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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 22
28 November 2016

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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 5-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 8-8.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 10-10.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 168 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 148 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 9-9.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 12-14.
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Abstract ( 166 )
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 15-18.
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Removal of pathogenic microorganisms in water with nanomaterials: A review

XUE Xingyan, CHENG Rong, SHI Lei, KANG Mi, ZHU Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 19-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.001
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Abstract ( 226 )
In recent years, the microbiological safety of water resources has attracted more and more attentions. Traditional disinfection technologies, including the chlorine disinfection and the UV disinfection, are unable to meet the needs of social development. The rapid progress of nanomaterials provides a good opportunity for developing a removal technology of pathogenic microorganisms in water. This paper reviews the removal of pathogenic microorganisms with nanomaterials, including the zero-valent metal nanomaterials such as the nano silver and the nanoscale zero-valent iron, the metal oxide nanomaterials such as the nano titanium dioxide and the carbon-based nanomaterials such as the carbon nanotubes. The removal mechanism of pathogenic microorganisms in water with nanomaterials is analyzed. The major factors affecting the removal of pathogenic microorganisms with nanomaterials are discussed from three aspects, including the nanomaterial characteristics (size, chemical composition, chemical structure, and surface modification), the microorganism (microbial species and initial concentration of microorganism) and the environmental conditions (pH value and dissolved oxygen). The existing problems and challenges in the application of the pathogenic microorganisms removal with nanomaterials are summarized, and the related suggestions are made.

Modification of TiO2 nanomaterials and their application in photocatalytic degradation of VOCs in indoor air

ZHANG Tao, CHENG Rong, SHEN Liangjie, CHEN Ran, SHI Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 26-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.002
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Abstract ( 217 )
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one kind of ubiquitous pollutants in the indoor air, with great potential hazards on human health. The photocatalysis, which is green and highly efficient, is an important technology for the removal of VOCs. However, the conventional TiO2 has some shortcomings, such as the narrow light response range and the low quantum efficiency. So, the modification of TiO2 nanomaterials has been a wide concern. The modification methods for TiO2 nanomaterials include the ion doping, the noble metal deposition, and the semiconductor coupling. This paper reviews the modification methods for TiO2 nanomaterials, and analyzes the mechanism and the influencing factors for improving photocatalytic efficiency. The research progress for VOCs removal in indoor air with modified TiO2 nanomaterials is summarized. As a new application for photocatalytic materials, the photocatalytic degradation of VOCs in indoor air with modified TiO2 nanomaterials needs to be further studied.

Removal of triclosan in water with nanoscale zero-valent ironbased Fenton-like system

LI Guanqing, WEN Yingxin, WANG Xuejun, CHENG Rong, LI Jie
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 32-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.003
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Abstract ( 134 )
Triclosan (TCS), a kind of widely used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), poses a significant threat to ecoenvironment and human beings. This paper studies the Fenton-like degradation of TCS with the nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). According to the single-factor experiments, the removal efficiency of TCS is increased with the increase of nZVI dosage and H2O2 concentration. And the removal efficiency reaches the highest when the pH value is 3. However, the initial concentration of the TCS had no obvious effect on the removal, and the results demonstrate that the degradation of the TCS follows the second-order kinetics. In addition, the nZVI-based Fenton-like system can achieve the highest removal efficiency under the same experimental conditions, as compared to the traditional Fenton reagent and nZVI alone.

Feasibility of removing engineered nanoparticles by hollow fiber UF/MF membrane: Case of polystyrene nanoparticles

LIU Li, SHANG Min, DIAN Liu, LUO Ming, ZHENG Xiang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 37-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.004
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Abstract ( 230 )
Wide applications of engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) have potential environmental and health risks. This paper focuses on the removal of polystyrene nanoparticles by hollow fiber membranes of three different pore sizes. The effects of the running time, the inflow pressure, the flow rate, the concentration and the particle to pore diameter ratio are investigated. The results show that it is feasible to remove the eNPs by the UF/MF membrane. The retention rate is stable and there are no obvious differences after the filtration of the UF membrane for 10 minutes. The retention rate increases when the inflow pressure increases from 25 kPa to 125 kPa, the concentration increases from 25 to 100 mg·L-1, but no obvious variation when the flow rate increases from 0.12 to 0.59 m·s-1. The retention rate is influenced when the particle to pore diameter ratio is less than 1. The retention rate at 10 min is very close to the value predicted by the Nakao model.

Study on the preparation of nanoscale Fe/Ni bimetal and its reduction of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution

FAN Xianyuan, SUN Yi, RUAN Xia, LI Zhe, LIU Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 43-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.005
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Abstract ( 179 )
Nanoscale Fe/Ni bimetal is prepared by the liquid phase reduction method. The effects of the FeCl2 concentration, n(Ni)/n(Fe), and n(NaBH4)/n(FeCl2) on the reduction of 2, 4-dichlorophenol(2, 4-DCP) are investigated and the reduction pathway of 2, 4-DCP is confirmed. The results show that when the concentration of the FeCl2 solution is 3 mol/L, n(Ni)/n(Fe)=4%, and n(NaBH4)/n(FeCl2)=1, the removal efficiency of 2, 4-DCP is nearly 100%, with 95% of 2, 4-DCP being reduced to phenol. The morphology of the nano Fe/Ni is spherical particles with diameter of about 50 nm. The Fe/Ni particles are linked into branches by their inherent magnetic force and are aggregated dispersedly owing tothe electrostatic stabilization. The BET surface area of the Fe/Ni particles reaches 44.8 m2/g. The pathway of 2, 4-DCP is mainly attributed to the fact that two C-Cl bands are broken in turns to form 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol, and then dechlorinated to phenol.

Meaning and progresses of studies on bioavailability of organic contaminants in soil

LI Bing, YAO Tianqi, SUN Hongwen
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 48-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.006
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Abstract ( 308 )
Once an organic contaminant enters the soil, it will interact with the soil constituents, changing its existing state in the soil, which in turns will reduce the mobility, the bioavailability and the chemical reactivity to a certain extent and will have significant impacts on the risks of organic contaminants to the environment and the ecosystems as well as on the efficiencies of remediation technologies. The changes in the mobility, the bioavailability and the chemical reactivity are related with each other but have their own features. The bioavailability of the organic contaminants depends not only on the existing state of the contaminant in the soil but also on the absorption process of the organisms, and hence, there are many different understandings among different research fields about the meaning of bioavailability. In this paper, the recent research progresses on the bioavailability of the organic contaminants in the soil are reviewed from the view of the interactions between the soil and the organic contaminants. The meaning of the bioavailability is discussed, and different evaluation methods are compared. In addition, the impacts of the soil media factors, the soil organisms, the chemical properties and the aging on the bioavailability of the organic contaminants in the soil are highlighted.

Methods and application of immobilized microorganism in PVA

LIU Yuankun, MAO Yunhan, WANG Jianlong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 56-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.007
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Abstract ( 261 )
The immobilized microorganism technology is advantageous in increasing the concentration of microorganism and improving the efficiency of the wastewater treatment in solutions. This paper reviews the characteristics and the advantages of the immobilized microorganism in the PVA and the methods of the immobilization. The shortages of common methods (the physical crosslinking method and the chemical crosslinking method) are pointed out and relevant optimization techniques are proposed. The applications of the immobilized microorganism of the PVA in the wastewater treatment are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the PVA in this area. It is important for the sustainability of the wastewater treatment to develop a simple immobilized microorganism technology with good microbial activity, high mechanical strength, and water-absorbing and swelling behavior.

Analysis of the space-time characteristics and causes of the atmospheric pollution in Shandong Province

LIU Yanrong, HAN Mei, NI Juan, LU Shaoyong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 62-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.008
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Abstract ( 226 )
The atmospheric routine monitoring data are used to analyze the characteristics of air pollution in 2014 in Shandong Province. From the point of view of the spatial distribution, the air pollution in Zibo, Jinan, Zaozhuang is the most serious as compared with other cities, while Rizhao, Qingdao, Weihai and other cities are under the lightest pollution condition, the pollution degree of the eastern coastal cities is significantly lighter than that of the inland cities; the compliance with respect to SO2 among various cities is greater than 50%, which is a bit better than those with respect to all other pollutants, whose compliance rates are relatively low, and the compliance rate of PM2.5 of all cities do not satisfy the air quality standard. From the point of view of the time distribution, the concentration of pollutant concentration is high in winter and low in summer; the concentrations of PM10 and NO2 in March see a small peak; the concentrations of SO2 and NO2 increase slightly in August; as seen from the full year, the NO2 pollutant emission concentration changes but little. This pollution situation is mainly related to the natural factors and the factors of human beings, with natural factors including the terrain, the climate, and the meteorology, and the factors of human beings including the policy, the supervision and management, the industrial emissions, the motor vehicle emissions, the resident living conditions and other factors. Through the gray correlation analysis, the correlation of the energy consumption is the largest with respect to the pollutant distribution, and the correlation of the wind speed is the largest with respect to the time distribution of pollutants.

Recent progress on antibody-based resistance against Fusarium head blight pathogens in wheat

LIAO Yucai, LI Heping
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 68-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.009
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Abstract ( 232 )
Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes the reduction of yields and the quality degradation, as well as the contamination of mycotoxins that are produced by FHB pathogens and enter into the food chains, thus posing a serious threat to humans and farm animals. Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against wheat FHB are inadequate. Thus, the isolation of antibodies and their genes from animals provides new resistance resources for the improvement of FHB resistance in wheat, as a new approach for other plants that lack natural resistance germplasms against pests. A disease-resistance antibody can specifically target the highly conserved transmembrane glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium and inhibit its oxidative reaction. A combination of the disease-resistance antibody, the antifungal peptide (AFP) and the regulatory cis-elements for plant expression will generate the antibody-AFP fusions that can be induced by FHB pathogens on the infection organs of wheat; this pathogen-inducible expression can restrict the fungal spreading and the mycotoxin accumulation in wheat, which is similar to the active immunity in mammalians that have been vaccinated. This paper reviews recent research progresses on FHB pathogens for preparation of antigens, expression and functional characterization in vitro and in planta of disease-resistance antibodies and their antibody fusions, the structure and the function of an antigen-encoding gene, and the resistance mechanisms of disease-resistance antibodies.

Fusarium head blight in wheat: From phenotyping to resistance improvement

LI Tao, LI Aiai, LI Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 75-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.010
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Abstract ( 240 )
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases in wheat, which threats both food security due to huge yield losses and food safety due to the toxin accumulation. A comparison between different phenotypic evaluation methods is critically important for fine mapping and for improving FHB resistance. This paper reviews the issues including the urgency of FHB improvement, the status quo of wheat breeding for FHB resistance, and the progresses in QTL mapping for FHB and their utilization. The current phenotypic evaluation systems of FHB responses of wheat, the availability of resistance QTL donors, and the strategies of applying marker-assisted breeding approaches for improving FHB resistance are highlighted.

Developing of molecular marker for pre-harvest sprouting resistance and its application in wheat MAS breeding

ZHANG Haiping, CHANG Cheng, SI Hongqi, LU Jie, MA Chuanxi
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 81-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.011
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Abstract ( 270 )
This review focuses on the major factors affecting wheat pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), the measures to solve the wheat PHS problems, the recent advances in QTL/gene for wheat PHS resistance, and the identification of the molecular marker for the PHS tolerance and its application in the wheat MAS breeding made by our research group in recent years. The results reveal that the temperature and the rainfalls are the major factors affecting the wheat PHS in the field, and the development of wheat varieties with the PHS resistance can effectively solve this problem. Using different mapping populations, several major QTLs and molecular markers for the wheat PHS resistance are identified.

Review on metabolism and regulation of non-structural carbohydrates in wheat stem

WANG Bin, ZHANG Yinghua, DENG Wanyun, HAN Meikun, SONG Wenpin, XU Xuexin, YAO Dexiu, HUANG Jing, LI Jinpeng, WANG Zhimin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 87-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.012
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Abstract ( 132 )
With the decrease of the photosynthetic rate under stress, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in wheat stem become the main carbon source, accounting for 20%~50%, for grain filling. Therefore, it is very important understanding the NSC metabolic regulation and the effect of the cultivation management and the genetic improvement on the NSC metabolism for adequately using the NSC for high or stable yield in wheat under stress conditions. In this review, the fructosan, as the predominant component of the NSC in the wheat stem, is taken as an example to reveal its metabolic pathway, including the structure and the synthesis, as well as the transportation and the degradation. The role of the NSC in the wheat stem is analyzed under stress conditions, especially at low and high temperature, and in drought. The regulation effect of the cultivation managements on the NSC is discussed, such as those related with the cultivar election, the water and the nitrogen management. Finally, the application prospect of the wheat stem NSC in breeding for stress tolerance is discussed.

Correlation analysis of four physiological indices with droughttolerance during wheat seedlings stage

YIN Guixiang, ZHANG Pingzhi, SHE Maoyun
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 95-101. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.22.013
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Abstract ( 198 )
To reveal the relationship between the drought-related physiological indices and the drought-tolerant performance, 50 wheat landrace and elite accessions in total from inland and abroad are used for screening the drought-tolerant wheat germplasm during the seedling stage followed by a statistical analysis for the drought tolerant potential and the four physiological indices including the leaf potassium (K+), the soluble sugar, the malondialdehyde (MDA), and the proline (Pro) content. The screening result shows that the seedling survival differs dramatically after desiccation. Among them, Chuanmai 42, Xinong 2000, and Zhouyuan 936 show a high survival rate of over 65%, with the rest lower than 42%. The 4 physiological indices are determined for the above three high drought-tolerance wheat accessions and three low drought-tolerance ones (Kefeng10, Chinese Spring and Yumai 9676) selected at random. Correlation analysis shows a positive relationship between the drought resistance and the leaf K+, the soluble sugar, and the Pro levels while negative in terms of the MDA content, which implies a high correlation between the four selected physiological indices and the drought-tolerant performance.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 102-102.
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Abstract ( 198 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 103-104.
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Abstract ( 116 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 105-105.
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Abstract ( 175 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 106-106.
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Abstract ( 107 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 107-107.
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Abstract ( 164 )

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (22): 108-108.
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Abstract ( 84 )

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