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   Science & Technology Review
2017, Vol.35, No. 24
28 December 2017

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Articles
Focus
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community Promotion
Book Reviews
Perspectives
Scientists
News Around
News Focus
Careers
Special Issues
Suggestion
Voice of Scientific Community
Top News
Scientific Community
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 246 )

General Contents of Science & Technology Review in 2017, vol.35

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 97-97.
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Abstract ( 124 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 245 )
News Around

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 248 )
News Focus

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 9-9.
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Abstract ( 278 )
Suggestion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 11-13.
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Abstract ( 150 )

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 14-15.
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Abstract ( 159 )
Scientifc Comments

FAST: A sharp tool to do pulsar studies

YAN Zhen, SHEN Zhiqiang
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 16-19.
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Abstract ( 129 )
The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope(FAST), which is independently designed and built in China, is the largest single-dish telescope on the earth.The construction was completed on September 25th, 2016. A few new pulsars were discovered by the FAST during its commissioning phase, as the first pulsar discovery with the telescope in China. The pulsar is a fantastic object, which serves as the natural lab on the sky for studies of the extreme physical conditions, including the strong gravitational field, the strong magnetic field and the high density. The FAST is a very useful tool for pulsar studies, and can make breakthroughs in the following areas:boosting the pulsar number, detecting gravitational wave, studying the interstellar and intergalactic medium, building the pulsar timescale and the deep space navigation system, and others. In the field of pulsar research, all kinds of telescopes may play a role, and it can be anticipated that with the addition of the FAST, the domestic pulsar research will have a leap forward.
Special Issues

Laboratory animal science in China during the past 40 years

QIN Chuan
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 20-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.001
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Abstract ( 158 )
The laboratory animal science is a newly emerging discipline that integrates the theories and the methods of biology, veterinary science, bioengineering, medicine and other disciplines. It takes experimental animals and animal experiments as the research objects, and is closely related to life sciences and medical sciences. The development of systematic biological materials and related technologies is a strategic support for the national science and technology development system. This paper reviews the history of the development of experimental animals, the current situation at home and abroad, the achievements and deficiencies of domestic experimental animals, and puts forward some suggestions on the future development of experimental animals. This paper serves to provide a reference, for the scientific and technological innovation of relevant disciplines and the improvement of people's health.

An overview of laboratory animal models at home and abroad

ZHANG Lianfeng, CUI Shao
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 27-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.002
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Abstract ( 127 )
The laboratory animals mainly involve three categories, namely, the conventional laboratory animals, the spontaneous mutation laboratory animals and the genetic engineering laboratory animals. The laboratory animal models play an important role in the development of life sciences, medical sciences and other related disciplines. The laboratory animal science in China started relatively late, but with the increase of the national funding, China has gradually developed its own research and development system and laboratory animal resources, and is catching up with the United States and Japan in specific fields. This paper reviews the commonly-used laboratory animal models at home and abroad, in order to provide a reference for the development of the laboratory animal science in China.

Advancement of science and technology and laboratory animal welfare

LI Changlong, SHANG Shujiang, ZHU Desheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 32-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.003
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Abstract ( 163 )
The laboratory animal is an important tool in the life science and the biomedical industry. The laboratory animal welfare not only ensures animals'health and happiness, but is also important for generating accurate, reliable, and repeatable results in the laboratory. With the development of society, more and more researchers become aware of the significance of the laboratory animal welfare. Ensuring the laboratory animal welfare facilitates the progress of science and technology. At the same time, the progress of science and technology also promotes the laboratory animal welfare. This paper reviews the history of the development of the concept and the requirements of the laboratory animal welfare. The mutual beneficial role between the progress of science and technology and the development of the laboratory animal welfare is specially addressed. The deficiency in the laboratory animal welfare in China is pointed out, and it is hoped that the laboratory animals can better serve the human health and the social development.

Technology progress of alternative to animal testing

CHENG Shujun
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 40-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.004
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Abstract ( 140 )
This paper reviews the technological progresss and the regulatory acceptance of alternative methods, including the development of the concept of alternative to the animal test, which can be divided into three phases as the starting accumulation, the regulation acceptance and the accelerated development.. The focus is on the theories of the Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century (TT21C), the Adverse Outcome Pathway(AOP) and the integrated testing strategy, The new technologies include the reconstructed tissues and the multiorgans-on-chip, the stem cells, the " omics-"technology, and the non-testing approaches, and the high throughput and the high content screening are integrated into the alternative methods, with obvious interdisciplinary features. The standardized alternative methods and the personalized in vitro methods are applied in the assessment of health related products of chemicals,cosmetics,medicals and other biological products. It is concluded that the technology of the alternative to the animal testing is not only an important part of lab animal science, but also an innovative tool for scientific progress and with the prospect of industrialization.

Animal experiments that cause controversy of animal welfare and animal ethics

GAO Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 54-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.006
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Abstract ( 165 )
Basic medical research, drug development and medical device evaluation involve laboratory animals and animal experiments. The scientific conditions and the animal welfare management of laboratory animals are regarded as a symbol of modernization of science and technology in a country. This paper reviews the animal experiment, the animal welfare and the animal ethics in recent years. In view of the protection of the animal welfare and the animal ethics, and the basic conditions for building a country of innovative spirits, guaranteeing the national scientific security, building a social environment of humanity and creating a favorable international environment, it is urgent to pay attention to the animal welfare and animal ethics.
Spescial Issues

Current status of institutional animal care and use committees in China, Europe and USA

PANG Wanyong
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 48-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.005
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Abstract ( 236 )
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), or the Ethic Committee (EC), or the Animal Welfare Body (ARB), is a self-regulating oversight body for animal care and use programs, and it is established to meet the needs of animal research communities and to comply with regulatory requirements. Its authority, responsibilities, and unique importance in the animal care and use, are originated from and re-assured by relevant legislation and regulations. The origins and the current status of the IACUC in China, Europe and USA are reviewed in this paper. The correlation between the IACUC and the regulations, and a comparison between China and western countries, are shown. The future trends in China are briefly discussed.
Articles

Riparian vegetation diversity and its influencing factors of Huaijiu River in Beijing

KONG Qingxian, XIN Zhongbao, XIA Xiaoping
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 57-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.007
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Abstract ( 391 )
The plant diversity is one of the important ecological factors in the riparian, as an important symbol of the riparian healthy. In order to ensure the riparian health in Beijing mountainous area and reveal its influencing factors, sampling and indoor analysis are carried out, to study the relationship between the plant diversity and the environmental factors. According to the principle component analysis and the cluster analysis, the Huaijiu river riparian falls into six types, namely, the natural riparian, the near-natural riparian, the artificial bank plant riparian, the artificial bank ornamental plant riparian, the artificial bank sparse plant dry-stone riparian, and the artificial bank masonry riparian. With the increase of the elevation, the diversity index of the riparian increases. Different riparian types have different variations of plant species, and the diversity index of the artificial bank masonry riparian is significantly lower than other riparian types (n=50, P<0.05). The riparian tree and shrub Shannon diversity and Margalef abundance index are significantly lower than those of the herb (n=50, P<0.05), and the herbaceous plants may adapt to the environment easily and with flexibility that makes various and abundant plant species, while the trees and shrubs are vulnerable to the human influences and have lower diversity and abundance. The Pearson correlation analysis shows that the riparian plant Shannon diversity index and the hardening area ratio and the slope types have significantly negative correlation(n=50, P<0.01), while the altitude is significantly positively related to the riparian plant Shannon diversity index and the hardening area ratio(n=50, P<0.05). This study can provide a reference for the riparian health and the protection of the plant diversity, and provide a theoretical support for the development and management of the riparian.

A neural network for short term load forecasting based on Sample self adapted of load characteristics clustering

FANG Fang, BU Fanpeng, TIAN Shiming, QI Linhai, LI Xiawei
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 66-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.008
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Abstract ( 334 )
This paper introduces the methods and the steps of predicting the power load by the BP neural network with cluster optimization in batch processing time series. Through the preconditioning of historical data, the setting of the initial clustering center and the determination of the optimal number of clusters, a clustering prediction model of the load curve is established based on the clustering results of the historical data and the relevant parameters such as the temperature, the humidity, the air pressure, the wind speed and the time (the current week). The results show that with the clustering algorithm, the related factors and the BP network adaptive rate can be comprehensively considered, while the training speed is improved, to obtain more accurate prediction results.

Simulation research on dynamic response of plates with different stiffeners under explosion loading

LI Shuai, LI Xiangrong, WANG Guohui, SONG Linfeng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 71-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.009
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Abstract ( 255 )
For enhancing the explosion resisting performance of the outer structure, the dynamic response of plates with different stiffeners under the explosion loading is numerically simulated. The plates are with their four sides fixed. Finite element models for four kinds of plates are built using the ABAQUS software, to simulate the dynamic response. The energy distribution, the maximum deflection at the plate center and the stress distribution are analyzed and compared. To resist the explosion loading, the increased number of stiffeners does not mean a better performance. Among the four plates with different stiffeners, the triangle stiffener coupled plates are the best one for the anti-explosion performance.

Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate induced by electrode activated carbon

LIU Jiexi, ZHU Yuxia, QIU Jinjia, LI Yue, ZHONG Haizheng
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 76-81. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.010
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Abstract ( 244 )
The method for the methanol and the carbon dioxide to directly react to prepare the dimethyl carbonate suffers from several deficiencies, such as too strict operation conditions, complex processing equipments, and low conversion rate of the methanol. A carbonabsorption solution is developed in this paper, in which the saturation concentration of the carbon dioxide reaches 0.528g/ml; the electrolysis is used to activate the carbon dioxide and in the electrolytic process the carbon dioxide is continuously added until saturation so as to obtain the electrochemical activation solution; the methyl iodide is used as the inducer, which is refluxed for 120 minutes with the methyl alcohol at 60℃, so as to obtain the dimethyl carbonate, with a purity of 99.0%, and the conversion rate of 99.5% (measured based on the amount of the methanol).
Focus

Developing functional agriculture to solve “Hidden Hunger” problem

LIANG Long, BRADLEY G. Ridoutt, XIE Bin, ZHANG Sasa, AWEKEY M. Gelaw, MENG Weiting, WANG Liyuan, GUO Yanbin, ZHAO Guishen
Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 82-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2017.24.011
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Abstract ( 207 )
There are an estimated 2 billion people suffered from the hidden hunger (HH) with a diet lacking adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients. Improving the nutritional quality of food produced and consumed is therefore an important global priority to improve human health and wellbeing, especially for children, women and families in low-income countries where the HH is prevalent. In China, around 300 million people suffer from the HH, and in this paper, the concept of functional foods is proposed and a new strategy, known as the functional agriculture (FA) is developed to combat the HH. This new approach is now officially accepted by the Chinese government with the emergence of a FA industry. Traditional approaches to combat the HH include the food supplementation, the industrial fortification during the food processing, and the promotion of the dietary diversification. The FA, on the other hand, involves the enhancement of the food nutritional quality through improved agronomic practices, plant breeding, biotechnology and other forms of biofortification in the food system. Already there is evidence that the biofortification of crops can be effective in reducing the HH. Ongoing technology development and institutional improvement are seen as the key actions needed to realize the full potential of the FA. The former includes the developments in genetic engineering, agricultural microbiology, biofortification of feeding for livestock, new processing technology, as well as monitoring and evaluation technology. The latter includes the logistics management as well as the new developments in financing, enterprise development and strengthening of research institutions. The FA is expected to play an important role in combating the HH in China and through the "One Belt One Road" initiative to have a wider impact throughout the world.
Scientific Community Promotion

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 90-90.
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Abstract ( 170 )
Perspectives

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 91-92.
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Abstract ( 150 )
Scientists

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 93-93.
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Abstract ( 176 )
Careers

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 94-94.
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Abstract ( 220 )
Book Reviews

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 95-96.
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Abstract ( 231 )
Top News

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 5-6.
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Abstract ( 175 )
Voice of Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 8-8.
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Abstract ( 180 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2017, 35 (24): 10-10.
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Abstract ( 174 )

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