain in the limbs, flushed complexion, orange urine, dry and hot skin, heavy limbs, and thick and strong pulse. The secondary symptoms include sleepless, dry mouth, dark red tongue, and little tongue coating. For abnormal Balgham type primary osteoporosis, the chief symptoms include sore pains in the back, waist and limbs, seeking-warm, intolerance of cold, dark complexion, sticky mouth, low spirit and laziness to speak. The secondary symptoms include pallid complexion, indentation boundary of the tongue, sleepiness, numbness of limbs, and thick, deep, weak pulse. For abnormal Sapra type primary osteoporosis, the chief symptoms include burning or pricking pain in the bone, dry and hot skin, dry mouth, bittersweet taste, insomnia, frequent urine, and thready and tightened pulse. The secondary symptoms include slightly yellowish complexion, yellowish tongue coating, and night sweat. The establishment of the standards may provide references for clinical practice of traditional Uyghur medicine.

Comparative study of turbulence parameter calculation based on Thorpe analysis and vertical velocity fluctuation method

LIU Xiao, WANG Yuting
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 92-97. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.015
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Abstract ( 807 )
On the basis of the high resolution wind and temperature data observed by the radiosound on the Kexue #1 scientific observation ship during SCSMEX (South China Sea Monsoon Experiment) in 1998 (May 5-25, June 5-25), the turbulence parameters (kinetic energy dissipation rate ε and turbulence diffusivity K) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (TLS) are derived using the following two methods: Thorpe analysis, which calculates the turbulence parameters on the basis of the temperature data and Thorpe length LT, and the vertical velocity fluctuation method, which calculates the turbulence parameters on the basis of vertical velocity data and their fluctuations σW. The results from the two methods exhibit similarities in terms of the vertical structure and magnitudes of ε and K. In the respect of vertical structures, ε and K are relatively large above 10 km and below the tropopause (~17-18 km), no matter the averaged results are on a monthly or daily basis. By contrast, they are relatively small above the tropopause. The peak values of K derived using the two methods are both at around 15 km. The magnitudes of ε and K calculated using the two methods are both in the range of 10-6-10-2 m2·s-3 for ε and 0-10 m2·s-1 for K. The differences of the results from the two methods are that the turbulence parameters calculated by the vertical velocity fluctuation method are smaller than those by Thorpe analysis; the peak value of ε is at about 15 km according to Thorpe analysis, but at about 17 km according to the vertical velocity fluctuation method.
Reviews

Application of ionic liquids in thermochromic materials

YU Linpo, CHEN George Zheng
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 98-105. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.016
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Abstract ( 751 )
Because of existence of abundant hydroxyl groups, both of hydroxyly-3-methylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvent can react with the Ni(II) complexes showing thermochromism. This novel thermochromic system can be driven by the solar heat, and are sensible and environmentally friendly. The ILs-Ni(II)-complex-PVDF composite films are thermochromic with different nickel complexes. Cryo-solvatochromism in response to cooling from room temperature to well below 0℃ can be achieved in a 1-hydroxylalkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based ionic liquid, containing a Ni(II) complex and excess 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. This review presents the recent fundamental and application work on a number of thermochromic and cryochromic systems based on Ni(II) complex and Ionic liquids, including the 1-hydroxylalkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvent.

Research status and outlook of structure-soil-structure dynamic interaction in adjacent buildings

GAO Yanhua, SONG Junlei, PAN Danguang, WU Shunchuan
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 106-113. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.017
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Abstract ( 312 )
With the rapid development of urban construction, high-rise building groups have been gradually increasing, so the structure-soil-structure dynamic interaction in adjacent buildings becomes an increasingly important problem. This paper discusses the significance of structure-soil-structure dynamic interaction research and puts forward the concept of site-structure groups dynamic interaction. It also gives a detailed review of the research development and status quo from aspects of experimental studies, mechanical models, research methods and results. Finally, future research problems are presented as an outlook, which may provide a reference for further studies.
Focus

Security challenges for the mobile crowdsensing network

WANG Zhengqi
Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 114-117. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2015.24.018
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Abstract ( 765 )
As a new paradigm of sensing in the Internet of Things, the mobile crowdsensing network takes advantage of ubiquitous sensing device within a specific range to collect sensing data of individuals, situations and environments for a variety of applications. This paper introduces the current application development of the mobile crowdsensing network, analyzes the development trend of intelligent transportation services, infrastructure and municipal management, environmental monitoring, early warning, social relations and public safety, public health and medical services. Then it proposes a number of security challenges faced by the mobile crowdsensing network in the future, including user privacy protection, security of the sensing data and platform, the improvement of sensing quality and efficiency, and resources consumption optimization.
Special Column of Science

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 118-119.
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Abstract ( 130 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 122-122.
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Abstract ( 665 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 123-123.
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Abstract ( 771 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 125-125.
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Abstract ( 765 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 126-126.
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Abstract ( 644 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2015, 33 (24): 127-127.
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Abstract ( 785 )

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