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   Science & Technology Review
2016, Vol.34, No. 24
28 December 2016

Spescial Issues
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
News Around
News Focus
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 8-9.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 11-11.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 13-13.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 1-9.
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News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 313 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 12-12.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 14-15.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 16-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.001
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Abstract ( 525 )
Spescial Issues

Theoretical discoveries of topological phase transition and topological phases of matter: The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 22-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.002
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Abstract ( 572 )
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz for their theoretical discoveries of topological phase transition and topological phases of matter. This article introduces their research experiences and describes the awarded achievements, as well as the scientific background and later development, from the aspects of topology and topological phase transitions, topology in quantum Hall effect, one dimensional antiferrom agnet and symmetry-protected topological states.

Design and synthesis of molecular machines: Commentary on the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

JIANG Juli, JIANG Wei, HUANG Feihe, WANG Leyong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 28-33. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.003
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Abstract ( 697 )
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists (Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, and Bernard L. Feringa) for the design and synthesis of molecular machines. The field of molecular machines focuses on constructing the machine at the molecular level, and supramolecular chemistry plays an important role in this research area. Therefore, to some degree, it is the second time that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the scientists working on supramolecular chemistry after 1987. In this paper, a summary on the design concept, synthesis strategy, development and outlook of molecular machines is given.

Molecular machines: Ultramicro devices at molecular level commentary on the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

DUAN Weili, CUI Shuxun
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 34-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.004
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Abstract ( 387 )
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to three scientists (Jean-Pierre Sauvage, J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa) for their significant contributions to artificial molecular machines. The origin, development and present status of the field of artificial molecular machines are reviewed. An outlook for the future development in this field is also presented.

Mechanism of autophagy: Commentary on the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

YANG Jiao, HU Ronggui
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.005
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Abstract ( 370 )
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine honors Japanese scientist, Yoshinori Ohsumi, whose original work has elucidated the mechanism and physiological function of autophagy. His work helped us understand many physiological processes, for example adaptation to starvation and immune response to infection, and opened a new avenue for the development of therapeutic strategies against autophagy-related maladies. Here we briefly introduce his work about autophagy, the significance of his findings to human health, and related research progress at home and abroad.

An analysis on global drug development status of rheumatoid arthritis

LIU Lili, MAO Yanyan, GAO Liubin
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 44-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.006
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Abstract ( 1149 )
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is a worldwide disease, with a global prevalence rate of about 0.24%. RA pathogenesis is complex and has a high disability rate, depressing the life quality of patients seriously and aggravating the economic burden of the society. Effective treatment of RA has become a focus of the global pharmaceutical industry. According to the IMS Health statistics, the global drug expenditure for the treatment of RA amounted to $21.4 billion in 2015. This paper uses literature investigation, database search, such as Thomson Reuters, IMS Health etc., as well as data statistics and analysis, to make an analysis on the global RA drug development status, market, targets, patent and other information. Medicine treatment for RA includes anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-rheumatic drugs, hormone drugs, biological agents, combination of drugs, immune reconstitution, etc. Therapeutic target involves tumor necrosis factor alpha, cycloxygenase, B-lymphocyte antigen, interleukin, nuclear transcription factor kB, small molecule kinase and so on. In recent years, the development of biotechnology drugs in the treatment of RA and other autoimmune diseases has made an unprecedented success, small molecule drugs and biosimilar products will also play an important role in the future market.

A review on regulation of Rev-erbs in energy homeostasis and research prospect in sports science

SHEN Youqing, HUANG Guoyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 56-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.007
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Abstract ( 717 )
Nuclear receptor Rev-erbs have mainly two subtypes, Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ, which are widely expressed but mainly prevalent in tissues and organs of mammalians that have predominantly metabolic functions. The expression level of Rev-erbs can be influenced by various factors such as high calorie diet, medicine, and exercise intervention. Rev-erbs are essential to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and blood glucose homeostasis, and are the therapeutic target of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Rev-erbs may maintain energy homeostasis through related signaling pathway of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent researches indicate that exercise regiments stimulate Rev-erbs expressions in liver and skeletal muscle and maintain lipid homeostasis, which would be the core mechanism of exercise intervention to chronic diseases. This review analyzes the bioactivity and the mechanism of Rev-erbs, and proposes future studies on Rev-erbs in the sphere of sports science.

Computational and data management based on Material Genome Initiative

YANG Xiaoyu, REN Jie, WANG Juan, Zhao Xushan, WANG Zongguo, SONG Jianlong
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 62-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.008
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Abstract ( 1125 )
The core philosophy of Material Genome Initiative is the transition of the way of new material design from traditional"try-anderror"approach to the in-silico material design approach which employs intensive computing and material informatics. It aims to speed up discovery, development, production and deployment of new material two times faster than it is now. It means a culture shift of the material discovery, development and deployment:simulation and prediction first, followed by the experiment. This paper depicts how computational approach and informatics can discover new materials. A high throughput computational material platform and software framework, namely, MatCloud, is discussed.

A review of achievements in small quadrotor autonomous flight control based on visual servoing

LÜ Qiang, MA Jianye, WANG Guosheng, LIN Huican, LIANG Bing
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 68-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.009
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Abstract ( 876 )
In the absence of GPS signal, visual servoing can make use of visual information to control quadrotor autonomous flight, so it has been widely used in the field of autonomous flight control in recent years. This article reviews the achievements of small quadrotor autonomous flight control based on visual servoing. Depending on the difference of image information, visual servoing can be divided into position-based visual servoing and image-based visual servoing. Compared with image-based visual servoing, pose estimation of positionbased visual servoing is stabile, and position-based visual servoing can define the robot movement in the rectangular coordinate space, and the controller design of position-based visual servoing is simple. But the control precision of position-based visual servoing is affected by camera and robot calibration precision, and calculation is large. It is pointed out that for further application of small quadrotor UAV autonomous flight control, the real-time accuracy and robustness of visual servoing need to be improved, and the intelligence of small quadrotor UAV requires upgrading. Also the research should be strengthened in aspects such as indoor/outdoor mode conversion and indoor coordinate control.

Intelligent remanufacturing engineering system

LIANG Xiubing, LIU Bohai, SHI Peijing, LI Enzhong, ZHANG Zhibin, XU Binshi
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 74-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.010
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Abstract ( 1329 )
Based on the development and trend of remanufacture engineering in China, a concept of intelligent remanufacturing is put forward and an intelligent remanufacturing system is built accordingly. The system mainly consists of intelligent remanufacturing logistics, intelligent remanufacturing production, intelligent remanufacturing processing, intelligent remanufacturing marketing. The details of these four principal constituent parts are explained in terms of concept, method and system, respectively. Finally, the current main tasks and the future development direction of the intelligent remanufacture engineering in China are discussed. It is pointed out that remanufacture engineering is an important part of intelligent manufacturing, and the intelligent remanufacture engineering system is the comprehensive summary and promotion of the current Chinese remanufacturing industry development mode. The proposed system can realize automation, flexibility and digitization of whole remanufacturing system and processes, and energetically improve product effectiveness, production capacity and management level for remanufacturing enterprises.

Apoptosis-inducing effects of rare earth substituted phosphotungstic acid containing 5-fluorouracil on HeLa cells

GAN Qiang, LIU Xia
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 80-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.011
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Abstract ( 403 )
As a kind of inorganic metal-oxide cluster compound, polyoxometalates' potential antitumor activities have gained much attention. In this paper, the bioactivities of a series of rare earth substituted phosphotungstic acids containing 5-fluorouracil, K9(C4H4FN2O2)2La(PW11O39)2·18H2O, K9(C4H4FN2O2)2Ce(PW11O39)2·23H2O, K9(C4H4FN2O2)2Nd(PW11O39)2·25H2O, K9(C4H4FN2O2)2Sm(PW11O39)2·11H2O and K9H(C4H4FN2O2)Eu(PW11O39)2·11H2O (abbr. FLnPW, Ln=La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu) on HeLa cell are investigated. 5-fluorouracil (abbr. 5-FU) is used as positive control, and phosphotungstate containing 5-fluroracil K11C4H4FN2O2(PW11O39)·7H2O (abbr. FPW) and phosphotungstic acid H3PW12O40 (abbr. PW) are also tested. Morphological analysis shows that typical characteristics of apoptosis appear after treatment with the above compounds (besides PW), and nuclear chromatin is highly concentrated and marginalized. Flow cytometry indicates that S phase cell cycle arrest is induced by compounds (besides PW), whose FPW shows higher S-phase arrest activity than 5-FU, and that the FCePW, FNdPW and FEuPW groups show S phase and G2/M phase arrests simultaneously. Flow cytometry also shows that all compounds except PW induce apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the apoptosis-inducing activity order is FLnPW > FPW > 5-FU. Caspase 3 detection shows that caspase 3 activity of HeLa cell is enhanced after treatment with compounds, and the caspase 3 activity order is FLnPW>FPW>5-FU, where the FCePW and FEuPW groups show significant higher activities. These results show that the above compounds containing 5-FU group possess cell cycle arrest activity, apoptosis-inducing activity and caspase 3 inducing activity, while PW could only cause cell death because of acidity. It is suggested that 5-FU group and rare earth elements play most important roles in the antitumor activity, and FLnPW could inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest, activating the caspase 3-dependent apoptosis pathway.

Optimization of fermentation medium and fermentation conditions of Amphotericin B producing strain

ZHANG Bo, DOU Binxian, ZHANG Haidong, LIU Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 87-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.012
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Abstract ( 632 )
Amphotericin B(AmB) is one of the most efficient antimycotic agents, thus widely used in clinical practice. In this study, Streptomyces nodosus ZJB15076 is used for AmB fermentation. The optimal carbon source, nitrogen source and fermentation conditions for the production of AmB are tested. The results show that glucose and nitrogen beef extraction is best for the fermentation of AmB. And the optimized fermenting conditions through single factor test are summed up as follows:culture temperature 28℃, initial pH value 7.0, inoculation 2% and liquid volume 40 mL/250 mL. The influence of adding glass bead is significant. After adding glass bead, the production of AmB is increased by 341.1% and reaches 4563.2 mg/L.

Overview of regional mineralization of the Sevonian-age Saskatchewan Basin in Canada

LUO Xiaofeng, ZHENG Mianping, QI Wen
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 93-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.013
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Abstract ( 443 )
The Saskatchewan potash deposit in Canada is the largest potash reserve in the earth, which is recognized by its great scale, thick potash members, high grade resource and very few impurities. The ‘Sino-potash’ project owned by Zhongchuan Mining is the first potash project in Saskatchewan run by Chinese enterprise. The authors investigated into the project's 5 drilling wells completed between 2008 and 2009 using sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry. It is shown that mineralization in the region is similar to that of currently operating potash mines of Saskatchewan. Thick sylvite members deposited in a relatively shallow depth spread continuously in the whole region, though the deposition depth is slightly deeper than those of the operating potash mines of Saskatchewan. The result tells that the middle-Devonian Saskatchewan potash deposit forms steadily and continuously, which is mainly composed of sylvite, with small amount of carnallite. The deposit dips slightly in the northeast-southwest direction from outcrops in Manitoba to the south Saskatchewan and reaches as deep as 2750 m, suggesting a great potential of resource in the area which was not defined as a potash mining area historically.

Flow mechanism of nano-micron polymer in microtubes

ZHU Weiyao, ZHU Xiaoyang, CAO Mengjing, ZHANG Xueling, YU Mingxu
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 101-105. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.014
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Abstract ( 344 )
In view of the narrow pore and throat and complex pore structure characteristics of low permeability reservoir, one-dimensional microtubes with inner diameters of 20, 15 and 10 μm are used to study the dynamic mechanism of fluid flow in microtubes. The relationship between flow velocity and pressure gradient are analyzed using nano-micron polymer as mobile media. Meanwhile, the flow mechanism of polymer nano-micron under microscale effect in the narrow throats are investigated, and the micro force and dynamic characteristic in the microtubes are revealed. The research shows that with the decrease of the microtube diameter, or the increase of nanopolymer particle size and solution concentration, the fluid flow velocity will decrease. The flow velocity of fluid in the microtube is propotional to the pressure gradient, but the nonlinear fluid flow characteristic will gradually stand up with the decrease of microtube diameter or the increase of nano-polymer particle size.

Application of deconvolution-based pressure buildup analysis to offshore low-permeability gas reservoirs

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 106-109. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.015
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Abstract ( 275 )
Current well test analysis techniques are mainly based on the analysis of individual flow periods, usually the longest build-up period in the test. They provide limited reservoir information and sometimes an incorrect diagnosis of the reservoir model. In this paper, a deconvolution-based pressure buildup analysis method evolved with our deconvolution algorithms is proposed to solve the costy test issue of offshore low-permeability gas reservoirs. The proposed method utilizes short-term pressure buildup and long-term flowrate history to recover the true reservoir pressure response. The workflow for the proposed method is provided, and a synthetic case is used to verify the correctness of the method. It is shown that for fractured gas wells with 1md permeability formation, 120m fracture half-length and infinite conductivity, it takes 22 hours of buildup testing to detect the formation radial flow regime, while using the proposed method, it only takes 1 hour to finish the fracturing parameters calculation as long as production history before the test is available, which greatly saves time and cost. A field case in China East Sea is further presented to prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

Analysis on the dynamic evolution and spatial difference of energy consumption carbon footprint of Hunan Province

ZHAO Xianchao, TENG Jie, ZHOU Yueyun
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 110-114. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.016
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Abstract ( 273 )
Energy consumption is a main factor for global climate change. It is significant to research energy consumption carbon footprint and ecological stress. We use the energy consumption carbon footprint research model to calculate the energy consumption carbon footprint, ecological capacity and ecological pressure index, and investigate its dynamic evolution and spatial difference. The results show that the energy consumption carbon footprint has a rising trend, from 2242.57 hm2 in 2005 to 2835.23 hm2 in 2010; that the carbon ecological carrying capacity changing trend is small, being around 1880 hm2; and that the ecology environment pressure index has a big spatial difference, with Shaoyang, Yongzhou, Huaihua, Zhangjiajie and Xiangxi belonging to the high-ecological carrying area, Yueyang and Hengyang belonging to the moderate-ecological carrying area, Changsha and Yiyang belonging to the general transition distraction, and Loudi and Xiangtan belonging to the heavy-ecological carrying area.

On the spatio-temporal features of air pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei for the period of APEC summit

ZHANG Yuanyuan, WU Lixin, REN Chuanbin, XIANG Chengcheng, LI Jiale, CHAI Man
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 115-121. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.017
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Abstract ( 321 )
Based on air pollutant observations in the period from October to November (related with APEC summit), 2014 from meteorological stations of major cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and the surrounding region, the maps of mean air pollutant concentrations every seven (or five) days are obtained with selected spatial interpolation methods. Global autocorrelation and local autocorrelation analysis methods are used to study the spatial heterogeneities of pollutant concentrations, and the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of pollutants are explored by using kernel density (KD). The followings are revealed:there were significant positive spatial autocorrelations and spatial aggregating features on the mean concentrations of all pollutants; the hot spots of mean PM2.5 concentrations distributed in Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, and south Beijing; the hot spots of mean SO2 concentration concentrated mostly in Baoding, Tianjin, Tangshan and Shijiazhuang, while the hot spots of mean NO2 concentrations distributed mainly along BeijingTianjin-Tangshan and Baoding-Shijiazhuang-Xingtai; variations of air quality were notable at different times. Before and during the APEC summit, the regional control/limiting measures and the cold air activity effectively improved the air quality of Beijing and its surrounds, and the KD high value zones transformed gradually into middle or low KD-value zones. With the help of cold air currents and high wind speeds, nice air quality maintained within the first 5 days after the APEC summit. However, air pollutions rebounded sharply and high KDvalue zones gradually extended to most parts of the BTH region six days after the APEC summit. It is clear that spatial structure adjustment of industry and elimination of high air-pollution enterprises in BTH are imperative, and the regional synergic emission control in condition of poor meteorological period should be normalized.

Impact of the stand density on the growth characteristics of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv

SHAREN Tuya, SIQIN Bilige, YI Bole
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 122-125. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.018
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Abstract ( 231 )
Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv is one of the chief forest species in northern China. To study its growth characteristics and its relation with the stand density is significant to its introduction and cultivation in the north part of China, since stand density is one of the factors that affect its growth. Therefore, the forest stand of P. sylvestris var. mongolica with 3 groups on different densities (>3000 plants/hm2, 2000-3000 plants/hm2 and 1000-2000 plants/hm2, respectively) in 8 sample fields are measured and studied in the Naristai Forest Farm in the central part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The results show that the DBH, individual volume increment and the total volume of the forest stand are significantly affected by the stand density while the height growth is not. In other words, the stand density has a significant impact on DBH, the individual volume increment and the total volume. As the stand density increases, the DBH and individual volume increment are decreasing while the total volume is increasing. The difference of DBH between the high density groups and the low density groups is 10 cm, while the difference of total volume increment is 0.9 m3. This study also indicates that the higher the stand density, the greater the initial age of the forest stand at which trees begin to grow rapidly.

Design of an embedded second-generation personal ID card access control system

TIAN Fenghua, ZHANG Jingang
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 126-130. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.019
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Abstract ( 392 )
The second-generation Chinese personal ID card has been widely used with the national tries to popularize it. The secondgeneration Chinese personal ID card inherits the advantages of the contactless IC card. With the adoption of digital anti-forgery technology and printing anti-counterfeit technology, the security of this second-generation ID card has been greatly enhanced, with the characteristics of security,, popularity and uniqueness for the unique identification in the security & protection system. This article analyzes the current situation of the access control system, and designs an embedded second-generation personal ID card access control system. At the moment, requirements analysis, design, implementation and testing work have been completed. The test results show that the second-generation personal ID card access control system meets the design requirements completely. This access control system is highly secure, real time and efficient. It can be put into production and popularized.

Safety assessment methods and risk evaluation for electronic nicotine delivery system

TIAN Yongfeng, YANG Liu, DUAN Yuanxing, ZHAO Wei, YANG Ji, GONG Xiaowei, LI Shoubo, CHEN Yongkuan
Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 131-136. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2016.24.020
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Abstract ( 356 )
Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) has the advantage of chemically simple and nicotine contents controllable, and is considered to be the ideal substitute for cigarette. Meanwhile, ENDS is marketed as less harmful alternatives to cigarette because of not burning in the nicotine delivery process and less harmful chemical components in vapor. To deeply study ENDS, DNA damage and mutation caused by tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo(a)pyrene in ENDS vapor are reviewed in this paper. Risk evaluation of ENDS in chemical analysis, toxicology, cell exposure, animals experiments and clinical research are also discussed. Finally, the future development of ENDS is prospected.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 137-138.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 139-140.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 141-141.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 142-142.
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Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 143-143.
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Science & Technology Review. 2016, 34 (24): 144-144.
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