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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 12
28 June 2017

Articles
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
Exclusive: Diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 149 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 218 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 180 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 166 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 11-13.
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Abstract ( 287 )
Articles

Ecosystem development and biodiversity of Tibetan Plateau

ZHANG Yubo, DU Jinhong, LI Junsheng, LI Junqing, MENG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 14-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.001
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Abstract ( 527 )
The Tibetan Plateau is the highest and special geographical unit in the world and is of a great importance to China's and even global ecological security. This paper analyzes the formation processes of the present landform and climate frames, as well as the development of the ecosystem and the biodiversity of the Tibetan Plateau. Under the background of the global climate change, we make three suggestions to enhance our capacity to tackle the climate change, 1) building an ecological monitor system covering the whole Tibetan Plateau, 2) establishing a space-ground monitor system and an information platform and 3) monitoring and evaluating ecological conservation projects.

Bio-ecological resources of saline lakes in Tibet and their economic prospect

JIA Qinxian, LIU Xifang, WANG Hongping, LIU Shasha, LUO Yuhu, CHEN Lijing, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 19-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.002
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Abstract ( 253 )
In the paper, the concept of "saline Lake" and its studies are reviewed, focusing on the historical survey data of biological and ecological resources of Tibet Saline Lakes. Based on the survey data obtained by our research team during the last 20 years, the 209 lakes in the northern Tibet are classified into various salinity groups and various area groups. Based on both the northern Tibet ecological characteristics and the ecological demand for the regional economic development, the lake resource potential is analyzed with respect to the Artemia ecological restoration in Tibet saline lakes, as well as the advantages and the significance of developing the saline lake agriculture. Some principles of ecological protection and development of biological resources in the Saline Lake system are proposed.The species resources and the distribution characteristics of phytoplankton and zooplankton and macrophytes are discussed, focusing on the biological resources and their scientific values, including the diatom, the Artemia, the salt alga (Dunaliella sp.), the water agaric (Nostoc sp.), the stonewort(Charophyta) and the pondweed (Potamogeton sp.).From the successful experiences of the ecological restoration in the Tibet Dangqong Co saline lake, the significance and the economic importance of the saline lake ecological restoration are clearly seen. The resource situation and the prospect of development and utilization of Daphniopsis tibetana Sars and Dunaliella sp. in Tibet are discussed, and the cold-water fish aquaculture as the competitive industry is proposed; the sci-technological base and the government effective management are considered as the fundamental guarantee to develop the bioindustry of salt lakes in Tibet.

Halophilic microoganisms in salt lakes on Tibet Plateau and their potential application

KONG Fanjing, WANG Xianjie
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 27-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.003
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Abstract ( 295 )
The halophilic microorganisms, living in salt lakes distributed over the Tibet Plateau,"The third polar of the Earth", are unique bio-resources. The main species groups of the halophilic microorganisms and their response mechanism to the saline stress are reviewed in this paper, as well as the advances of studies of the halophilic microorganisms in the Tibet Plateau and the potential applications of these kinds of bioresources. The halophilic microorganisms are novel and unique bioresource in understanding the life origin and the nature of life, as well as in exploring the new type of food, medicine, materials and the biotechnology.

Eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton community in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau saline lakes

WANG Jiali, CHU Limin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 32-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.004
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Abstract ( 234 )
The Saline Lake storage of the rich mineral resources and biological resources provides an optimum contribution to the economy and the development of industry and agriculture. The eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton is usually defined as a plankton in the range from 0.2 to 3 μm diameter. The high genetic diversity of the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton communities is observed in the HighMountain saline lakes. In recent years, the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton attracts attentions of many researchers and many useful observations were made in the literature. The present paper summarizes the recent research progresses in systematic and biodiversity of the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton, the composition and the distribution of the inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam Basin of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau. And it is pointed out that each kind of molecular biology research techniques has limitations. Some suggestions are made about the studies of the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton inhabiting saline lakes, including how to promote the research of genetic diversity of eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton inhabiting saline lakes, how to carry out the research work based on the microbial cultivation and the pure culture isolation for eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton inhabiting saline lakes, how to tap the potential of research for the evolutionary studies based on the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton inhabiting saline lakes, and how to promote the studies of the biological functions of the eukaryotic pico-and nano-plankton inhabiting saline lakes.

Application of natural energy in salt precipitation from Tibetan salt lakes

LI Wu, DONG Yaping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.005
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Abstract ( 329 )
Salt lakes are well developed in Tibet, most of which are located in high altitude regions, where the transportation is inconvenient, the local ecological environment is fragile and without an industrial base. Based on the social and economic development level and the poor natural conditions in Tibet, the lithium and boron utilization should be considered a priority in the salt lake exploitation after combining the utilization of the potassium resource. In this paper, our cooperation experiment and field work with companies are reviewed, including the development of the lithium extraction technology from the sulfate-type salt lake of Cabocuo, and the coupled exploitation technology of Jiezechaka (carbonate-type) salt lake and Longmucuo salt lake (sulfate-type). And finally, the unique natural salt precipitation routing is suggested both for the sulfate-type salt lakes and the sulfate-carbonate type salt lakes.

Metallogenic correlation of special salt lake and hydrotherm,QinghaiTibet Plateau,China

LUO Yangbing, ZHENG Mianping, REN Yaqiong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 44-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.006
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Abstract ( 235 )
The Qinghai-Tibet plateau special salt lakes are formed in the collision zone between two continental plates.The deep molten material of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau,since the tertiary formation and quaternary period,enjoys its unique composition (B,Li,Cs,As,K) diffused to upper crust surface in the form of hot water.The salt lakes in the Huan'ang area contain the highest contents of B,K,Cs,Rb in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.Zheng et al.for the first time found the Miocene volcanic sedimentary dual structure,with the volcanic and hydrothermal activities as the main source of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau special components in the salt lake.The hot water in the QinghaiTibet plateau is widely distributed,the tropical geothermal water from south to north is divided into five kinds.The hot water in the tropical Shiquan river-Brahmaputra and the tropical Bangonghu-Nujiang and Guide-south Qilian,is rich in B,Li,Cs,Rb,and As.The salt lakes distributed surrounding these three tropical regions are also rich in these elements.The contents of Li,Cs,Rb,As and U elements,the chemical characteristics of the lake and ground water,the Rb/Cs and Ni/Co coefficients and the isotopic values in special salt lakes are different from those in the general salt lake and sea water,but are the same as those of the geothermal water in this area.At the same time,the water chemical characteristics of special salt lake and hot waters have a good corresponding relation.All water supplies of the QinghaiTibet plateau salt lake and hot water contain the highest level of Li,B,K,Rb and Cs elements.In conclusion,the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau special salt lakes are rich in Li,K and B elements and have a high correlation with the geothermal water.

Exploitation of carbonate lithium salt lake in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,China

NIE Zhen, WU Qian, BU Lingzhong, WANG Yunsheng, YU Jiangjiang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 49-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.007
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Abstract ( 239 )
Lithium salt lakes are well developed in China with abundant chemical types.The quaternary salt lakes,with good exploitation prospects,are mainly distributed in Chinese northwestern regions,especially,in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The lithium,as an energy metal,is of great significance for the domestic economy and the national security.Recently,the lithium industry sees a rapid development in the world due to the new energy policies of the main economical countries.The exploitation of the lithium resources from salt lakes is a new focus.The distribution,the brine chemical characteristics,as well as the industrialization of the carbonate type lithium salt lakes are reviewed in this paper.The two main technologies to exploit the carbonate type lithium salt lake brines,the salinity gradient solar pond technology and the mixing brine technology,are discussed,as well as their utilization in salt lakes.With a discussion of combining the two technologies,the possibility of exploitation in large scale of the carbonate type lithium salt lakes is indicated.

Progresses of phase equilibria and thermodynamics of the plateau lithium-containing brine systems

LI Long, GUO Yafei, ZHANG Sisi, DENG Tianlong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 55-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.008
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Abstract ( 234 )
Salt lakes in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the western China are famous for their high concentration of the lithium ion.The major chemical composition of brines can be expressed as the complex brine system of Li+,Na+,K+,Mg2+//Cl-,SO42-,CO23-,borate-H2O.Studies of the phase equilibria and thermodynamics of salt-water systems are of great significance either for the comprehensive utilization of brine resources or for the understanding of the genesis,the metallogenic process and the chemical behavior of these brines.In this paper,the stable and metastable phase equilibria of lithium-containing salt-water systems and thermodynamics of several lithium salts and their aqueous solutions are reviewed.And the problems at the present and the new trends in the future are discussed.

Saline lake potash resources in Tibet

LIU Xifang, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 62-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.009
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Abstract ( 200 )
Common salts and resources of some special elements are found in the saline lakes in the Tibet.In this paper,the survey history of the saline lakes in the Tibet is reviewed briefly,the reserves of the potash resource in the saline lakes is estimated according to the prospected results,as well as the amount of the potash resources in the saline lakes according to the detailed sampling,The perspective of the potash resources in the saline lakes in the Tibet is analyzed,as well as the source of the mineralization materials.Some suggestions are made for the potash mining in the saline lakes.

Development and utilization of potash resources of saline lakes in Qinghai province

HOU Xianhua, FAN Fu, ZHENG Mianping, SONG Pengsheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 67-71. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.010
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Abstract ( 225 )
Potassium is one of the three essential nutrients for the crop growth and is recognized as the "food" of food.The potassium source in our country is in shortage,and the degree of dependence on the foreign import is high in all time.Qaidam basin is the important resource base of the potassium,and the potash fertilizer production (Potassium chloride) covers 87% of the total output in China.The potash is important for guaranteeing the need of the national economical and agricultural development,for stabilizing the international potash prices,changing the mode of economic growth,and building a resource conservation and environment friendly society.However,based on the limited resources in the sallow part of the salt lake in the Quaternary period of the Qaidam Basin,and the limited guarantee time,a new type big brine sylvite deposit in the west of Qaidam Basin is found recently under the buried depth of 350 m.This is expected to become the potash replacement area of Qarhan,which is the largest fertilizer production base in China.

Research progress of salt minerals in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

ZHANG Xuefei, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 72-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.011
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Abstract ( 201 )
There are a great number of salt lakes in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and salt lakes are rich in salt minerals in.Fifty three kinds of salt minerals are found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,and according to the chemical types they are divided into the chloride,the sulphate,the carbonate and the borax.Five new minerals are first found,including the hungchaoite,the macallisterite,the carboborite in the Da Qaidam Lake,the qilianshanite in the Juhongtu and the zabuyelite in the Zabuye Lake.According to Professor Zheng Mianping,the saline minerals are divided into the cold,warm and eurythermal saline minerals.It is known as a "temperature-hygrometer" as far as the ancient climate is concerned.In recent years,the climatic significance of salt minerals is gradually recognized.According to the temperature of formation and preservation,the salt minerals can be divided into the cold salt mineral,the warm salt mineral and the wide temperature salt mineral.This kind of classification is known as the "temperature-humidity meter" of the ancient climate.The mirabilite,as a representative of the typical cold salt minerals,is formed in the stable and unstable salt layer in different temperatures.On the other hand,the zabuyelitewill is formed easily in a higher temperature,so it is called typical warm salt mineral.According to the symbiotic relationship of different minerals,we can study the palaeo-environment and paleo-climate of the lake.

Boron Resource of Salt Lakes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

LIN Yongjie, ZHENG Mianping, LIU Xifang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 77-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.012
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Abstract ( 286 )
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has rich salt lake resources,especially the boron resources in salt lakes,as the most promising localities of born deposits in China.The boron resources of salt lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are divided into two types,i.e.,the solid type and the liquid type,and the amount of liquid boron resource is predominant,however,the mostly utilized are the solid boron resources.The boron deposits in salt lakes of different subtypes have different mineral combinations,with various types of solid boron ore.At present,fourteen borate minerals have been found in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,and the solid boron ore can be divided into five types:the borax type;the Mg-borax-ulexite type;the pinnoite-kurnakovite type;the kurnakovite type;the uelxite-pinnoite type.China is rich in boron resources,but the exploitable boron resources are rather limited,with an imbalance between the supply and the demand.The exploitation and the utilization of the boron deposits of salt lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have important scientific and practical significance.

Geological characteristics of lead-zinc ore deposits in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

WANG Liqiang, TANG Juxing, DANZHEN Wangxiu, WANG Yong, LI Zhuang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 83-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.013
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Abstract ( 163 )
The Pb-Zn mineral resource is one of the very important mineral resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,especially,in the Gangdese region of Tibet,which becomes the substitutable base of Pb-Zn polymetallic mineral resources in China.Based on previous studies,the distribution,the mineralization ages,the deposit type and the resource reserves of the Pb-Zn ore deposits in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are reviewed in this paper.And then,the relationship between the utilization prospects of the mineral resources and the economic development is analyzed.

Copper resource in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

WANG Qin, TANG Juxing, XIE Fuwei, LIN Bin, LI Yubin, GUO Xiaoyu
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 89-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.12.014
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Abstract ( 210 )
The development and the utilization of copper deposits in the Tibetan Plateau have a long history.The Tibetan Plateau is under a unique metallogenic geologic condition of copper deposits due to its complex geological structure and the geological evolution process,and the copper deposits become one of the most important types of mineral deposits in the Tibetan Plateau.The proven resource of copper in the Tibetan Plateau ranks the first in China,and the Tibetan Plateau becomes the most important producer of copper and the bake-up base of the copper resource.The copper deposits in the Tibetan Plateau are mainly distributed in the Yulong copper metallogenic belt,the Gangdise copper metallogenic belt and the Bangong Co-Nujiang copper metallogenic belt,and are mainly formed in the Himalayan and Yanshanian period,which suggests that their formation and evolution are closely related to the plateau tectonic-magmatic events,and to the major geological events of the Tibetan Plateau.These deposits involve complex causes of deposit formation and have a very high comprehensive utilization value.In this paper,the genetic types of the main types of copper deposits in the Tibetan Plateau are introduced,taking the Tiegelongnan copper (gold) deposit,the Xiongcun copper-gold deposit,the Jiama copper-polymetallic deposit and the Qulong copper-molybdenum deposit as examples.The huge potential of copper resources of the Tibetan Plateau will change the pattern of the copper resources in China,but while we develop copper resources,at the same time,we should pay attention to the coordinated development of resource development and environmental protection.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 96-96.
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Abstract ( 162 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 97-97.
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Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 98-98.
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Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 99-99.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 99-99.
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Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 100-100.
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Abstract ( 156 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 5-6.
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Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 8-8.
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Exclusive: Diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (12): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 142 )

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