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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 13
13 July 2017

Special lssues
Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
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Voice of Scientific Community
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 0-0.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 1-1.
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News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 7-7.
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News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 9-9.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 11-12.
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Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 13-13.
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Abstract ( 217 )
Special lssues

Overview of filtered containment venting in China

YANG Jun, YANG Ye, SUI Zengguang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 14-17. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.001
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Abstract ( 269 )
To mitigate severe accidents (SAs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs), filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is designed to prevent the potential containment overpressure failure through the filtered venting process. So far, many investigations and research works have been initiated or resumed particularly about the reinforced FCVS, which is expected to become the standard configuration of most NPPs. The NPP safety regulation, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant design (HAF102) issued by the Chinese NNSA, requires that NPPs should have venting systems with adequate filtration. Now, either most NPPs of operating reactor units under construction or more units planned in China are going to be equipped with FCVS, with priority of Venturi scrubber type system. At present, major nuclear energy companies, research institutions and universities are initiating or accelerating research and engineering projects on FCVS designs with enhanced performance.
Spescial Issues

Design of a new aerosol generator for filtered containment venting system and its performance

ZHOU Xiafeng, GU Haifeng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 18-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.002
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Abstract ( 166 )
In the aerosol removal efficiency test of filtered containment venting system, the aerosol generator is used to produce the aerosols delivered to the main pipe of the filtered containment venting system under a system pressure of 1 to 6.5 MPa. The main ingredient of the aerosols is barium sulphate or titanium dioxide, with a mass median diameter of 1 micron and a geometric standard size distribution of 1~2; the concentration of the used aerosols should be held within a range of 50~900 mg/m3. Since existing generators are usually unable to generate and disperse the cohesive powders and unable to work in such a high pressure, a new kind of aerosol generator is designed, which can not only meet the requirements for the used aerosols but also realize the function of continuously providing powders in high pressure situation. Through experiments, it is shown that the relative error of the value of aerosols generated and transmitted by the new generator is less than 15%, and it can satisfy the requirement of the research.

Applicability study of siting regulations and standards for high temperature gas-cooled reactor cogeneration project

WANG Yongfu, SUN Yuliang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 24-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.003
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Abstract ( 164 )
High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) possesses excellent inherent safety, and the high quality steam from it can be used to meet the heating demand of petrochemical industry and so forth. The challenge for siting regulations and standards during the process of HTGR cogeneration project promotion is revealed in this article. Based on the analysis of mutual effects between HTGR and petrochemical industry user, it is believed that establishing the siting regulations and standards for HTGR cogeneration project is necessary. Combined with the domestic and oversea investigations, it is suggested that the siting regulations and standards establishment should take the technical advantages of HTGR into full account and focus on the coordination of different industry emergency systems. And a trinity concept of non-residential zone, restricted zone and emergency plan zone for the HTGR cogeneration project is proposed.

Recent advances in treatment of spent radioactive ion exchange resins by wet air oxidation

XU Lejin, SUI Zengguang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 29-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.004
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Abstract ( 306 )
With the development of nuclear industry, the treatment and disposal of spent radioactive ion exchange resins has become a problem that needs to be solved at present. Because of the moderate reaction conditions, simple equipment, and low operational cost, wet air oxidation has recently received considerable attention from the research field of radioactive wastes treatment. In this paper, various advanced wet air oxidation processes for treatment of spent resins are summarized, including acid boiling degradation, supercritical water oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, and wet catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The development status, influencing factors, reaction mechanism and kinetics of wet catalytic oxidation, as well as the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the off-gas, decomposition solution and solid residue, are briefly introduced. The future research directions and applications are also discussed.

Reproduction of ETEX-1 test by multiscale diffusion model

HUANG Sha, ZHAO Duoxin, CHEN Longquan, LÜ Minghua, XU Xiangjun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 37-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.005
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Abstract ( 192 )
A multi-scale model is built by means of non-hydrostatic dynamics meteorological model and Lagrange particle model. According to the model, the ECMWF forecasting data and different resolution terrain data are used for the simulation of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX), and simulation results and the monitoring results of ETEX are analyzed to study the application of the diffusion model to multiscale simulation. The results show that the multi-scale diffusion simulation results and the observations have high spatial distribution correlations, and that the diffusion simulation results effectively reflect the characteristics of the regional flow field at that time.

An oceanic environment radiation consequence analysis system for nuclear power plants

GUO Cai, LIN Quanyi, YUE Huiguo, YANG Jing, QIAO Qingdang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 45-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.006
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Abstract ( 251 )
Based on ocean current numerical forecast in China Seas, high-resolution coast line and bathymetrictopography data of nearshore area, an oceanic radiation consequence analysis system has been established for nuclear power plants. The developed system adopts models used for current forecast, radioactive effluent numerical dispersions and radiological dose assessment. The system can simulate the dispersion path of radioactive effluent in various domestic nuclear power plants, and can make sophisticated three-dimension assessment in the nearshore area of a specific nuclear power plant. The assessment result can provide technical support for decisions on emergency response action. This paper provides an assessment result on an assumed nuclear accident in the Ningde Nuclear Power Plant. The assessment result shows that in the assumed situation, the ocean current in the simulated sea area is slow and semi-diurnal, which heads eastward during falling tide, westward during rising tide. The slow ocean current causes a slow diffusion process, thus high radioactive concentration will be accumulated in the near shore area.

Methods of data assimilation for environmental atmosphere and their applications

XU Xiangjun, YAO Rentai, CHEN Longquan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 52-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.007
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Abstract ( 273 )
From the perspective of data assimilation, we analyze some useful technologies including Kalman filter, meta-heuristics algorithm, Bayesian inference, non parametric regression, and traditional optimization method,and summarize their applications to the environmental monitoring data assimilation problem. The paper shows that different methods can be applied to solve the environmental monitoring data assimilation problems, and that the meta-heuristics algorithm combined with the traditional optimization method has a hopeful future in this field.

Progress, problems and suggestions of China's Nuclear Safety Legislation

HU Bangda
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 57-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.008
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Abstract ( 215 )
Safety is a prerequisite for nuclear energy development. China's main legal framework of nuclear safety consists of one law and nine regulations, but lacks of top-level design. The Draft of Nuclear Safety Law has been reviewed (second timetwice) by the NPC Standing Committee but yet still has some deficiencies. It is suggested that the revision should clearly define the concept of nuclear safety, incorporate conception of risk prevention and control, and strengthen the protection of public rights protection and strict administrative legal liabilities in revision, so such that the nuclear safety is not only objectively secured and at the same timebut also subjectively accepted by the public.

Current situation of immuno-oncology development

MAO Yanyan, HUANG Yaoqing, GAO Liubin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 61-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.009
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Abstract ( 329 )
Cancer is the most serious threat to human health and the most attractive disease in research. With unique advantages in cancer treatment, immuno-oncology is favored by more and more research institutions and pharmaceutical companies, showing a trend of vigorous development in recent years. Due to the complexity of the immune system, cancer immunotherapy covers a variety of action mechanisms and drug forms with different development stages. Based on literature research and database retrieval, the overall situations of development stage, mechanism of action, as well as research institutions of drugs in clinical trials or in market are reported and analyzed in this paper, for depicting the general trend and direction of immunotherapies development and providing references for research and development of antitumor drugs.

Bioassays of biochemical drugs and their alternatives

LI Zhen, ZHANG Yuan, GAO Hua
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 66-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.010
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An overview of the definition, the strengths and the limitations of bioassays in the quality control is made and the trend of their replacement by physical and chemical methods through a comparison of ChP and other countries’pharmacopeia is analyzed. Ideas and references of the establishment and the validation of the alternative methods are provided for different sorts of biochemical drugs. The review also summarizes the most common experimental design and two statistical analysis methods. At last, the importance of the combination and the promotion of different quality control modes is emphasized.

Progress in blockchain application research

ZHU Jianming, FU Yonggui
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 70-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.011
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Abstract ( 354 )
Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology based on decentration, and can realize business activity data's privacy protection, secure storage, and non repudiation proof. Since it was produced in 2009, the blockchain technology has been gradually accepted by people and received attention from almost every industry. In the paper we summarize the characteristics and technology of blockchain, and classify blockchain by application, development stage, and entrepreneurial team. We discuss the relation between blockchain and cloud computing. Moreover, we review the application research status on blockchain in the world and in different industry sectors, and summarize the current blockchain's academic research progress. It is indicated that blockchain has got extensive exploration in different application areas while it is still not mature or a popularized product, Although the current academic research results mainly focus on characteristics and value analysis, some scholars have developed concrete area's test status blockchain products. We believe blockchain will subvert the traditional database system and business interaction system and will become the technology system guarantee for the Internet plus era's credit construction.

Application research progress of digital speckle correlation method in architectural mechanics analysis: A review

MA Yanxuan, ZHANG Yingrui, LEI Xin, WANG Jinhua, SUN Qixuan, ZHOU Huanzhu
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 77-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.012
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Abstract ( 181 )
Digital speckle correlation method is a kind of integral, non-contacting, high-automation and high-precision optical deformation measurement method, which has its unique superior performance such as high sensitivity, easily identifying cracks and estimate accuracy, compared with other deformation measuring techniques. As a kind of deformation measurement method for solid material surface, it gets fast application in the deformation measurement for construction projects. In this paper, the basic principle of digital speckle correlation method is elaborated, and the application progress of digital speckle correlation method in mechanical behaviors measurement and analysis of building materials are summarized, including the concrete, asphalt material, Portland cement, composite materials, explosion-proof materials with negative Poisson's ratio, and architectural structures such as concrete structure, bridge structure, geotechnical structure and wooden structure The application prospect and development trend of digital speckle correlation method for building materials and architectural structures in service are generalized and predicted as well. With significant boost of the measuring accuracy and speed of digital speckle correlation method, it is envisioned that combined with the methods of optical fiber technology and computer simulation, micromechanics behaviors of three-dimensional solid of building materials and architectural structures can achieve dynamic real-time monitoring.

Study on environmental influence of PG cemented backfilling and utilization of full phosphorus slag

GAN Lei, LI Xibing, FAN Yun, SHI Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 84-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.013
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Abstract ( 187 )
Phosphogypsum (PG) is an industrial solid waste containing a large number of pollutants, and its surface stockpile has a potentially negative impact on the environment nearby. The PG-based cemented backfill can solve the problem to a great extent. However, the negative environmental impact might be transferred into the underground when PG-based cemented backfill is filled into tunnels of mine, which is still an open question. This paper studies the change of pollutant concentrations in the leachate of PG-based backfill. The results show that the pH value of the leachate tends to be neutral with time. Before backfilling, the phosphate concentration supernatant of PG solution is 3979 mg/L, and it decreases to 1.3 mg/L when PG is made into backfilling material. In the prolonged store underground, the phosphate concentration decreases to about 0.3 mg/L. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ba, As and other elements in the leachate significantly decrease in the leachate after being cemented. Some F and Pb can dissolve in the leachate indicates that the dissolution migration mechanism and the F, P solidication technology need to be further studied. In conclusion, compared to PG surface stockpile, PG-based cemented backfill can well solidify/stabilize the harmful pollutants in PG, which could be a promising industrial process for PG disposal.

Effects of HIP process on microstructure and mechanical properties of micro-porosity in ZL114A alloy

FAN Zhenzhong, ZANG Jidong, YAN Xiaobo, WANG Duanzhi, WANG Shengqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 90-97. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.11.014
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The microstructure and mechanical properties of different grades of micro-porosity are studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, WDW-100KN universal tensile testing machine, and PLA30050 fatigue testing machine, together with the orthogonal test with three factors and levels. The results show that the most important impact parameter on the HIP process is temperature, followed by pressure and time. The tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, Brinell hardness, axial fatigue life and Q value of ZL114A alloy within the micro-porosity of grade III are increased to 340 MPa, 280 MPa, 8%, 125HBS, 4.1×105 and 475.45, respectively after the HIP process under 540℃, 140 MPa and 4 h conditions. Cconsidering both the process cost and effect, the optimal parameters of HIP process are 540℃, 140 MPa and 2 h. Compared with the micro-porosity of grade III, the Q values of grade I and grade II are increased by 5.1% and 2.4%, respectively after the HIP process, whereas the Q values of grades IV and V are decreased by 15.98% and 25.61%, respectively.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 98-98.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 99-100.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 101-102.
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Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 103-103.
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Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 104-104.
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Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 5-6.
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Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 8-8.
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Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (13): 10-10.
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