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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 2
28 January 2018

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Papers
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
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Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 182 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 449 )
Think Tank

Technology transfer mode in Japanese universities and its enlightenment

LI Xiaohui, HE Defang, PENG Jie
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 8-12. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.001
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Abstract ( 364 )
In the 1990s, Japan adopted a new strategy of "technical innovation", to pay attention to the technology transfer in universities, and enacted a series of laws and regulations, such as the university Technology Licensing Organization Law (TLO Law), to support establishment of technology transfer institutions in universities. After 20 years of practice, an effective operation mode and mechanism is basically formed. Focusing on the operation mode and the experience of TLO institutions in Japanese universities, this paper makes some suggestions on how to speed up the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in Chinese universities.
Scientifc Comments

Medical personnel's attitudes toward request of unnecessary MRI investigation request and relevant factors

LI Jingru, ZHANG Xinqing, LIU Qi, LI Shanshan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 13-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.002
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Abstract ( 195 )
A recent survey reveals that more than 80% of medical personnel would order unnecessary MRI investigation in response to patient's request. The survey result reflects that health care practitioners may face a dilemma of how to balance between "respecting patient's autonomy" and "insisting on professional autonomy". The survey also reveals that an adequate protection for medical personnel's legal rights and interests, the trust-based doctor-patient relationship, the better operating environment and the harmonious public opinion context may encourage medical personnel to stick to their professional decision. This paper analyses the ethical confusions implied by the survey result and argues that the physicians have duty to respect patient's values. However, it is also shown that the patient's autonomy should be respected only under certain conditions and protecting patient's autonomy shall not become the argument for violating physician's professional autonomy. Based on further ethical analysis and empirical study, this paper proposes that:1. Physicians have moral responsibility to fully disclose all relevant medical information to patients. 2. Improving the communication between doctors and patients is essential for a trust-based doctor-patient partnership. 3. To create a harmonious doctor-patient relationship, it is necessary to provide an adequate protection for physician's legal rights and interests, improve the operating environment and strengthen the regulation of the press.
Spescial Issues

Regional low carbon development and spatial interdependence: Analysis based on China's provincial data based analysis (2005-2015)

LEI Ming, MA Haichao, LI Haomin, SUN Shuxiao
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 20-37. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.003
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Abstract ( 178 )
The low carbon development is an important way of sustainable development. It is China's established strategic goal to develop a low-carbon economy. In this background, based on the empirical data on China's provincial level from 2005 to 2015, this paper evaluates, ranks and analyzes the low carbon development performance for China's 30 provincial regions using the TOPSIS (technique for order preference similarity to ideal solution) model. It is indicated that low carbon development indicators of China's provincial regions are stable in general while some provinces show a downward trend. By clustering analysis, the 30 provincial regions can be divided into 4 groups, which are the best performed group, the upper-middle performed group, the middle-lower performed group and the worst performed group. The Analysis of Variance shows that there exist significant differences between the better performed groups and the worse performed groups. In order to examine whether there exists a spatial interdependence in terms of the provincial low carbon development, the statistical variable Moran's I is calculated to test the spatial reliance and it is found that the spatial interdependence is not significant among the provincial low carbon development indicators.

The emission estimation and spatial distribution of black carbon aerosol

FU Jiafeng, QI Meng, LIU Qian, WANG Hongmei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 38-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.004
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Abstract ( 153 )
By using statistical methods, the emission inventory of black carbon aerosol in China in 2012 is calculated, and the spatial distribution map of black carbon emissions in the county area is constructed. It is shown that the total amount of black carbon emissions in China in 2012 is 188.676×104 t, among which the residents' living source emissions are 81.800×104 t, accounting for 43.3% of the total black carbon emissions, ranking first. Those of the industrial production and the final consumption are 80.914×104 t, accounting for 42.9% of the national emissions, and the total emissions of the industrial sources and the residents' living sources account for 86.2%, and are the main sources of black carbon emissions in China. The emissions of the transportation and the biomass combustion are 17.809×104 t and 6.667×104 t, respectively, accounting for 9.4 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. The thermal and heating emissions are small, accounting for just 0.8% of the total emissions. With regard to the energy type, the black carbon is mainly from the coal and biofuel combustion, accounting for 54% and 31.6%, respectively. The spatial distribution of the black carbon emission is uneven, which shows the trend that it is high in east and low in west, as is consistent with the regional economic development and the rural population density. Regionally, the area of the highest black carbon emissions in the country includes Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, and Inner Mongolia, as the top five, contributing about 37% of the country's emissions. The main source of the emissions in Shanxi is from industrial productions, accounting for 82.4% of the province's emissions. Shanxi is a big coal production province, the coking industry, and the heavy use of coal, make the higher black carbon emissions in the province. The main sources of emissions in Hebei and Shandong are also the industries, accounting for 61.5 percent and 57.5 percent of the province's emissions, and the residents' consumption also takes up a percentage. In Henan province, the rural population density is high, the resident living source of the black carbon accounts for 50% of the total amount, and in Inner Mongolia, the industrial source and the life source, both contrubute about 45%.

Study on the concentration of submicron fine particles and its chemical constituents in autumn in Beijing

ZHANG Hanyu, CHENG Shuiyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 47-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.005
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Abstract ( 153 )
In this paper, the URG's multi-channel sampler and the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used for off-line sampling and online monitoring, focusing on the chemical components of atmospheric submicron particles (PM1) in Beijing in October 2016. It is shown that the average concentration of PM1 in Beijing during the whole observation periods is 66.04 ±51.45 μg/m3 and the mass concentration of PM1 in heavy haze (103.16~160.23 μg/m3) is 27.29~45.78 times of that in clean days (3.50~3.78 μg/m3). Significant differences are observed of the chemical components between heavy haze days and clean days in autumn in Beijing. The organic materials are the main chemical components of PM1, contributing up to 64.90% during the clean days. While the secondary inorganic components increase significantly, reaching as high as 69.72% during the heavy haze days. The diurnal variation of sulfate is relatively small, reflecting the regional characteristics; while other components (organic matter, nitrate, ammonium and chloride) see significant diurnal variations. Overally, the composition of PM1 is affected by sources of pollution, atmospheric chemical reactions and the weather conditions.

Water resources utilization efficiency in key environmental protection cities in China

WANG Jingyou, BIAN Yangzi, NIE Wei, WANG Yue, SHI Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 55-60. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.006
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Abstract ( 149 )
Along with the accelerating process of the urbanization and the growing population, the urban water supply becomes more and more a serious issue in China. Improving the water use efficiency is an effective way to alleviate the water supply problem. This paper analyzes the data of the total amount of water supply, the number of employees, the fixed-asset investment, the COD and ammonia emissions and the regional GDP of 113 key environmental protection cities in 2014, to evaluate the comprehensive efficiency, the technical efficiency and the scale efficiency of water utilization of the 113 cities, and to obtain the spatial distribution of the efficiency. It is shown that the overall water resource utilization efficiency of the 113 cities is relatively high, but there is still room for improvement. The spatial difference of the water use efficiency is significant. The comprehensive efficiency of the eastern cities is generally high, followed by the northeastern cities and the central cities. The efficiency of the western cities is low, which shows the polarization of the efficiency distribution.

Value calculation and compensation of ecological externalities of arable land resources utilization

WEI Ningning, LI Li, GAO Lianhui
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 61-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.007
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Abstract ( 150 )
To calculate the ecological externalities of cultivated land resources comprehensively and accurately is the basis of the ecological compensation for cultivated land protection. Cultivated land resources not only have positive ecological externalities, but also have negative externalities, such as the agricultural non-point source pollution, the soil heavy metal pollution and other environmental costs, therefore, when calculating the ecological externalities of cultivated land resources, the ecological benefits and the environmental costs should be fully considered. In this paper, the positive and negative ecological externalities of cultivated land resources in Nanjing city are calculated by the method of the unit area equivalent factor and the resource and environmental economics. It is shown that the ecological service of cultivated land resources in Nanjing city in 2014 is worth ¥55.08×108; the negative ecological service value of cultivated land resources is ¥9.23×108; the total value of the ecological compensation quantity is ¥45.85×108, accounting for only 2.59% of the revenue, which does not constitute a financial strain. The calculation of ecological externalities of cultivated land resources provides a basis for correctly understanding the ecological benefits and environmental problems in the use of cultivated land resources and a basis for the development of ecological compensation measures.

Dynamic assessment of provincial environmental performance in China

DONG Zhanfeng, HAO Chunxu, YUAN Zengwei, XU He, WANG Ting
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 67-80. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.008
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Abstract ( 172 )
The paper focuses on the quantitative assessment of the environmental performance trends of 30 provincial regions in China in 2004-2013 based on an established methodology, including the changing trends of the provincial environmental performance, the relationship between the environmental performance and the economic development level of the provincial regions, the key factors that influence the provincial environmental performance, and the spatial heterogeneity distribution patterns of the provincial environmental performance index. It is shown that the China's provincial environmental performance sees a certain fluctuation, overally with a progress trend; the spatial distribution patterns of the environmental performance see a gradient trend with the eastern part better than that of the central part, and the central part better than the western part. The ecological protection performance index score is the weak part of the eastern region. And it is suggested that the central and western regions should promote the urbanization, strengthen the river management, emphasize the implementation of the eco-environmental planning, improve the resource utilization efficiency, and increase the environmental investment.
Reviews

Research progress of prevention and control technology of hydrogen sulfide in coal mines

DENG Qigen, WANG Yingnan, WU Xifa, LIU Mingju
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 81-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.009
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Abstract ( 196 )
Sudden emissions and casualty accidents caused by abnormal enrichment of hydrogen sulfide in coal mines are becoming more and more frequent. This paper reviews the existing prevention and control technologies of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in coal mines at home and abroad. According to the distribution characterictics, the occurrence modes and the emission forms of H2S in coal mines, the prevention and control technologies of H2S in coal-bearing strata, and the airflow in tunnel and underground water body have special features. The methods used include the neutralization by injecting alkalizer through drilling in coal seams with high pressure, spraying alkalizer in tunnel, the attenuation by increasing the wind amount, changing the ventilation method, pumping, dredging and blocking the water that contains H2S as well as the comprehensive prevention and control methods. The basic agent adopted includes the sodium carbonate (with the mass percentage concentration of about 0.5%~3.0%), the sodium bicarbonate solution and some basic solution with some additives, such as the Surfactant, the Fenton reagent, the Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, the Sodium hypochlorite or the Chloramine-T. The performance and the main problems of each prevention and control technology are analysed and a comprehensive method of prevention and control of H2S in coal mines is proposed. According to the current technological level as well as the cost, for the effective prevention and control of H2S, the occurrence, the distribution and the emission forms of H2S in coal mines as well as its content should be taken into consideration.
Papers

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide in Baiyangdian Lake and the cause of pollution

HE Qi, LU Shaoyong, CAO Fengmei, ZHANG Shengnan, QIN Pan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 88-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.010
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Abstract ( 138 )
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a typical kind of endocrine disrupting chemicals, with genotoxicity and endocrine toxicity effects, which is a great threat to human health. This paper studies the concentration and the sources of OCPs in surface water, sediments and aquatic organisms in Baiyangdian Lake during the 1950s and in 2017. It is shown that the concentration of OCPs in the Baiyangdian area is between 10.80 and 261.90 ng/L, and the corresponding concentration in sediments is from 73.95 to 269.80 ng/g. HCHs and DDTs are widely detected, while other OCPs are quite few. The pollution of OCPs in Baiyangdian area does not see the characteristics of the nonpoint source pollution, and the pollution is closely related to the external input of the river (the Fuhe river). Moreover, the frequent ecological water supplement, the development of the agricultural planting structure and the fragile ecological environment also affect the OCPs pollution.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 95-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.02.011
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Abstract ( 265 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (2): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 128 )

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