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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 9
13 May 2017

Scientifc Comments
Articles
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Special Issues
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 122 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 230 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 168 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 217 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 111 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 12-12.
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Abstract ( 235 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 109-109.
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Abstract ( 398 )
Special Issues

Eutrophication and control measures of key lakes in the Yangtze River Basin

LI Linlin, LU Shaoyong, MENG Wei, LIU Xiaohui, GUO Xiaochun, WAN Zhengfen
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 13-22.
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Abstract ( 240 )
In recent decades, lake eutrophication has severely limited the economic and social sustainable development in the lake basin. To repair the ecological environment and promote the development of the Yangtze river economic belt, solutions to the lake’s eutrophication problem are urgently needed. The six key lakes along the Yangtze river are taken as the research objects, and their historical changes, characteristics, cause analysis and control measures for eutrophication are discussed. It is shown that the eutrophication indexs of the six lakes have been gradually reduced in recent years and the state of lake eutrophication has a tendency of getting better. Causes of lake eutrophication are complex, the main influence factors include exogenous input and endogenous release. In terms of of lake forms and hydrological conditions, the six lakes are shallow lakes and mostly are closed or semi-closed state, which is advantageous to the accumulation of nutrients and algae growth. The control measures of exogenous input are relatively mature and can greatly reduce the nutrients discharged into the lake, such as the expansion of the sewage treatment plant, improvement of sewage treatment and supporting pipe network construction. But for internal release, the governance process is relatively complicated. At present there are mainly physical and chemical methods and technologies such as dredging, sediment oxidation, chemical precipitation, sediment cover, microbial agents, biological floating bed, and so on. Due to the differences of physical and chemical conditions, the applicable method to each lake is also different, so the appropriate lake endogenous control technology remains to be demonstrated. Controlling nutrients input from inside and outside sources, executing river ecological restoration and security governance, and management together could ensure the long-term effectiveness of eutrophic lakes governance.

Research progress in influence factors of phosphorus removal in constructed wetland systems

QIU Fuguo, XU Yanqiu, XU Junting, FU Kunming
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 23-29.
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Abstract ( 285 )
Phosphorus is one of the main causes of eutrophication of water bodies. Constructed wetland can remove phosphorus effectively and economically. This paper discusses the mechanism of phosphorus removal in constructed wetland, and reviews the physical/chemical/biological reactions for phosphorus removal by wetland plants, microorganisms and media in the constructed wetland. The effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic retention time and hydraulic load on the phosphorus purification in constructed wetland are discussed. The development and application of non-media constructed wetland for pollutants removal in water are also discussed.

Effects of Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+ on single and joint toxicities of loach

LU Shaoyong, ZHAO Budiao, LIU Jie, ZHU Xu, CHEN Fangxin, WU Xin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 30-34.
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Abstract ( 202 )
In order to study the acute toxicity of three kinds of ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+) on loach and the change of the processed loach liver antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation, experiments have been conducted. The result shows that for loach exposed to Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+ solutions, the 24 h half-lethal concentrations are Zn2+ 3.243 and Al3+ 1.497 mg/L; the 48h half-lethal concentrations are Cu2+1.054 mg/L, Zn2+3.017 mg/L and Al3+ 1.425 mg/L; the 72 h half-lethal concentrations are Cu2+ 0.666, Zn2+3.017 and Al3+ 1.386 mg/L; the 96 h halflethal concentrations are Cu2+ 0.563 mg/L, Zn2+ 2.874 mg/L and Al3+ 1.350 mg/L. The 96 h safe concentrations are Cu2+0.563 mg/L, Zn2+ 2.874 mg/L, and Al3+ 1.350 mg/L. Thus, the order of toxicity to loach from strong to weak is Cu2+>Al3+>Zn2+. For loach exposed to a Cu2+-Zn2+-Al3+ mixed solution, the 48 h, 72 h, the 96 h joint toxicity effect performances are respectively antagonistic action, antagonistic action, and synergy. The safe Zn2+ concentration of loach is 0.029 mg/L, which is far lower than 0.10 mg/L, the National Standard of Fishery Water Quality in China.

Progress in pharmaceutical and personal care products removal by constructal wetland

YANG Haiyan, YANG Bo, SUN Guangdong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 35-40.
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Abstract ( 216 )
Pharmaceutical and personal care products(PPCPs) can be characterized by being persistent and non-degradable, and their bioaccumulation can be potentially harmful to the ecological environment. Proper and effective control of PPCPs in the sewage has become a major challenge for us. Known as an ecological wastewater treatment technology, constructed wetland is greatly concerned nowadays in the research of PPCPs removal. This paper starts with an overview which compares constructed wetland with its counterparts including wasterwater treatment plant(WWTP) and the advanced treatment (WWTP followed by UV treatment). Then it arrives at the conclusion that most of PPCPs removal efficiencies of the constructed wetland are as good as or even better than those of the conventional wasterwater treatment plants. The factors affecting the removal efficiency are analysed, and it is found that light, plants, matrix and microorganisms all contribute to the removal efficiency of PPCPs in a varying degrees. Finally, promising research directions of constructed wetland for removing PPCPs are predicted.

Analysis of main rivers vegetation features in Erhai lakeside and buffer zone

LU Shaoyong, ZHANG Senlin, JIN Xin, BI Runcheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 41-49.
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Abstract ( 205 )
Based on an investigation of vegetation in the Erhai lakeside and buffer zone in January 2016 and other available data, the plant community structure and diversity within that area are quantitatively analyzed using the theory of plant geography and plot survey. The results show the followings. 199 species belonging to 144 genera in 56 families are found in the Erhai lakeside and buffer zone. There are 6 community types, including emergent macrophytes, floating-leaved plants, floating plants, submergrd macrophytes, wetland plants, arbor, and frute. The wetland holds 7 associations, such as Salix sp.-Bougainvillea spectabilis-Ageratina adenophora, Taxodium distichum var. imbricatum-Anemone flaccida-Phragmites australis, Taxodium distichum var. imbricatum-Anemone flaccida-Phragmites australis. Ophiopogon japonicas-Ageratina adenophora. There are 12 distribution patterns and 10 variants. The distribution and composition of plants are complex.

Evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control techniques using a grey analytic hierarchy process for Lake Erhai

ZHANG Ping, LU Shaoyong, PAN Chengrong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 50-55.
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Abstract ( 166 )
Agricultural non-point source pollution is probably the largest source of water pollution, contributing to eutrophication of Lake Erhai. In this paper, a non-point source pollution control technology evaluation index system considering environmental benefit, economic benefit and ecological benefit is established, and the indicators include TP removal efficiency, COD removal efficiency, ammonia removal efficiency, construction cost, operating cost, technology stability, management easiness degree and ecological coordination degree. At the same time, on the basis of non-point source pollution control technology choice in Lake Erhai, the hierarchy-grey correlation analysis method is used to evaluate the comprehensive correlation degrees of alternative technologies and obtain the optimal solution. The result shows that in the sewage pollution control alternatives, soil purification tank is the optimal scheme. In livestock and poultry breeding pollution control alternatives, substrate cultivation technique is the optimal. In farmland pollution control schemes, constructed wetland is the optimal.

Evaluation of water environment quality and risk assessment for main inflow rivers of Nansi Lake

Liu Ying, Dong Wenping, Liu Peng, Liu Xiaohui, Wang Weiliang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 56-61.
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Abstract ( 252 )
In order to study the water environment quality and risk of the main inflow rivers of Nansi Lake, water was sampled in fourteen inflow rivers in 2013. Three routine(COD, NH3-N and TP)indexes and the concentrations of 4 heavy metals(Cr, As, Cd and Pb)were analyzed. Water quality, spatial distribution characteristics and risk of heavy metals were assessed using a combination method of comprehensive pollution index, analytic hierarchy and risk quotient. The results are shown as follows: The most polluted rivers are Xuechengxiaosha river, Xuechengdasha river, Chengguo river and Laoyun river, whose values of comprehensive pollution index are 1.943, 1.744, 1.302 and 1.713, respectively; and attention should be paid to the pollution of TP. The result of analytic hierarchy agrees with the result of comprehensive pollution index. The result of risk quotient for heavy metals shows that the risks of Cr6+, Pb and As are lower but Cd has a certain risk. The overall water quality of inflow rivers of Nansi Lake is good.
Articles

Exploring the power of mind: Status and prospect of brain-computer interfaces

ZHANG Dan, LI Jiawei
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 62-67.
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Abstract ( 619 )
Brain-computer interface establishes a direct communication pathway between the human brain and the external world by realtime decoding the brain activities accompanying our thinking process. In the past two decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, with a series of important research and application results. The article reviews the state-of-art research in three main directions, namely communication and control, function rehabilitation and enhancement, status recognition and monitoring. Finally, opportunities and challenges for future development are discussed.

Overview of developing status quo and trend of modern heavy lift airships

YAN Feng, HUANG Wanning, YANG Yanchu, ZHU Rongchen
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 68-80.
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Abstract ( 377 )
Modern heavy lift airship is a new kind of air vehicles which employ traditional airship technology, fixed-wing aircraft technology, rotary-wing aircraft technology and hovercraft technology. It has become one of the most popular vehicles due to its transportation advantages such as large carrying capacity, high maneuverability and no need of ground infrastructure. This article overviews the developing status quo of heavy lift airships and introduces in detail some related projects of airships for technical demonstration. The feasibility of the technology is investigated in terms of aerodynamic shape, forming-defining elements, buoyancy control and air cushion landing system. Finally, the future development of modern heavy lift airships is predicted.

Research progress in solidification/stabilization technology for contaminated soil remediation

ZHANG Ruzhuang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 81-86.
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Abstract ( 328 )
Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology is a well-established remediation technology for contaminated soil. In this paper, the contaminant types, remediation ingredients, and delivery methods related to this technology are described. S/S technology is applicable to both organic and inorganic pollutants. Portland cement materials and various additives are the widely applied remediation ingredients used in S/S processes. On the other hand, S/S technology is applicable not only to in situ process but also to ex situ process. What’s more, according to the Superfund Remedy Report of EPA, the application of S/S in soil remediation is introduced and analyzed. Finally, the need for further research and development of S/S is emphasized in order to overcome different challenges.

Terrorist events monitoring and identifying based on correlation between social networks and events

LI Ze, SUN Duoyong, LI Bo
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 87-94.
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Abstract ( 338 )
The social networks of terrorist organization and terrorist events are changing correlatively. Based on the correlation between social networks and events, detecting changes in the networks may effectively help monitor and identify terrorist events. Terrorist attack early-warning is regarded as a classification problem, and neural network is used to solve this problem. The time when any terrorist attack happens is identified as a "change" point. Then the corresponding network is labeled as a changed one. Accordingly, the time sequence networks are classified into two sets:"changed" and "unchanged". Measures of networks are obtained by social network analysis to represent networks. Hybrid heuristic algorithms are applied to optimizing the neural network. The classified network measures and the Boolean data of whether the terrorist events have happened are taken as the input and output, respectively. A real-world case study is given to show that detecting changes in terrorist networks based on neural network has the ability to monitor and identify terrorist events. Comparison results also show that the proposed approach can solve the problems such as versatility, accuracy and correlation encountered by the existing methods to some extent.

Repetitive transcranial megnetic stimulation for Alzheimer's patient: A meta-analysis

LIANG Baojin, WANG Xiaowen, ZHANG Han, WANG Yue, LIANG Tao, TANG Jingtian
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 95-99.
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Abstract ( 323 )
Recent studies have proved that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations(rTMS) could improve cognitive function in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains controversial in clinical effects. In this work, Embase, medline, Cochrane Library, Ovid, Pubmed, Web of science, and Chinese Database are searched for studies of rTMS treatment on AD patients with cognitive impairment published before 2015, and randomized studies with relevant primary outcomes of cognition are included. The outcome is expressed as the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies, comprising a total sample size of 223 AD patients (137 from stimulation groups, 86 from control groups), are included in this meta-analysis. The effect of RTMS treatment on cognition is found in the outcome of MMSE (SMD=1.05, 95% CI:0.21,1.88, p=0.01, n=141). Subgroup analysis shows that high frequency stimulation (>1 Hz) (p= 0.02) but not low frequency stimulation (≤1 Hz) (p=0.27) is significantly effective in improving cognition of AD patients. The outcome of ADAS-cog shows that rTMS treatment is significantly effective in improving cognition of AD patients (SMD=-0.71, 95% CI:-1.04,-0.39, p< 0.0001, n=168). High frequency stimulation (>1 Hz) (p<0.001) is significantly effective compared to the low frequency stimulation (≤1 Hz) (p=0.05). Transcranial magnetic stimulation has significant therapeutic effect on cognitive function in Alzheimer's patients. High frequency stimulation is significantly effective compared to the low frequency stimulation. Due to the small number of studies included, more studies should be evaluated in AD patients in the future.

The development of a Melanogrammus aeglefinus DNA standard sample

JIANG Dan, LIU Yu, DING Jian, MA Minmin, Meng Ju, HUANG Yaojiang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 100-106.
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Abstract ( 295 )
To help identify marine fish and provide a reference standard for identification of Melanogrammus aeglefinus, a standard sample for Melanogrammus aeglefinus is established in this study. With collaboration of eight labs, concentration and quality of DNA are tested. The concentration value is (2.02±0.07) μg (k=2) and the purity value of DNA is 1.82±0.08 (k=2) which indicates good quality of samples. PCR and electrophoresis are used to test the uniformity, stability and value analysis of the samples. The results show that these samples in this study meet the technical requirements of national standards and that the method can be used for calibration and quality control of Melanogrammus aeglefinus.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 107-108.
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Abstract ( 259 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 110-110.
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Abstract ( 194 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 111-111.
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Abstract ( 265 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 112-112.
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Abstract ( 256 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 5-6.
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Abstract ( 131 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (9): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 120 )

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