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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 20
28 October 2016

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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 178 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 126 )
Special lssues

Mammary development and breast cancer: A Wnt prospective

YU Qing, ZENG Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 5-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.001
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Abstract ( 290 )
The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. This paper reviews the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates the stem cells and the normal development of the mammary gland, and how its various components contribute to the breast carcinoma pathology.

Progress of cancer prevention and control in China

SUN Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 14-17. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.002
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Abstract ( 148 )
The tumor was a relatively rare disease in the long history, before the 1930s. Then first in developed countries and followed in developing countries, the tumor incidence began to increase markedly and entered the list of common diseases. Over the past 50 years, the cancer incidence as well as the mortality rates in China increase markedly and the cancer becomes the first killer among all causes of death, and the proportion has exceeded the global average. Cancer prevention becomes a grim task facing China. The paper summarizes the trends of cancer incidence and mortality, and the researches in the high incidence areas of esophageal, liver, lung and cervix uterine cancers, the development of new anticancer drugs, the development of clinical oncology, precision medicine, and proposes some suggestions for the prevention and treatment of cancer in China.

Tumor immunity: New hope of cancer therapy

HUANG Bo
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 18-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.003
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Abstract ( 168 )
With the rapid development and the interactions with the oncology, the molecular biology and the immunology, the tumor immunotherapy has become a new hotspot in the cancer therapy. It is based on the immunological principles and the methods to improve the immunogenicity of tumor cells and the sensitivity of natural killer cells and T cells, to stimulate and enhance the body's anti-tumor immune responses, and to kill tumor cells and inhibit tumor growth. For various tumor types such as the melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, the immunotherapy shows strong anti-tumor effects. Some immunotherapeutic drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. In 2013, Science magazine ranked the tumor immunotherapy as the year's most important scientific breakthrough. It has become an important tool for cancer therapy, along with the surgery, the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, representing the hope of curing malignancies. In this paper, the history, the development, the future directions of the tumor immunology and the tumor immunity development in China are reviewed.

Perspective of stem cell and regenerative medicine

LIU Jing, CAO Shangtao, CAI Jinglei, PEI Duanqing
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 25-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.004
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Abstract ( 344 )
Recently, a series of breakthroughs in stem cell and regenerative medicine, as the frontier and the hotspot of life sciences, brings numbers of revolutionary changes into the medical development. In this paper, we mainly summarize and analyze the current progresses and perspectives of the applications of stem cells from distinct resources in vitro and in vivo for the regenerative treatment and the roles of small molecules in the mechanisms involved in the cell fate transition and the functional cells obtained in vitro. Meanwhile, the safety and the regulation of the applications of the stem cell and regenerative medicine in the clinical therapy are discussed, to provide some food for thought for reasonable arrangements and plots in this field.

Current state and challenges of clinical treatment of chronic hepatitis B

SHI Jijing, CHANG Wenxian, LI Yuanyuan, WANG Fusheng
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 34-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.005
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Abstract ( 292 )
HBV itself and the host immune responses determine the outcome of HBV infection, which can be either acute or chronic. Current immunological researches and clinical observations have revealed that existing antiviral drugs cannot restore the antiviral immunity of patients with chronic hepatitis B, and therefore can not completely eliminate HBV. Combined with new immunotherapy, according to the different stages of disease to adopt individualized treatment, may be an effective way to achieve the cure of HBV infection. Here, the current progress and challenges of chronic HBV infection will be reviewed.

Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation

CHEN Lin, CHEN Xiaoping
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 40-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.006
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Abstract ( 292 )
Since the auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) was successfully applied as a clinical treatment for the acute liver failure in 1989, the indication of APOLT has been gradually expanded to the liver failure, the metabolic liver disease and the endstage liver cirrhosis. With the surgical technique gradually coming to a mature stage, the postoperative complication rate is significantly reduced and the long-term survival outcome sees an encouraging up-trend. In selected patients such as those of acute liver failure, APOLT even offers an advantage over the orthotopic liver transplantation, which was regard as the standard for these diseases. The emergence of new types of APOLT such as the Domino APOLT and the Cross-Domino APOLT will significantly expand the donor source and the beneficiaries. The APOLT has become an important treatment of liver diseases.

Metabolic nuclear receptors and diabetic nephropathy

WEI Yuanyi, ZHANG Xiaoyan, GUAN Youfei
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 45-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.007
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Abstract ( 319 )
With the high incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy becomes the second cause of the end-stage renal disease and at the same time, its underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. The metabolic nuclear receptors play an important role in the glucose and lipid homeostasis. Increasing evidence demonstrates that these receptors are involved in the regulation of the renal function and participate in the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. This paper reviews the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) in regulating the renal physiology and pathophysiology. We also discuss the possibility that these nuclear receptors serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of the diabetic nephropathy.

Precision cancer medicine

CHENG Xudong, JIANG Liping, MAO Kaisheng
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 51-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.008
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Abstract ( 309 )
Major technological advances and their popularization in the genomics, the bio-microarray, the next generation sequencing, the big data and the cloud computing, the artificial intelligence, the bio-pharmaceutical engineering make the precision medicine, especially, the precision medicine in curing the cancer step into a stage of exponential growth. Acquiring, analyzing and understanding the personal cancer genomics are the key in the process from the drug discovery to the novel designs of clinical trials, which also shows the critical importance of robust molecular diagnostics platforms. This paper gives an overview of the concept, the significance, the history, the techniques, the challenges and the prospects of the precision cancer medicine, as well as the applications of the precision medicine in the gliomas and colorectal cancer.

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 64-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.010
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Abstract ( 150 )

Cherish and protect the soil resources: Our duty bound responsibility

ZHAO Qiguo
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 66-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.011
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Abstract ( 158 )
The soil is one of the most precious natural resources for human survival, but with the development of society, the soil sees an increasingly serious pollution, and the importance of the soil and the soil environmental issues becomes the consensus of the world. In view to strengthen the awareness of people to protect the soil, this paper reviews the soil concept, the function, the characteristics, the current soil types in China, why the soil might become "unclean", the soil pollution and how to protect soil resources and other aspects, for the rational utilization and the effective protection of the soil.

Major causes and control strategies of the PM2.5 pollution in China

CAO Junji
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 74-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.012
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Abstract ( 199 )
The PM2.5 pollution has been the public concern in China since 2011. This paper reviews the fundamental concepts related to PM2.5 and the brief history of its mitigation, including the current situation of PM2.5 pollution in China and the three general causes for China's PM2.5 pollution. The coal-based energy structure leads to the high concentration of PM2.5 to a large degree in China, the extensive economy is the culprit for frequent haze breakouts, and the pollutant transportation very likely causes the regional pollutions. Also, this paper analyzes and summarizes the characteristics of PM2.5 pollution based on the divergence of different pollution sources, the difference of energy structure and economic level, topographical and meteorological conditions. On the basis of this analysis, some control strategies are proposed in the following three aspects:Restructuring the energy structure to control PM2.5 pollution, building up a new PM2.5 mitigation system based on scientific considerations, and reforming the management system including legislations to guarantee the overall effect.

Nutrition in the first 1000 days of life and obesity

LI Jie, LI Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 81-85. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.013
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Abstract ( 239 )
The environmental exposure in the first 1000 days of life is closely related with the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood. Within the first 1000 days of life, three main nutritional phases of human dietary development can be identified, i.e. the prenatal phase, the breast/formula feeding phase, and the complementary and early diet phase. The nutritional risk factors during these three phases are:the higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, the excess maternal gestational weight gain, the maternal diabetes mellitus, and the genetic predisposition in the prenatal phase; the formula feeding induced accelerated growth curve, the high energy intake, the high protein intake, and the low polyunsaturated fatty acids intake in the breast/formula feeding phase; and the rapid weight gain, the early introduction of solids, the high protein intake, and the gut microbiome in the complementary and early diet phase. This paper systematically reviews the multiple obesity-related risk factors exposed in the first 1000 days of life, to provide a theoretical evidence of how to realize the early-life prevention and control of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

Technology system of fecal microbiota transplantation

ZHANG Faming
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 86-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.014
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Abstract ( 534 )
The fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as the core therapy strategy for remodeling the gut microbiota adopted generally for a long medical history, has gained a great attention in the world. Though it has been used as a guideline-approved treatment for the recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and a potential option for microbiota-related diseases, the FMT has not been used very well world widely mainly due to the methodology limitation. The fmtBank is a non-profit institute in China, with its core based on the technology system of the FMT. This paper mainly focuses on the medical history, the methodology system of the non-profit fmtBank, and the safety, the ethical problem, the policy and the future direction of the FMT.
Spescial Issues

Importance of accurate variant interpretation and genetic counseling in precision medicine for rare diseases

LU Guohui, XU Yiming, ZHANG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (20): 56-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.20.009
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Abstract ( 359 )
The practice of precision medicine is quickly accepted and popularized as a new frontier for genetic disease diagnosis and management, particularly in diagnosing rare diseases, especially, genetic diseases and birth defects.The variety of mutation types associated with rare diseases include the protein coding sequence variations, the noncoding variations or the copy number variations, some of which are rare or de novo, in a broad mutation spectrum. Based on various case analyses, this paper shows the challenge and the importance of an accurate genetic variant interpretation and the standard follow-up genetic counseling service in providing the precision medicine for patients of rare diseases.

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