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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 17
13 September 2017

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Articles
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
Scientific Community
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 0-0.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1776 KB)  ( 68 )
Abstract ( 113 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 1-1.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (375 KB)  ( 91 )
Abstract ( 213 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 219 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 157 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 11-11.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (424 KB)  ( 58 )
Abstract ( 119 )
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 12-13.
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Abstract ( 154 )
Spescial Issues

Printed electronics:Past, present and future

CUI Zheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 14-20. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.001
Full text: HTML PDF  (3065 KB)  ( 228 )
Abstract ( 222 )
Printed electronics as a newly emerged electronics discipline has received increasing attention in recent years. Electronic and optoelectronic devices and systems fabricated by printing are of several distinctive advantages, such as large area, flexible, customizable, low cost and environmental friendly. Though printing's resolution is not as high as conventional microfabrication, the above advantages are enough to warrant many new applications. This article gives a comprehensive introduction of the definition of printed electronics, its origin and development history. Based on the author's own many years experience, the technology and commercialization challenges for printed electronics are analyzed. The future development trend is described. It is hoped that this article will give readers an overview of the new technology.

Additive manufacturing:Printed electronics and 3D printing technologies

LIU Lei, LIU Yu, ZHANG Jie
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 21-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.002
Full text: HTML PDF  (3917 KB)  ( 312 )
Abstract ( 241 )
As part of intelligent manufacturing drive, the additive manufacturing has attracted much attention from scientific community and industry. The processes used in printed electronics and 3D printing are typical examples of additive manufacturing. In this article, a review is given for the printed electronics and 3D printing technology development history and status, with emphases on additive processes. After giving the examples of printable device structure and functional performance in electronics and optoelectronics devices, the requirements of the functional materials and additive manufacturing process optimization are introduced for manufacturing ability and better device performance. It is pointed out that the system optimization involving both production process and materials can accelerate the industry application of additive manufacturing to realize the national intelligent manufacturing initiative of made in China 2025.

Preparation of graphene-based inks and their applications to printed electronics:A review

LI Wenbo, WANG Xudong, SONG Yanlin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 30-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.003
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Abstract ( 186 )
Graphene-based materials have excellent conductivity, flexibility and chemical stability, revealing a promising prospect in printed electrics. This paper reviews the macro scale preparation of graphene-based materials, and introduces the technical characteristics and requirements of inks for inkjet printing, screen printing and 3D printing. The applications of graphene in printed electronic functional devices are summarized, mainly including transparent conductive films, flexible circuits, microsupercapacitors and wearable sensors. Existing problems and challenges in the current research are discussed. For the future development, it is envisioned that multi-functional, high performance device applications will be achieved through increasing structural diversity of printed circuits and focusing on the assembly strategy to enhance ordered arrangement of graphene building blocks.

Current status, opportunities, and challenges of organic thin-film transistors

FENG Linrun, TANG Wei, GUO Xiaojun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 37-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.004
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Abstract ( 305 )
Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received worldwide academic and industrial attention owing to their attractive features of low cost, low temperature drop-on-demand printable processes, superior intrinsic mechanical flexibility, and sustainable performance improvement. These features of OTFT bring them great potential for a wide range of new applications including flexible display and sensors. However, even with significant technological advances, there is still a gap for the OTFT technology to be widely commercially adopted. Based on actual application demand, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the OTFT development, and discuss its current status, opportunities and challenges.

Progress of researches on transfer rate & influence factors of conductive ink

LI Luhai, XIN Zhiqing, LI Xiu, XU Yanfang, LIU Ruping, LEI Sheng, CAO Guorong, MO Lixin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 46-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.005
Full text: HTML PDF  (1446 KB)  ( 139 )
Abstract ( 131 )
Conductive ink and its applied technology are developing with the development of printed electronics industry. In order to achieve high electrical conductivity and high precision printed circuit, a high transfer rate of conductive ink must be ensured in the printing process. However, all the conductive ink printability, surface properties of the substrate, printing technology, etc. will affect the transfer rate and the printing properties. Based on the literature reports, commonly used contact paper printing methods, such as gravure, flexographic printing, silk screen printing and offset printing, the set of factors influencing the conductive ink printing transfer rate are summarized and the improving way of the transfer rate of conductive ink is discussed. It is shown that transfer of conductive ink is influenced by ink composition, printing equipment and printing technology, and the key factors influencing the conductive ink transfer rate lies in the rheology of the ink and substrate surface improvement in the terms of compatibility with the ink, as well as adjustment of printing technology.

Paper battery and its application

ZHANG Xiachang, CAO Zhuo, WANG Zhan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 53-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.006
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Abstract ( 190 )
Paper batteries have unique application value in many fields because of the advantages of high flexibility and low cost brought by the roll to roll process. This article expounds the research and development history, principle and process characteristics of printed paper batteries, introduces paper battery's application area including semi active RFID temperature tag, wearable device, iontophoresis mask, etc. The opportunities and challenges faced by printed paper batteries are briefly described as well.

Printed flexible in-plane supercapacitor electrode and its properties

LI Yaling, LI Zetao, WANG Xin, HE Qianqian, YU Chao, LI Luhai
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 58-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.007
Full text: HTML PDF  (2259 KB)  ( 125 )
Abstract ( 123 )
Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are favored as the backup power of the portable and wearable electronic devices. With the unique advantages of large-area and flexibility of printed electronics, the manufacturing process of flexible electrodes can be greatly simplified. In this paper, activated carbon is used as active material and flexible supercapacitor electrodes are prepared by screen printing technology using activated carbon ink and conductive silver ink. Then, the flexible supercapacitor is assembled with the electrode coated with PVA-H2SO4 gel and the electrochemical properties are measured. The results show that the printed supercapacitor electrode can be successfully applied to flexible in-plane supercapacitors. The working voltage achieves 0.8 V and the areal specific capacitance of the whole device achieves 18 mF·cm-2 at a charge-discharge current of 0.2 mA.

Progress on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite light emitting diodes

XU Bing, ZHANG Xiaoli, WANG Kai, SUN Xiaowei
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 63-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.008
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Abstract ( 237 )
Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites with advantages of facile processing tunable bandgaps and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors materials. With the development of materials, the quantum yield of perovskite is closed to 100%. The rapid progress in material synthesis has promoted the development of optoelectronic applications including solar cell, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Here we review the recent progress on mixed-cation perovskite including crystal structures, chemical synthesis of nanocrystals, device configurations and the optoelectronic properties. Mixed cations have opened a new path for the synthesis of perovskite nanocrystals with high quantum yield, and also provided a new idea for fabricating high brightness and high efficiency devices.

Fabrication of stretchable circuit with high resolution linewidth and complex pattern via printing method on silicone substrate

YUAN Wei, GU Weibing, LIN Jian, CUI Zheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 73-79. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.009
Full text: HTML PDF  (2028 KB)  ( 86 )
Abstract ( 97 )
Stretchable electronics have attracted much more attention in recent years due to their excellent conformability to non-planar objects and potential applications in wearable electronics, flexible display and bioengineering. In this work, a fast and efficient method has been developed for fabrication of stretchable electrodes with complex pattern by printing assisted vacuum filtration. The linewidth of the patterned Ag NWs electrodes is down to 50 μm, and the enlarged SEM image shows the Ag NWs line with well defined sharp edge. The microelectrode array on the silicon substrate has excellent uniformity of resistance, and the stretchable electrode is also very stable under repeated strain condition. It is shown that the resistance increases only 40% when the tensile strain is doubled. The buckling structure of Ag NWs/PDMS composite layer results in the resistance stability under strain condition. Also demonstrated is the stretchable lighting circuit integrated on textile for wearable application.
Articles

Grading unmanned ground vehicles in terms of intelligence

SUN Yang, YANG He
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 80-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.010
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Abstract ( 497 )
Unmanned vehicles are developing rapidly at home and abroad. In order to speed up the key technology research of unmanned vehicle, it is an urgent task to grade unmanned vehicles in terms of intelligence. In this paper evaluation of intelligence level of unmanned ground vehicle is carried out by a complex interactive system, which is composed of unmanned ground vehicles, tasks and environments. An unmanned ground vehicle evaluation model is also established considering environment complexity, degree of human intervention and task complexity. According to the environment complexity, degree of human intervention and task complexity, five grades of unmanned vehicles are given. Moreover, when the driving quality of unmanned ground vehicle is also considered, there are altogether ten levels of intelligence of unmanned ground vehicles.

Progresses of studies on Mars salts

KONG Weigang, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 84-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.011
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Abstract ( 170 )
Salts carry rich information about water related geological processes and aqueous environments,and further are closely related to the origin of life, thus salts on other planets have attracted focus of numerous studies, and the study of Mars salts deserves to be one of the major science goals for future China Mars exploration. For example, jarosite has been detected from mudstone at the landing region, gypsum vein in mudstone and in the unconformable surface have confirmed by curiosity rover, and nitrates have been indicated from windblown deposits and from sedimentary rocks. In addition, perchlorate has been identified by CRISM close to the recurring slope lineae, indicating that the flow of liquid perchlorate brine may account for this recently formed surface feature. All these new findings address again the importance of salts for Mars science. Finally, we propose several key science questions about Mars salts based on current knowledge, and give some prospects for future China Mars exploration.

The suitability of meningococcal groups ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine for human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in vitro pyrogen test

CAI Tong, ZHANG Yuan, HE Qing, LIU Qian, DU Ying, CHEN Chen, GAO Hua
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 88-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.17.012
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Abstract ( 208 )
To investigate the suitability of meningococcal groups ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccines for human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in vitro pyrogen test (IL-6), 10 batches of vaccines from different manufacturers are collected. The recovery is determinated by human PBMC-IL-6 in vitro pyrogen test with spiking bacterial endotoxin. The recovery of 10 batches of vaccines is between 50%-200%, and the test solutions are at a dilution less than the maximum valid dilution (MVD). The results show that all the 10 batches of vaccines are qualified products in the pyrogen test. The meningococcal groups ACYW135 polysaccharide vaccine is suitable for the human PBMC-IL-6 in vitro pyrogen test to control the pyrogen.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 92-92.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (410 KB)  ( 46 )
Abstract ( 137 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 93-93.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1432 KB)  ( 51 )
Abstract ( 161 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 94-94.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (611 KB)  ( 37 )
Abstract ( 126 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 95-95.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (405 KB)  ( 82 )
Abstract ( 144 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 96-96.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (464 KB)  ( 53 )
Abstract ( 241 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 5-6.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1149 KB)  ( 29 )
Abstract ( 134 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 8-8.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (568 KB)  ( 39 )
Abstract ( 140 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (17): 10-10.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (632 KB)  ( 42 )
Abstract ( 142 )

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