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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 14
28 July 2016

Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Special Issues
Suggestion
Enterprise Promotion
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 123 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 5-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 68 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 156 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 196 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 116 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 198 )
Special Issues

A brief history of computer development in China

TAO Jianhua, LIU Ruiting, XU Ke, HAN Weili, ZHANG Huaping, YU Jian, TIAN Feng, LIANG Xiaohui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 12-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.001
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Abstract ( 324 )
The paper presents a brief introduction to China's computer development and the related subject construction from the mid- 1950s. First, the paper systematically introduces the computer development history from the first generation computers using vacuum tubes to the transistor-based second generation, then to the small and medium-sized integrated circuit-based third generation, and finally to the microprocessors-based fourth generation. The domestically developed computer has made an important contribution to the national defense and scientific research, and promoted the development of computer industries. At present, many research directions of China's computer are in the forefront of the world, and some results have gained the international leading level. Meanwhile, the computer development in China presents a dynamic development trend. A series of new disciplines have been formed in China synchronously with the foreign developed countries. They are developing fast, and many of them have reached or even surpassed the international level. The paper focuses on the development of computer networks, computer security, databases, artificial intelligence, Chinese information processing, graphics & image processing, virtual reality, and human-computer interactions.

The development of high-performance computing

ZANG Dawei, CAO Zheng, SUN Ninghui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 22-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.002
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Abstract ( 381 )
Following theoretical science and experimental science, high-performance computing has become the third largest paradigm of human exploration. As an important means of technology innovation, high-performance computing is widely used in many areas, such as nuclear explosion simulation, climate simulation, and engineering calculations. Moreover, it is a strategic commanding point of modern scitech competition and embodies the comprehensive strength of a nation. In this paper, we describe the history and current situation of highperformance computing, then analyzes the problems and challenges. Also, we discuss the future direction of high-performance computing.

Industrialization of Sugonhigh performance computers

LI Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 29-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.003
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Abstract ( 189 )
This article introduces the history of Sugon high performance computers (HPCs), and describes the strategic measures and achievements of Dawning Company in HPC technology development and product commercialization. It is pointed that in the future, based on the HPC technology, Dawning Company will further expand its business scope to cloud computing service and big data analysis.

Development and present situation of Internetware operating systems

MEI Hong, GUO Yao,
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 33-41. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.004
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Abstract ( 229 )
Computer software is the soul of a computer system, while operating system is the core of software runtime supporting technology. In the Internet era, both software running environments and software development methods have been undergoing dramatic changes, thus we urgently need a new software paradigm for internet computing. Chinese researchers have named this new paradigm “internetware”, which has brought a series of challenges to software technologies including operating systems. This article focuses on operating systems for internetware, or internetware operating systems. We first briefly review the history of operating systems, and then introduce the concepts, basic characteristics and key supporting technologies for internetware operating systems. After summarizing the current development status of internetware operating systems, we present a brief outlook and trends for future operating systems.

Open source software and its eco-systems: Today and tommorow

JIN Zhi, ZHOU Minghui, ZHANG Yuxia
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 42-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.005
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Abstract ( 361 )
Open source becomes ubiquitous in the software world. Eighty percent of software is claimed to be developed using open source approach. Open source technologies dominate such domains as cloud, content management, security, mobile, social media, etc. In this article we review the history of open source software (OSS) development, the research on OSS, and the impact that OSS has on technologies, industry, and society. We conclude with the evolution trend that we picture of the future OSS ecosystem.

Technological progress and trends of big data

CHENG Xueqi, JIN Xiaolong, YANG Jing, XU Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 49-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.006
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Abstract ( 665 )
With the rapid development of IT technology, worldwide businesses are experiencing informatization changes, and almost every industry is trying to exploit and utilize the value of big data. In order to take full advantage of the opportunity while effectively dealing with the challenges brought by big data, academia, industry and government actively promote the layout adjustment and establish the holistic strategic plan. This paper first introduces the background and dynamics of big data, and expounds the national policy environment and industry development status. Then it describes the technical progress on big data, with a comprehensive overview about the technology architecture and innovative features. Finally, the development trend is forecasted and some suggestions relating to big data visualization, multidisciplinary integration, security and privacy, depth analysis etc. are proposed.

Deep learning: The revival and transformation of multi layer neural networks

SHAN Shiguang, KAN Meina, LIU Xin, LIU Mengyi, WU Shuzhe
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 60-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.007
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Abstract ( 312 )
Artificial intelligence (AI) has entered a new period of vigorous development. This round of AI topsy is driven by three engines, namely the depth of learning (DL), big data and massively parallel computing, with DL as the core. This article reviews from a historical perspective the basic situation of the round "deep neural networks renaissance", then summarizes the four common depth models: deep belief network (DBN), depth from network coding (DAN), deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) and long short term memory recurrent neural network LSTM-RNN. After that, this paper briefly introduces the application effects of deep learning in speech recognition and computer vision. In order to facilitate the application of DL, it also introduces several commonly used deep learning platforms. Finally, the enlightenment and reform of deep learning are commented, and the open problems and development trend in this field are discussed.

A brief survey on virtual reality technology

ZHAO Qinping, ZHOU Bin, LI Jia, CHEN Xiaowu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 71-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.008
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Abstract ( 466 )
This survey provides a comprehensive analysis of the development history, key characteristics and major applications of VR. From the perspectives like VR devices, VR content and VR interaction, we briefly describe the main objectives and products of the stateof- the-art VR researches. Finally, weproposeseveral directions that need to be further exploredin the future.

Recent research progress on computer graphics in China

LIU Yongjin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 76-85. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.009
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Abstract ( 474 )
This article summaries the cutting-edge researches in computer graphics from three perspectives, the history of computer graphics development, present status of international research, and some of the ensuing challenges. The present status analysis utilizes the paper information (e.g., affiliations of first authors and the numbers of research papers) published in ACM SIGGRAPH for the past three years. Based on these paper statistics, we also outline the leading research institutions and commercial corporations, as well as their characteristics in various directions of computer graphics. Furthermore, some representative research achievements selected from Chinese representative research institutions are depicted in detail.

Research progress on non-volatile memory based storage system

SHU Jiwu, LU Youyou, ZHANG Jiacheng, ZHENG Weimin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 86-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.010
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Abstract ( 389 )
Non-volatile memory includes both sector-addressable flash memory and byte-addressable persistent memory. Flash memory has advantages like high performance, low energy consumption and light weight compared to hard disk drives, and brings opportunities to high-efficiency storage systems. Byte-addressable persistent memory (e.g., PCM, RRAM etc.),on the other hand, has high density over volatile DRAM and enlarges the memory space for multi-core CPUs. However, traditional storage systems fail to fully exploit the benefits of the emerging non-volatile memory. This paper first analyzes the challenges of storage system based on nonvolatile memory, and then discusses the revolutions in terms of storage architecture, system software and distributed protocols for flash memory and persistent memory, respectively. Finally, it points out the open problems for future research on storage systems based on the non-volatile memory.

Progress and tendency of space and earth integrated network

LI Hewu, WU Qian, XU Ke, WU Jianping, YANG Zengyin, JIANG Zhuo, ZHU Liang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 95-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.011
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Abstract ( 315 )
The space network is a great complement to the ground network in terms of coverage and mobile access, and applications of Internet, mobile communication network and space network are gradually integrating with each other. Building a space and earth integrated network with global coverage by using the same network architecture is becoming more and more popular. This is not only a technological trend but also the core of the competition among Internet giants. In this paper, we analyze and conclude the development trend and research progress on space network structure and protocol architecture, with the satellite communication system as its representative. Furthermore, the research challenges and development trends of space and earth integrated network including network architecture, routing, end to end transmission, security and so on are discussed. In the end, we give further research directions and network design suggestions.

Network information security: Agame that ever changes

PAN Zhuting
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 107-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.14.012
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Abstract ( 131 )
The area of cyber security is like a game of chess, whose fundamental construction is explored in this paper. The area is described through the southward view which is technic oriented and the northward view that is awareness and management oriented. Referring to the medical division pattern, the author divides the area of cyber security into several sub-areas, peeks into their internal rules, and digs into the group of people who play crucially influential roles in that sub-area. The author expects to offer a view of observing the whole landscape and provides several key points which can help to draw the outline of this area.
Enterprise Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 113-115.
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Abstract ( 74 )
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 116-120.
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Abstract ( 319 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 121-121.
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Abstract ( 126 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 122-122.
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Abstract ( 323 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 123-123.
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Abstract ( 95 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (14): 124-124.
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Abstract ( 132 )

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