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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 4
28 February 2017

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Articles
Foreword
Columns
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 151 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 164 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 169 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 144 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 130 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 12-15.
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Abstract ( 156 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 16-17.
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Abstract ( 135 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 96-96.
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Abstract ( 132 )
Spescial Issues

New concept and progress of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

HU Rong, FENG Hua
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 18-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.001
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Abstract ( 266 )
The spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The prevention and the treatment of the SICH are the most urgent issues. This review summarizes the definition and the natural history of the SICH, the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the SICH-induced brain injury and the current state of treatment. The concept of "lenticulostriate-artery neural complex" is proposed to help the study of the mechanisms of the SICH and the key issues in the SICH, to improve the prevention, the diagnosis and the treatment of the SICH and to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates.

Brain cognitive function and surgical protection of brain function

HUO Ran, CAO Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 23-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.002
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Abstract ( 246 )
The development of the neurosurgery model is promoted by the understanding of the human brain structure, the brain functions and the requirements of the brain protection. The understanding of the brain functions turns from the neural functions to the cognitive functions. The protection of the cognitive functions will become a new direction of the minimally invasive neurosurgery. With the help of the intraoperative neuronavigation, we can not only protect the known cognitive functions, but also verify and explore the unknown cognitive function area.

Psychosurgery: Brief history, present status and prospects

FU Xianming, WEI Xiangpin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 27-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.003
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Abstract ( 160 )
As an important branch of the functional department of Neurosurgery, the psychosurgery has a history of more than 120 years. With the development of the clinical psychiatry, the neuro-biochemistry, the neuro-imaging and the minimally invasive techniques, a significant progress has been made in the psychosurgery. The brief history and present status of psychosurgery at home and aboad are introduced, and future prospects are put forward.

High-risk non-disabling ischemic cerebrovascular events (HR-NICE): A new target for aggressive treatment

WANG Yilong, JIA Qian, WANG Yongjun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 31-35. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.004
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Abstract ( 219 )
The cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause for death or adult disability among Chinese population. The High-Risk Non-Disabling Ischemic Cerebrovascular Events (HR-NICE) are very common, and they are unstable in early phases, with good prognosis after effective treatment. In recent years, the HR-NICE has gradually attracted worldwide attentions. Our work has focused on the patients with the highest stroke risk, the most effective antithrombotic therapy, and the most appropriate individualized treatment for more than 10 years. In this paper, we review the early recognition, the diagnosis and the treatment of the HR-NICE.

Pain spots of post stroke patients: Depression, sleep apnea and cognition impairment

SHI Yanying, ZHANG Xiaoxiao, YU Ping, ZHANG Ning, WANG Chunxue
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 36-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.005
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Abstract ( 190 )
The mortality of post-stroke patients has declined remarkably with the development of treatment for cerebrovascular diseases. But the long-term survived patients often suffer from great trouble of mental disorder, sleep apnea and cognitive impairment, as three common complications, and they influence their life quality deeply. Post-stroke depression has a low diagnose rate, it is important to be diagnosed in time and to be treated with psychotherapy, medicine and rehabilitation training. The sleep apnea can influence the rate of recurrence for the stroke. Polysomnography is needed, and the CPAP is an available treatment. The cognitive impairment is an important factor related to prognosis. These complications should be understood and a positive treatment should be taken, or the risk of recurrence will be increased, as well as the risk of death, and disability, and great adverse effects with respect to patients' life quality, social relationship and function.

Preventing the process of schizophrenia onset: Identification and intervention for individuals at high risk of psychosis

ZHANG Tianhong, WANG Jijun, WANG Chuanyue
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 40-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.006
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Abstract ( 244 )
The diagnosis and the treatment of the severe mental disorder, represented by schizophrenia, are difficult as a clinical medicine problem. In recent years, the clinical and basic researches are focused on the prodromal psychosis, with the development of techniques and concepts in psychotic early intervention to a great extent. In this paper, the latest progress of the clinical and behavioral characteristics, the biological markers and the effective intervention for individuals at high risk of psychosis are reviewed, and the future development directions of related researches in early identification and intervention techniques for psychosis are pointed out.

Recent advances in Parkinson's disease

FENG Tao, MA Lingyan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 45-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.007
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Abstract ( 263 )
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical symptoms involve motor syndromes, such as bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and gait disturbance, and non-motor syndromes, such as olfactory dysfunction, depression and constipation. The mechanism is still unknown. According to the classic pathology, it is the degeneration of dopaminergic neuron and Lewy body. However, this cannot explain all the manifestations. The studies of PD see a great progress in recent years. Our review focuses mainly on the biomarker, brain network and neuromodulation in PD.

Research progress of Alzheimer's disease with visual impairment

JIN Zhao, ZHANG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 49-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.008
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Abstract ( 99 )
The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease among the elderly population with the memory impairment as the initial symptom, gradually followed by the progressive cognitive impairment and the behavioral and psychological symptoms, with heavy economic and care burdens to both family and society. The early symptoms of the AD are not obvious, which causes the poor therapeutic effect after diagnosis, thus early diagnosis is particularly important. Increasing investigations identified the visual impairment in the AD patients, but with no epidemiological data of the AD accompanied with the visual impairment. This paper mainly focuses on the clinical symptoms, the mechanism, the detection and the evaluation approaches of the visual impairment, including the optical coherence tomography, the visual evoked potential, the retinal microvascular examination and the neuroimaging so as to systemically assess the visual impairment, explore the specific, sensitive and simple methods of evaluation of the AD and provide evidence for early diagnosis and intervention of the AD. Comprehensive management of the AD includes non-drug intervention and drug therapy, however, the treatment of the visual impairment in the AD is an important issue.

Advances in pathogenesis of epilepsy

YANG Huajun, GUO Anchen, WANG Qun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 54-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.009
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Abstract ( 211 )
The epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the nervous system, and its pathogenesis is very complex. In recent years, studies of the pathogenesis of the epilepsy have shown that the occurrence of the epilepsy is closely related to the ion channels, the neurotransmitters, the synaptic connections, the neurovascular units and the glial cells. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of the epilepsy and the theoretical basis for the diagnosis, the prevention and the treatment of the epilepsy.

Comparative proteome analysis of intracranial aneurysms

WANG Jia, ZHAO Jizong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 60-63. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.010
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Abstract ( 189 )
The intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a cerebrovascular disorder in which the weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. The quantitative proteomics is to obtain quantitative information about all proteins in a sample. The quantitative proteomics is mainly performed by isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-DE or mass spectrometry (MS). The identification of the proteins related to the intracranial aneurysm (IA) wall biological activities could help to find novel pathological mechanisms and therapeutic targets for the human intracranial aneurysm. This paper reviews the applications of quantitative proteomics technology in the study of intracranial aneurysm.

Advances of molecular classification and pathology in glioma diagnosis and treatment

LIU Yuqing, LIU Xing, JIANG Tao
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 64-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.011
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Abstract ( 152 )
The glioma is the most common and lethal malignant tumor in the central nervous system. The malignant progression and the poor prognosis could be traced to its polyclonal origin, the heterogeneity and the chemo-/radio-therapy resistance. The classical pathology is based on the morphology criteria, which could not reflect the genetic alterations and has a limited prognostic implication. It is an urgently task to construct the histology and the molecular biomarker based the detection system. With the development of the high-throughput and biological technique, great progresses have been made in the identification of the multi-omics-based classification and the detection of the biomarker, to provide a basis for the regulatory network exploration, the target discovering, the drug selection and the clinical application.

Study on the prognosis and functional recovery of patients with disorder of consciousness by bedside electroencephalogram test

XU Long, WANG Bo, WANG Yong, ZHAO Jizong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 68-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.012
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Abstract ( 110 )
The relationship between the testing results of remnant functions of patients with consciousness disorder and their prognosis is an important issue. Our study focuses on the clinical value of the mismatch negativity(MMN) applied for predicting the consciousness recovery and the long-term prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury patients. A retrospective research considers 6 cases of DOC, induced by severe brain injury. The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is tested and the long-term follow-up is made to record the variation of consciousness. A higher incidence rate of the MMN can be observed in MCS cases than in VS cases. In the long-term recovery, the MCS cases with MMN have more possibility of recovering to consciousness, but not the VS cases without MMN. Thus, as one of classical protocols of the event related potential(ERP), the MMN might be a method for predicting the consciousness recovery in the DOC cases, related with their prognosis.
Articles

The role of DNA damage and oxidative stress in radiation-induced heart disease

LIU Likun, OUYANG Weiwei, SU Shengfa, MA Zhu, LI Qingsong, WANG Yu, LUO Daxian, HE Zhixu, LU Bing
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 74-78. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.013
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Abstract ( 147 )
The radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a progressive disorder induced by radiation, which may take years or decades to manifest. It can affect various structures of the heart, with a series of cardiac complications. In recent years, it is reported that the heart damage caused by the conventional chest radiotherapy, especially the delayed type of myocardial injuries becomes very serious under the control of the normal tissue tolerance dose. The RIHD can increase the heart stiffness, decrease the myocardial systolic and diastolic functions, resulting in the myocardial electrophysiological dysfunction, the arrhythmia, the heart failure and the sudden death. At present, there is still a lack of effective treatment for the RIHD, the basic reason is that the causes and pathogenesis of the RIHD promoted chronic heart failure from early asymptomatic condition have not been fully clarified. This paper reviews the role of the DNA damage and the oxidative stress in the RIHD to help the prevention and treatment of the RIHD.

Progress of the role of bile acids and FXR in cell proliferation and differentiation

YANG Mei, ZHANG Fuchun, ZHANG Wenbao
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 79-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.014
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Abstract ( 149 )
The bile acids have many important physiological functions and are shown to play key roles in the digestion and absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins as well as in regulating the bile acid homeostasis, the lipids, the glucose and the energy metabolism. Recent evidences suggest that the bile acids and their nuclear receptor FXR play an important role in the cell proliferation, the differentiation, the apoptosis and the normal liver regeneration. This review elucidates the potential role of the bile acid-FXR signaling pathway in the cell proliferation, the differentiation and the liver regeneration, as well as highlights possible mechanisms involved. With the development of the bile acid-FXR signaling pathway in the cell proliferation, the differentiation and the liver regeneration, the related fundamental scientific research will be turned into practical applications in the clinical and preventive medicine.

Expression of microRNA and target gene in kidney of diabetic nephropathy mice

YANG Xuewei, LIANG Xiaodi, NUERSIMANGULI Aosiman, LU Jianfei, GUAN Yaqun, JIAO Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 84-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.015
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Abstract ( 116 )
In this paper, the expression of microRNAs in diabetic nephropathy is verified and the relationship between the target genes and the diabetic nephropathy is analyzed by qRT-PCR. With db/db mice as the model group (DN group) and db/m mice as normal group (NC group), we measure the weight, the blood glucose, the triglyceride, the total cholesterol and the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate in every mice. The renal tissue from the kidney of the DN and NC mice is taken for pathological examination and qRT-PCR. The difference of the expression levels of microRNAs is confirmed by qRT-PCR, and then the mRNA expression of the target genes is verified. The DN animal model is successfully constructed according to the blood glucose and the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate results. The expression levels of miR-196a, miR-21 and miR-200b are significantly increased in the DN mice compared with the NC mice, and the difference is statistically significant(P<0.05).The expression levels of miR-196a, miR-200b and miR-21 are positively correlated with the level of the blood glucose, the triglyceride, the total cholesterol and the 24h urinary protein excretion rate. The microRNAs database is used to predict the target genes of miR-196a, including ANX1, HOXB7, PTEN, FOXO1, HOXB8 and HOXA5. The expression levels of the ANX1 and the FOXO1 are significantly lower in the DN mice compared with the NC group, and the difference is statistically significant(P<0.05). There is a positive correlation between the ANX1, the FOXO1 and the 24 h urinary protein excretion rate. It is concluded that miR-196a may be involved in the development of the diabetic nephropathy to regulate the expressions of the ANX1 and the FOXO1.

Study on hyperspectral mineral identification based on characteristic spectrum peak-valley correlation coefficient method

CHE Yongfei, ZHAO Yingjun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 90-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.04.016
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Abstract ( 178 )
The stability of the spectrum parameters (width, depth and shape) in a mineral spectrum identification under different influencing factors is greatly influenced by the identification effects. It is shown that the positions of the peak and the valley of different minerals in the characteristic spectrum are more stable, and they are relatively stable characteristic parameters of the spectrum. This paper proposes a hyperspectral mineral identification algorithm based on the characteristic spectrum peak-valley correlation coefficient method, and the mathematical model and the operation flowchart of extracting the spectral stability parameters (the locations of the peak and the valley) are established. The algorithm is based on the extraction of the reference spectra peak-valley positions, and the calculations of the peaks and the valleys of minerals characteristic spectrum and the correlation coefficient of the corresponding measured mineral spectrum, to determine whether they exceed the thresholds, as the main basis of comparison of the similarity degree of mineral spectra. Gansu Beishan Shijinpo gold mining is taken as the study area, using the CAIS/SASI airborne hyperspectral data, and the algorithm is used to identify the regions of alteration minerals, and the results are compared with those obtained with the existing typical algorithms (SFF、SID、SAM). It is shown that the correct recognition rate of the algorithm is higher, and the accuracy of the algorithm can reach 85%.
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 94-95.
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Abstract ( 170 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 126 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 97-98.
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Abstract ( 216 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 99-99.
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Abstract ( 175 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 100-100.
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Abstract ( 123 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 5-6.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (4): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 154 )

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