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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 8
28 April 2017

Scientifc Comments
Articles
Foreword
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Special Issues
Suggestion
Books Recommendation
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 221 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 160 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 218 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 161 )
Special Issues

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 12-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.001
Full text: HTML PDF  (5231 KB)  ( 236 )
Abstract ( 313 )

Key materials and progress of fuel cells

LI Cunpu, CHEN Jiajia, LI Li, WEI Zidong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 19-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.002
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Abstract ( 399 )
Ion exchange membranes are the most important parts of fuel cells. According to its conduction ion species, the ion exchange membrane (IEM)includes the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and the anion exchange membrane(AEM), which are used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell (APEFC). This paper reviews the research and the application of these two types of batteries, focusing on the main problems of the common anion exchange membranes and its synthesis methods and the degradation mechanism. Finally, the developmental and research prospects are forecasted.

Research progress on all-solid-state lithium batteries

REN Yaoyu
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 26-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.003
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Abstract ( 482 )
The development of automobile, large-scale energy storage, and micro devices requires the ever increasing energy and power density and the improvement of the safety and operation temperature range of the secondary battery. All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) draw much attention recently as the most potential electrochemical energy storage device. In this review, the advantages of ASSLBs, i.e., the benefits of incorporating solid electrolytes on the improvement of the safety, energy and power density and expanding the operation temperature and application fields of lithium batteries, are summarized. The requirements for qualified solid electrolytes used as the key material in ASSLBs are also suggested, based on which the advantages and disadvantages of polymer electrolytes and inorganic solid electrolytes (especially sulfides and oxides) are discussed. The three configurations, i.e., thin film, 3D thin film, and bulk type, of ASSLBs are introduced. The history and present status of ASSLBs progressing from the thin film type to the bulk type are reviewed with the focus on the representative prototype batteries developed so far. The barriers associated with solid electrolyte materials that still hinder ASSLBs from achieving high safety, energy and power density are finally indicated.

Progress on application of solid oxide electrolysis cells

GE Ben, AI Desheng, LIN Xuping, YANG Zhibin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 37-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.004
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Abstract ( 361 )
A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) can be viewed as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that runs in a reverse mode. The high temperature steam electrolysis using the SOEC, with advantages of high efficiency and energy saving and as one method of hydrogen production, is a focal point of researches in the new energy technology domain. This paper reviews the principles of the SOEC and its applications both at home and abroad. Overall, compared with foreign countries, there is still a large gap in applications of the SOEC at present in our country. This review aims to attract research interests in China and to promote cooperation and application of the SOEC technology.

Review of the electrolyte materials in medium or low temperature solid oxide fuel cell

LIN Xuping, XU Shun, AI Desheng, GE Ben, PENG Zhijian
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 47-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.005
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Abstract ( 309 )
The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), a kind of all solid state electrochemical energy conversion device with high energy conversion efficiency (up to 70%) and less environmental pollution, is one of the ideal choice for the fossil fuel power generation technology in the future. The SOFC has a wide operating temperature range of about 450~1000℃. At high temperatures (800~1000℃), the fuel selection is more flexible, but with a series of problems, such as the more serious material performance attenuation, the higher system cost and the slower switching speed. Thus, reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC becomes an important research target at present. One of the major challenges in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC is the development of solid electrolyte materials which can provide a sufficient conductivity to make the ohmic loss of the system acceptable during the operation process. In this paper, the research progress of the solid electrolyte materials development for the SOFC is reviewed, including the fluorite type, the perovskite type and the compound type. And the future research directions of the solid electrolyte materials towards medium or low temperature solid oxide fuel cells are discussed. The perovskite type electrolyte material is expected to become the first choice for medium and low temperature SOFC electrolyte materials in future, due to its high ionic conductivity and abundant modified space.

Advances of one dimensional lead-free piezoelectric micro/nanomaterials in the field of energy conversion

CHENG Liqian, FENG Mei, ZHANG Boran, ZHANG Huifeng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 54-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.006
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Abstract ( 146 )
Green energies, with their new candidates, have attracted worldwide interest due to the threatening of the global environmental pollution and the energy crises. The piezoelectric materials can generate an output signal with a strain, and has become one of the key research objects in the field of energy and materials. The lead-free system has attracted much attention among the piezoelectric material systems due to its comparable piezoelectric properties and the lead-free nature. With the development of micro/nano-structures, one dimensional lead-free piezoelectric micro/nano-materials have become one of the most popular research topics in the field of piezoelectric systems. However, the preparation and the characterization of one-dimensional lead-free piezoelectric micro/nano-materials is still in the initial stage. Moreover, the related research and application of the energy conversion and other aspects are also under the exploration. One dimensional lead-free piezoelectric micro/nano-materials are taken as a focus in this review, together with the syntheses methods of crystal growth and a brief description of the application in the field of the energy conversion, and the prospect of one-dimensional lead-free piezoelectric micro/nano materials in the field of energy conversion is also discussed.

Progress of tin oxide-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

LIU Ruiping, SU Weiming, LI Jiaxin, SHEN Chao, ZHANG Chao, HE Peng, WANG Qi
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 60-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.007
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Abstract ( 225 )
As an N-type semi-conductor, the tin dioxide (SnO2) based anode materials have received a great attention due to its high theoretical capacity (782 mA·h/g) and high energy density. However, the poor cycling performance resulting from the electrode pulverization and the electrical disconnection caused by large volume changes (about 300%) during the charge and discharge process and the poor rate properties resulting from the low electrical conductivity of SnO2 have limited its development. To address these problems, one strategy is to construct various nanostructures, including the nanoparticles, the nanowires, the nanofibers, the nanotubes, the nanosheets and the nanospheres. In addition to the nanosizing SnO2 particles, the SnO2 based hybrids as the anode materials for the LIBs have been also studied intensively to enhance the reaction reversibility. This paper mainly reviews the research progress of tin dioxide based anode materials based on the two aspects of nanosizing and preparing SnO2 based hybrids, including the hybrids with other metal oxides, the amorphous carbon, the carbon nanotubes and the graphene. Finally, we also discuss the existing issues and challenges in the development of SnO2-based anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
Articles

Purification and functional analysis of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α

KONG Chao, LI Dan, YUAN Xiaojun, LI Bin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 70-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.008
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Abstract ( 324 )
The Tandem Affinity Purification(TAP)is a powerful tool for the investigation of the protein-protein interactions under physiological or similar conditions. Many previous studies including our group's identified massive protein-protein interactions by manipulating the TAP system. However, almost all of these studies were focused on the interactions between the endocellular transcription factors, not so much on the extracellular ligand-transmembrane receptor mediated signal transduction process. This paper establishes an EX-TAP system for analyzing the extracellular ligand-transmembrane receptor mediated signal initial transduction process,constructs a prokaryotic recombinant protein expressing system and purifies a multi-tagged recombinant TNF-α from bacteria. The TNF-α is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory factor which triggers the initial inflammation in vivo and is well defined in the past few decades, which is helpful for the identification of the feasibility of our EX-TAP system. By testing the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of the transcription factor κB, under the TNFR pathway, our recombinant TNF-α is determined biologically similar to the natural TNF-α and is functionally available to the EX-TAP system.

Safety risk measures and visualization for heavy metal pollution in mining area soil

XIONG Lixin, QIN Yaguang, WANG Wei, ZHANG Chaobo
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 75-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.009
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Abstract ( 200 )
Years of high intensity metal mining would lead to a heavy metal enrichment in soil in the mining area. Combining the remotely sensed data and the 3D laser detection data, a 3D geo-model is generated. 367 sampling points are reasonablly arranged, the safety risks of Cd, As, Cu, Zn and Pb are analyzed. The experimental results indicate that with the heavy metal serious enrichment in soil in mining area, the contents of Zn and Pb are very high. The coefficient of variation sees a large difference, the Cs of Cd, As, Cu, Zn and Pb are in the normal distribution. The indexes of the pollution are all in Ⅴ category. The influence factors are in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>As>Cu. The potential ecological risk index RI is 787.29, the HQ of Cu, Zn and Pb are less than 1, but Cd and As may have a high health risk (especially As). The visual expression of the risk in the 3D model is realized, providing an intuitive decision-making basis for the safe production management in the mine area.

Main meteorological disasters and risk assessment in Shanxi Province: Based on empirical analysis of rainstorm and flood disaster data

WANG Wenjuan, LI Liping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 81-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.010
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Abstract ( 217 )
From the perspective of empirical research based on the flood meteorological data fusion of Shanxi province, a flood disaster risk assessment model is established, based on the data at 109 meteorological stations in Shanxi Province, including the rainstorm and flood data in 1957-2008, a high degree of integration of the data of the economic development of Shanxi province and the geographic data, with considerations of the disaster factors and the four dimensions of the disaster body factors, the disaster prevention and reduction factors of Shanxi Province.The cities of Taiyuan, Datong, Yangquan, Shuozhou, Jinzhong and Linfen are chosen for empirical analysis, and the comprehensive evaluation of the flood disaster of six city disaster index is made. The research results can not only guide the practical work of Shanxi province in the storm flood forecasting and the disaster prevention and mitigation, but also serve as a unique analysis of the meteorological disasters based on a theoretical method.

Formulation optimization and performance evaluation of polymer gel profile control agent

WEI Yunyun, LUO Litao, LIU Xiangui, LIU Weidong, YANG Zhengming
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 88-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.08.011
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Abstract ( 270 )
The Polymer Gel Profile Control technology is one of the effective way to improve the water injection efficiency and stabilize the reservoir production. In this paper, a series of single factor variable experiments are carried out to study the effects of a number of factors on the polymer gel profile control agent and the polymer gel profile control agent is developed and evaluated for no.4 well area reservoir of the Shinan Oilfield. The results show that in the univariate preconditions, the gel strength increases with the increase of the concentrations of the polymer, the crosslinker, and the stabilizer and decreases with the increase of the concentration of the salinity; the gel time decreases with the increase of the concentrations of the polymer, the crosslinker, the salinity and is essentially unchanged with the variation of the concentration of the stabilizer. The gel strength decreases with the increase of the aging time, the temperature, and the shear strength. The drag coefficient and the residual resistance factor increase with the increase of the injection volume of the polymer gel profile control agent, and the gap between the drag coefficient and the residual resistance factor increases with the increase of the injection volume of the polymer gel profile control agent. The plugging rate rises slowly firstly, then rapidly and remains stabilized at last. The polymer with the 25 million molecular weight of 1500 mg/L, the crosslinker of 0.3%, the stabilizer of 0.1%, the salinity of 26g/L, the injection volume of 0.25 PV of the polymer gel profile control agent and the pre-slug of 0.15 PV + the main slug of 0.25 PV + the postpad slug of 0.1 PV of the injection mode are recommended for no. 4 well area reservoir of the Shinan Oilfield.
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 94-94.
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Abstract ( 161 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 144 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 95-95.
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Abstract ( 157 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 96-97.
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Abstract ( 158 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 98-98.
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Abstract ( 142 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 99-99.
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Abstract ( 161 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 5-6.
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Abstract ( 131 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 145 )
Books Recommendation

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (8): 100-100.
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Abstract ( 194 )

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