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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 5
13 March 2016

Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Special Issues
Special Column of Science
Suggestion
Interview
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 673 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 5-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 10-11.
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Abstract ( 526 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 104-104.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 105-105.
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Abstract ( 580 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 112-112.
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Abstract ( 559 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 1-6.
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Abstract ( 599 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 589 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 556 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 12-13.
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Abstract ( 702 )
Special Issues

Astronomical Approach of Dark Matter Detection

SU Meng
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 14-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.001
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Abstract ( 757 )
Dark matter and dark energy are considered as the "two clouds of physics at the 21st century", among the frontier of fundamental physics and cosmology research. The breakthrough will significantly change our understanding of the Universe and the fundamental law of physics. Both United States and Europe have made increasing support for the research of dark matter and approved several mid-term and long-term plans of large projects. In the last several years, China has made significant progress on the detection of dark matter, in particular the development of Jinping Underground Laboratory, and the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) has been launched last December. DAMPEhas the potential to discover dark matter particle through indirect detection approach by observing the secondary particles from dark matter annihilation. In this article, we briefly introduce the history of dark matter concept and a summary of astronomical approaches to study dark matter.

Search for dark matter with Wukong, an introduction to the dark matter particle explorer

CHANG Jin, FENG Lei, GUO Jianhua, FAN Yizhong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 22-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.002
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Abstract ( 784 )
The study of dark matter is the current active subject of science research. There are three kinds of methods to detect dark matter particles which are direct detection, indirect detection and collider detection. The indirect detection of dark matter (DM) particles search the signals produced by DM annihilation or decay which are all kinds of excesses in the energy spectrum of CRs. The dark matter particle explorer (DAMPE) has already launched to space at December 27, 2015. It is the first science satellite in china and it has three advantages: large energy range, high energy revolution and strong background distinction. The mean scientific goals are dark matter indirect detection, cosmic ray physics and gamma ray astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce the structure of DAMPE, the advantage of DAMPE and the scientific goals of DAMPE.

Dark matter direct detection experiments in underground laboratory

ZHAO Wei, CHENG Jianping, YUE Qian
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 26-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.003
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Abstract ( 515 )
The research of dark matter is one of the most fundamental and challenging topics in the frontier of modern physics, which is significant to the development of cosmology and particle physics. The direct detection experiment of dark matter is one of methods to the research of dark matter, which is thought to be the most compromising. This paper represents: the dark matter detection methods, especially emphasizing on the principle of the direct detection; the main underground laboratories in the world; the typical direct detection experiments aiming at light and heavy dark matter respectively; the prospects of the next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments.
Interview

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 32-34.
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Abstract ( 632 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 35-37.
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Abstract ( 534 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 38-39.
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Abstract ( 525 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 40-41.
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Abstract ( 584 )
Special Column of Science

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 42-44.
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Abstract ( 583 )
Reviews

Comparison of typical remote sensing drought indexes and their adaptability in agriculture

SONG Yang, FANG Shibo, WEI Yaxing
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 45-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.004
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Abstract ( 1485 )
Of all the kinds of agro-meteorological disasters, drought is the main meteorological disaster affecting crop growth, the maximum damage to agricultural production. A trend of increasing drought in China has been observed due to the global warming. The paper reviews the latest progress in the drought indexes by remote sensing, combined with the characteristics of crop growth cycles, and compares the applicabilities of various drought indexes in different crop growth durations. It is concluded that the drought indexes which are closely related to the soil moisture index are suitable for the prophase of crop growth duration, such as the growth periods, in which the vegetation coverage is low, or not sealing ridge, or soil bareness. The vegetation morphological and physiological drought indexes are more suitable for the agricultural crop growth process, especially after the vegetation sealing ridge and other vegetation coverage higher periods. The applicability of any kindof comprehensive drought index is broad and can be improved to adapt to different crop growth durations, but a large number of parameters need to be calculated to ensure the accuracy, which limits theirs practical application.
Articles

Evaporite basin reservoir formation

ZHAO Xiaoqing, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 53-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.005
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Abstract ( 1117 )
Many of the world's large basins have evaporite distributions, and evaporite has a very close relationship with the capability of sedimentary basin. In order to clarify the influence of evaporite on the capability of sedimentary basin, this paper, through a large number of literature analysis, argues that lagoon and salt lake environment species can be used as the best parent material of hydrocarbon source rocks, and that under the unique action of "solar pool effect" in the evaporite basin, the organic matter can be effectively converted into hydrocarbon source rocks. It is analyzed that reservoir of evaporite considering its plasticity and liquidity can provide a good channel for the migration and accumulation of oil and gas. Also discussed is that the good sealing capacity of evaporite may provide a good trap for oil and gas occurrence. Eventually, the control mechanism of evaporite oiliness in sedimentary basin is pointed out.

Natural evaporation and crystallization of Bangor salt lake water in Tibet

YU Jiangjiang, ZHENG Mianping, WU Qian, WANG Yunsheng, NIE Zhen, BU Lingzhong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 60-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.006
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Abstract ( 1031 )
Considering the huge impact of global warming on lakes on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the serious lake desalination resulting from expanded lake area, the research on carbonate-type desalinated saline lakes is of great significance. Taking the carbonate-type salt lake of Bangor Lake as the research object, the on-spot natural evaporation experiment has explored the pH changes in lake water and the effect of alkali metal elements content on mineral separation under the guidance of 298 K metastable phase diagram of quinary system of Na+, K+/Cl-, SO42-, and CO32--H2O, Experimental results show that mineral deposits from desalinated lake water would be developed in a longer period in the context of natural evaporation. After a slow reduction process, the pH value of lake water is increased rapidly in the late stage of evaporation, which is mainly related to and positively correlated with the contents of CO32-, HCO3- and OH- in the lake water. Among the main alkali metal elements that affect the acid-base property of desalinated lake water, the role of Na exceeds that of K, followed by Li. Their corresponding minerals are also changed from neutral to alkali property; and the order of separated minerals is mirabilite, halite, aphthitalite, burkeite and trona. Based on the separation characteristics of different minerals, they can be recovered and extracted by stages, which is practically significant in the development of the salt lake resources.

Possibility of hot dry rock resources in Weishan volcano area of Wudalianchi

LI Shengtao, ZHANG Senqi, JIA Xiaofeng, TIAN Puyuan, JIN Xiaolin, ZHANG Chao
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 67-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.007
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Abstract ( 1122 )
As an important part of geothermal resources, hot dry rock(HDR) is regarded as a clean energy for future, with a great research value and development prospect. In the present stage, HDR study in China should not only be carried out across the country, but also be focused on some key spots for breakthrough. According to this principle, this paper takes Wudalianchi volcanic area as a key spot for pilot study. Through analysis of the collected materials including regional geological conditions, rock geochemistry, deep CO2 gas, regional geophysical data, this paper discusses the existence possibility of HDR resources in Weishan volcanic area of Wudalianchi. The results show that Wudalianchi volcanoes are not deep volcanoes, which indicates the possibility of HDR existence with heat source from shallow residual magma. The ceiling of the quaternary volcanic magma capsule may possibly exist at a depth of 3.3~3.4 km or so. Deep source CO2 gas, widely discovered in the Wudalianchi volcanic area, is proven to be derived from the exhaust function of mantle magma, which is a diagenetic and cooling process and resulted frommagmatic crystallizing differentiation. The fact that high concentrations of CO2 are found around Well W8 indicates there may be cooling diagenetic magmatic capsule in the underground space between Weishan volcano and Wulianchi No.7 Farm.

Structural index and dynamic strength attenuation characteristics of structural loess in Pan'an

SUN Ping, LI Rongjian, LIU Junding, ZHANG Yuan, ZHANG Shuai
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 74-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.008
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Abstract ( 961 )
Based on the unconfined uniaxial compression tests of Pan'an loess, the structure index and the structure variations between the intact loess and the remolded loess are analyzed. Then, by means of dynamic triaxial tests, the comparison is performed for dynamic strength attenuation characteristics between natural intact loess, remolded loess, saturated intact loess and saturated remolded loess. Results show the followings. Owing to the structure of loess, the dynamic strength of natural intact loess with stronger structure is obviously higher than that of remodeled loess; though the saturation process makes the dynamic strength of intact loess reduced greatly, the dynamic strength of saturated intact loess is still higher than that of the saturated remodeled loess, and the dynamic pore pressure of saturated intact loess grows significantly slower than that of the saturated remodeled loess. In addition, the dynamic strength curves of loess with stronger structure will not be normalized.

Effects of short-term simulated microgravity on hippocampal tissue blocks and primary cells of neonatal SD rats

ZENG Fan, WANG Fuli, WANG Xianghan, WANG Demei, GAO Haijun, DENG Yulin, QING Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 79-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.009
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Abstract ( 987 )
Microgravity is one of the crucial factors in space that impact the healthy and work efficiency of astronauts. Therefore extensive research on the effects of microgravity or simulated microgravity on both human and animals has been carried out. The present study investigates whether simulated microgravity could influence the morphology and apoptosis of hippocampal tissue blocks and primary cells. Tissue blocks and primary cells are obtained from fresh hippocampus of neonatal SD rats. After being cultured for 7 days at 37℃, 95% of humidity and 5% CO2, cultures are randomly divided into a control group and a simulated microgravity group. The microgravity group is exposed to clinostat for one day and the control group is cultured on the same horizontal line of the clinostat. Then, microscope and HE staining are used to observe the surface morphology and internal morphology. In addition, apoptosis is measured by flow cytometry. As shown in the results, after treatment with 1-day simulated microgravity, the edge of tissue blocks becomes thinner and the cells within tissue blocks distribute in disorder, as compared to the control group. But apoptosis of primary cells show no difference between the simulated microgravity group and the control group. It is indicated that there is significant morphological difference of tissue blocks between the two groups after short-term simulated microgravity. However, apoptosis of primary cells seems not being affected by short-term simulated microgravity at all.

PM10 and PM2.5 emission control by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for coal-fired power plants VII: ESP sizing and refitting with 2×600 MW boilers

LIANG Zhihong, LI Shuanbao, CHEN Junfeng, ZHANG Jinhai, CHEN Baorui, XUE Xiangzhong, WANG Shilong, YAN Keping
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 84-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.010
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Abstract ( 1171 )
This paper discusses electrostatic precipitator (ESP) sizing,refitting and upgrading with 2×600 MW coal-fired boilers. Each boiler is equipped with two five-fields ESPs and 40 high-voltage (HV) power sources. Upgrading the HV power source refers to replacing the 80 single-phase HV sources by using 80 three-phase HV sources. Refitting ESP mainly includes changing both HV and collection electrodes and their rapping systems of the first and second electrical fields. PM10 and PM2.5 emission concentrations at ESP outlets drop below 15 mg·Nm-3 and 1.0 mg·Nm-3, respectively. The PM2.5 to PM10 ratio is around 6.5%~7.5%. In comparison with previous emission, PM2.5 concentration drops down by more than 95%.

Target identification performance of multitasking vehicle-mounted weapon interface

XUE Qing, WANG Meng, LIU Minxia, HONG Weibo
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 89-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.011
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Abstract ( 1025 )
A large amount of information is included in the human-computer interface of modern vehicle-mounted weapons. Properly presenting information and a rational configuration of the interface can improve the fighting efficiency. For the purpose of exploring human's target identification performance under multiple tasks, a model is designed to simulate the two-task situation. Through recording and analyzing the identification response times and accuracies of target at different locations, the performance can be fully evaluated. Scientific evidences for designing the interface are acquired by comparing the human performances at different locations. Experimental results show that human target identification performance is influenced by target location. When a dark gray background is used and under the condition of multiple tasks, human response time and accuracy to target appearing at bottom-left of the interface have absolute advantage over at other locations. The performance corresponds to targets appearingat top-right and bottom-right corners is inferior to that at bottom-left. Thus information of different importancesshoudbe presented at different locations for improving the real-war efficiency.

Failure analysis for valve nozzle of shutdown cooling system in reactor

WANG Fei, ZHU Wei, WEN Bang, JIANG Guofu, TANG Hongkui, YIN Chunyan, PENG Yanhua, REN Liang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 93-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.012
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Abstract ( 942 )
Cracks found in the weld groove parts of valve nozzle of the shutdown cooling system of a reactor in repairing is analyzed. The reasons of the cracks, the crack number and orientations are confirmed by visual inspection and penetranting testing. According to the results of nondestructive inspection, typical cracks regions are cut into some samples including crack transect samples,longitudinal crack samples and transverse crack samples. Scanning electron microscopy is used to investigate the microstructure and micro zone composition of the crack transect. Optical microscopy is used to analyze the microstructures of the longitudinal crack and the transverse crack. The results show that cracks may extend from the inside to outside wall and that grain deformation around the crack is not found. There are no obvious grain differences between crack and non-crack regions. Brittle fracture characteristic exists in crack cross section, and the internal corrosion of crack is found. The main component of corrosion products is oxygen, and the corrosion is caused by oxidation of stainless steel. Combined with the valve nozzle operating conditions, the reason for the failure of valve nozzle is believed to be stress corrosion cracking.

Standard evolution and competition analysis of standard essential patents for 4G LTE

GAO Fang, ZHAO Zhiyun, ZHANG Xu, ZHAO Yunhua
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 97-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.05.013
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Abstract ( 1193 )
It is widely believed that the ownership of standard essential patents is a very valuable bargaining tool in standard competition and cross-license negotiations, especially in the field of mobile telecommunication. In this paper the LTE standardisation process is described. The research emphases of 3GPP Release 11, Release 12 and Release 13 are summarized. The role of ETSI's management for ICT standard essential patents is introduced. The competition status of major countries and assignees about LTE standard specifications is revealed based on the LTE standard essential patents deriving from the ETSI intellectual property rights database. The global patents layout of major countries and assignees is obtained based on LTE standard essential patents deriving from the Derwent Innovations Index database. And it is concluded that in the coming 5G era, it is significant to grasp the opportunity of LTE standard evolution, to disclose standard essential patents proactively and to carry out a balanced patent layout for both global market and key technology.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 106-106.
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Abstract ( 511 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 107-109.
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Abstract ( 540 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 110-110.
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Abstract ( 600 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (5): 111-111.
Full text: HTML (64 KB)  PDF  (633 KB)  ( 83 )
Abstract ( 584 )

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