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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 21
13 November 2017

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Articles
Reviews
Focus
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Special Issues
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 208 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 262 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 204 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 209 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 11-11.
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Abstract ( 79 )
Scientifc Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 12-13.
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Abstract ( 131 )
Special Issues

Probiotic, intestinal microbiota and human health

MA Chen, ZHANG Heping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 14-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.001
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Abstract ( 289 )
Human gut microbiota is of great importance, as indicated by accumulated evidences of its close association with human health. As an internalized ‘microbial organ’, the gut microbiota provides many functions that are not encoded in the host genome but shown to be essential to human health, such as short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and vitamin synthesis. Such health-relevant functions may be considered ecosystem services provided by the gut microbiota for the host. A number of factors influence the composition and metabolic activity of the colonic microbiota, and probiotics are believed to be an important regulator of intestinal bacterial diversity and metabolism in addition to genetic factors and diet. Probiotics are living micro-organisms that confer beneficial effects to the host, and it is believed that they hold great potential for regulating intestinal bacterial metabolism. Recent evidence has shown that probiotics play major roles in maintaining equilibrium and stability of enteric microbiota, which in turn aids in gastrointestinal functions, including control of transit time, bowel habits, nutrient bioavailability, and modulation of gastrointestinal immune activity. Therefore, aiming at the characteristics of population structure and function of intestinal flora research, to develop of probiotic strains intestinal flora to adapt to our country crowd is of great importance. It is urgent to establish microbial models for early diagnosis of disease and at the same time to vigorously develop excellent probiotic bacterial species resources as an effective scientific guidance and replacement therapy in order to solve the antibiotic resistance problem, by combining intestinal flora and human disease diagnosis and treatment.

Recent research progress of pediatric irritable bowel syndrome with probiotic therapy

ZUO Li, HAN Weijuan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 32-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.003
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Abstract ( 172 )
Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, which can affect the quality of children's life and cause mental stress. Defection of the gastrointestinal barrier and imbalance of the inflammatory effect could be the physiopathological mechanism. Research shows that probiotics can improve the function of the barrier and promote the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. Symptoms are controlled and patients get efficacy in this therapy, but the mechanism and the application of probiotics are currently still under investigation. This review concerns the pathogenic mechanism of IBS, as well as the mechanism, efficacy and safety of the probiotics.

Biobanking for human gut microbiome:Ethical and regulatory considerations

MA Yonghui, WANG Jun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 37-42. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.004
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Abstract ( 169 )
Human microbiome research and its relationship with health and disease have increasingly become a hot area in biomedical science. Biobanking human microbiome is fundamental for the development of human microbiome research. However, human microbiome research and biobank are facing many serious ethical, social and regulatory challenges that must be addressed. In this article, we examine three core ethical and social issues, i.e., informed consent, ownership, privacy and risks. Next, we employ fecal microbiota bank and fecal microbiota transplantation as a case study to discuss how to determine a suitable healthy donor. We conclude the article by providing some regulatory and governance suggestions for policy makers to develop successful policy response.

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 143-143.
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Abstract ( 323 )
Spescial Issues

Current research on the relationship between antibiotics and intestinal flora

LI Ziyan, LIU Lili, MAO Yanyan, GAO Liubin
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 26-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.002
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Abstract ( 226 )
Based on the relationship between antibiotics and intestinal flora, this paper summarizes the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora composition, intestinal colonization resistance, flora and metabolic activities, and then explores antibiotics modulating the intestinal flora to restore the steady state of gut-brain axis or gut-liver axis for delaying the progress of diseases. In the perspective of intestinal flora, the paper briefs the special role of intestinal flora in antibiotic resistance gene storage and transmission, as well as new antibiotic discovery. Further research on the relationship between antibiotics and intestinal flora and their interactions will have a reference value on strategic use of antibiotics or alternative approach development for modulating intestinal flora.

Discovery based on hunger sensation comes from gut flora:Breakthrough in chronic disease prevention and control

ZHANG Chenggang, GONG Wenjing
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 43-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.005
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Abstract ( 1338 )
Even in nowadays chronic diseases are still an obstacle to the healthy development of human society. It is an urgent need to find a scientific yet effective way to control chronic diseases. Despite the great progress made by life science and modern medicine, the current situation of high incidence of chronic diseases suggests that we should adopt and develop a new, even subversive thinking mode, to rethink the etiology of chronic diseases in order to assist humans to across the gully and health problem of chronic disease. Based on a long-term scientific research, we have obtained some new discoveries, such as "hunger sensation comes from gut flora" and "chronic disease comes from gut flora" on the basis of the formation of "gut flora-centric theory" together with its corresponding technology, which will bring a breakthrough to the chronic disease prevention and health management. In this paper, we will explore this new theory, provide new understanding of the origin of the chronic disease, and propose corresponding strategies and solutions for chronic diseases. Compared with the traditional Chinese medicine based on "harmony between man and nature" and the western medicine that advocates "chronic diseases come from abnormal human genes", our studies emphasize on "abnormal gut flora (caused by human genetic abnormalities) new medical system leading to chronic diseases" under the framework of gut flora-centric theory.
Articles

AlphaGo's breakthrough and challenges of wargaming

HU Xiaofeng, HE Xiaoyuan, TAO Jiuyang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 49-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.006
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Abstract ( 409 )
This paper summarizes the principles, new methods, technological breakthrough, and the epistemological sense of AlphaGo. Then the bottleneck of intelligent wargaming is analyzed, and the significance of intelligent situation awareness in wargaming is addressed. Next, the way to realize situation awareness in operations is proposed. Finally, new challenges of man-machine intelligence for wargaming are discussed.

Recommendation method for electric vehicle charging based on collaborative filtering

BU Fanpeng, TIAN Shiming, GAO Jingjing, QI Linhai
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 61-67. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.007
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Abstract ( 226 )
Based on a large number of charging behavior data, a charging interest model of electric vehicle users is established. The best charging options which users are interested in but have not found are recommended and charging behavior is orderly guided. In this paper, a recommended model based on a collaborative filtering algorithm is proposed for electric vehicle charging, and the best model parameter index is obtained through test and evaluation. New users with 10 times or less may use the user-based collaborative filtering algorithm while old users who have charged more than 10 times may adopt the collaborative filtering algorithm based on items. The optimal neighbor and recommended list length is 3 for the user-based collaborative filtering algorithm, and 4 for the algorithm based on items. The paper points out that the load aggregator can re-optimize the recommendation list in combination with the demand response plan and filter out the recommended information that conflicts with the demand response to realize the orderly charging control.

An analytical system for nonstationary typhoon-bridge

LIU Huanju, WU Jun, HAN Hexiang, XU Pengfei, DING Binyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 68-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.008
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Abstract ( 246 )
The non-stationary characteristics of typhoon are considered in three aspects as wind field simulation, validation and load treatment, and a typhoon-bridge analysis system is established. Firstly, the simulation and validation method for typhoon field is proposed, in which the simulation is based on the non-stationary wind speed simulation method and the validation is fulfilled by introducing the nonuniform modulation evolution spectrum. Secondly, the typhoon load treatment method is established by means of the treatment method for normal wind. APDL language is used to develop the ANSYS into a time domain wind-vehicle analysis system. Finally, the response of a cable-stayed bridge is analyzed by the developed analysis system. The results show that the simulated power spectrum agrees well with the validated evolution spectrum, and that the simulation and validation method is rational and effective. It is also shown that the time history curves of bridge response under typhoon and the simulated typhoon wind speed have the same trend as the time-varying mean wind speed, and the fluctuation amplitude decreases with the decrease of the mean wind speed. The classical wind spectrum based on stationary characteristics is not suitable for typhoon simulation.

Retrieval of surface vegetation biomass information and analysis of vegetation feature based on Sentinel-2A in the upper of Minjiang River

YANG Bin, LI Dan, Wang Lei, CHEN Cai
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 74-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.009
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Abstract ( 334 )
The Sentinel-2A has rather high spatial resolution, with its 13 multispectral bands, the unique "red edge" band, very wide and free of charge, as an optical remote sensing satellite, serving a bran-new solution for the analysis of the characteristic information extraction of the regional vegetation ecological environment. As a case study, the upper reaches of Minjiang River are considered, with the Sentinel-2A data downloaded from the European Space Agency. The SNAP software is used for extracting the Sentinel-2A L2A data and the scene classification map after the analyses of the satellite parameters, the data type, the format grade, using the pretreatment method. On the basis of the generated L2A data, five biomass indexes are calculated by using the biophysical parameter processing module in the SNAP software, including the leaf area index, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, the chlorophyll content in the leaf, the canopy water content and the fraction of vegetation cover in the study area. The mean value and the standard deviation of every index are analyzed for five counties in the upper reaches of Minjiang River. And the mean values and the standard deviations of three indexes are estimated for the vegetation growing and health situation of five counties, including the leaf area index, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and the chlorophyll content in the leaf. The vegetation characteristics of the region are analyzed, combined with the scene classification map in the study area. The result provides a quick and efficient reference for the quantitative assessment of the regional ecological environment.

Chinese crop straw resource and its utilization status

WANG Hongmei, TU Yan, ZHANG Naifeng, SI Bingwen, MA Tao, SA Rula, NA Ya, DIAO Qiyu
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 81-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.010
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Abstract ( 374 )
Crop straw is one of the most valuable and rich biological resources in China. The utilization of straw resource is beneficial while the waste is harmful to the environment. Efficient and comprehensive utilization of straw can effectively improve the utilization rate, conversion rate and economic efficiency of straw, and help to control environmental pollution, which plays an important role in the sustainable development of China's modern agriculture industry. In this paper, the production and distribution of crop straw resource in China are described, and the latest utilization techniques for crop straw, especially the "five materials" including fertilizer, feed, biomass fuel, raw material and stroma, are introduced. The intensive, cyclic, and efficient utilization of straw resource will contribute to the ecological environment protection and renewable resource save, as well as to the sustainable development of agriculture and rural economy in China.

Simulation study of rainstorm water logging disaster

CHEN Peng, ZHANG Jiquan, SUN Yingyue, LIU Xiaojing
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 89-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.011
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Abstract ( 219 )
Frequent occurrence of urban rainstorm waterlogging has caused serious threats to the lives and property security of urban residents. Simulation of hazard risk of urban rainstorm waterlogging can be used to provide a basis for forcasting and warning of the urban rainstorm waterlogging risk. An investigation based on the urban rainstorm waterlogging in the Nanguan district of Changchun has been conducted. From a multiscene perspective, the paper puts forward a scenario simulation framework for urban rainstorm waterlogging risk. One and two dimensional non-constant flows are used for the governing equation. A numerical model of urban rainstorm disaster risk is constructed by means of irregular grid to realize simulation of the risk of flooding hazards in the studied area. The results can provide a reference for the urban waterlogging emergency management department.
Reviews

New development of modeling and autonomous control for hypersonic vehicle

ZONG Qun, LI Qing, YOU Ming, ZHANG Ruilong, ZHU Wanwan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 95-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.012
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Abstract ( 402 )
Hypersonic vehicle is a hot topic at home and abroad. In this paper, the modeling method and autonomous control issue of hypersonic vehicles are reviewed. First, the characteristics and control difficulties of hypersonic vehicle are briefly described. Secondly, typical hypersonic vehicle models are presented. Thirdly, the research progress of modeling of hypersonic vehicles is introduced from four aspects:mechanism deduction method, CFD experimental method, model simplification technique, and model verification technique. Fourthly, the research progress of autonomous control for hypersonic vehicles are stated, including the traditional sliding mode control, highorder sliding mode control, back-stepping control, adaptive control and trajectory linearization control. The research of simulation platform for hypersonic vehicle is briefly introduced as well. In the end, some prospects and conclusions are given.

Key technology and development trend of phase change cooling garment

DENG Jun, HE Qian, LIU Changchun, XIAO Yang, ZHAO Jingyu
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 107-114. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.013
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Abstract ( 503 )
Cooling garment can provide cooling protection for all kinds of workers under high temperature and improve the comfort degree of human microclimate zone. This paper analyzes the cooling method, principles and characteristics of different types of garment, and summarizes the current research progress of the state of the art cooling garment. Moreover, key technologies and research directions of phase change cooling garment are described. Also discussed are issues such as liquid phase change material against leakage and erosion, easy plastic packaging materials and good packaging technology, improved thermal conductivity of phase change material, combining nano technology with phase change material microcapsule for long-life and good heat dissipation composite phase change material, and combining phase change cooling technology with other technologies for cooling effect controllable garment. New equipment or new material which can quickly activate the phase change material is proposed as well so that the phase change material can quickly store cold and reduce the heat of human body.

A review of plutonium aerosol research in some American national laboratories

XIE Bo, LONG Xinggui
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 115-124. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.014
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Abstract ( 404 )
Plutonium aerosols might be generated in nuclear weapon testing and nuclear reactor accidents. The particle size of Pu-aerosols varies greatly, depending on the mode of formation. The plutonium aerosol chemistry plays an important role in the nuclear trial data treatment, the nuclear weapon spreading, the nuclear forensic analysis, the nuclear safeguards, and the nuclear power demands. This paper reviews the physic-chemical behavior development of plutonium aerosols at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratories (ANL) and Idaho National Laboratories (INL). The development includes the aerosol characterization, the aerodynamic size distribution, the residence time, the instrumentation analysis, the aerosol collection and sampling, and the formation mechanism. It is shown that we have only limited data of plutonium aerosols in different situations, and the experimental verification is still a challenging problem.
Focus

The ins and outs of US military “multi-domain battle”

PAN Letian
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 125-130. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.015
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Abstract ( 259 )
Multi-domain battle has been the focus of the future US military development. The multi-domain battle, the US Army's new warfare concept, calling for the four armed services to work more closely together than ever before in all domains, reflects the major changes in the US army and the US military joint operations against so-called anti-access/area denial threats. This paper reviews the concept, target and means of multi-domain battle, and analyzes the status quo of the trend and countermeasures.

Big data-driven smart city:Some thoughts

MA Xinqiang, LIU Yong, FAN Jing, HUANG Yi, WU Maonian, ZHANG Mingyi
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 131-137. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.21.016
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Abstract ( 215 )
In the construction of smart city, the depth development of Internet, Internet of things, communication networks and large-scale intelligent services will result in massive, heterogeneous, multi-source big spatio-temporal urban data. In the era of big data, we should think deeply about the construction of smart city. How to deal with these large-scale and complicated urban data is facing enormous challenges, including data collection, sensing, storage, management, mining, visualization and efficient services. In this paper we mainly discuss the driving effects of big data on smart city in the views of technology, legislation and management. We analyze the features and applications of big spatio-temporal urban data in two directions, point out the importance of legislation from the perspective of data assets, and summarize the management of smart city in terms of policy management, rewards and punishments, and market mechanisms. Finally, we put forward some thoughts on the construction of smart city driven by big data.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 138-138.
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Abstract ( 182 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 139-140.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 141-142.
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Abstract ( 185 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 144-144.
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Abstract ( 228 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 5-6.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 118 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (21): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 134 )

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