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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 4
28 February 2018

Spescial Issues
Reviews

Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
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Columns

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 209 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 241 )
Think Tank

Policies on promoting the development of China's shale gas industry

YUAN Guohua, LUO Shixing, ZHENG Juan'er
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 8-11. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.001
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Abstract ( 242 )
When the world entered into the new millennium, the US made breakthrough in shale gas industry under a flat gas price level in the first decade, resulted in the US becoming the first oil and gas producer in the world even further. With abundant shale resource and in badly need of cleaner energy, China is now endeavoring to overtake others in shale gas industry and has become the leading producer after US and Canada, but there are still some problems. This paper points out the problems existing in the development of shale gas in China, such as lacks the knowledge of shale gas and oil formation, the complete set of technology and equipment system is not perfect, without standardized mineral rights management and entry-and-exit mechanism and non-standard environmental protection policies, and puts forward corresponding suggestions. To promote China's shale gas industry, we have to streamline the mineral rights management and landuse policies, environmental policies, technological policies, financial and taxation policies and industrial policies.
Spescial Issues

The management and the experience of the DARPA technology innovation

WANG Li, WANG Peng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 12-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.002
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Abstract ( 232 )
This paper analyzes the organizational management mechanism of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, including the management mode and the investment field. It is suggested to strengthen the government guidance, to pay attention to the top level design of the organization, to employ top project management talents, and promote the transformation of research achievements.

The improvement of the national security science and technology support system in the New Era as implicated by DARPA

WU Ji, LIU Shulei, LIU Changli
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 17-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.003
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Abstract ( 238 )
To avoid technological surprise from outside and to create technologicalsurprise against rivals, the US DARPA promotes the emerging science and technology innovations, playing special roles as "science and technology vanguard" in the U.S. national security system. Facing the tides of the new scientific and technological revolutions, the development of science and technology, especially, the technologies of subversive nature, one sees opportunities and challenges with respect to the national security. In view of the science and technology's impacts on the national security, we should foresee the development of the emerging science and technologies, further improve the technology support system for the national security, and makea full use of the science and technology innovation as the dual engine of the economic and social development and the national strategic security.

DARPA and innovations

LI Yuanlong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 22-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.004
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Abstract ( 237 )
It is shown that there are many internal and external factors that contribute to the DARPA's success in promoting innovations of the military technology. The U.S has been endeavoring to perfect the innovation systems and adjust the innovation strategies to stay at the top of the technological level. As far as the innovation is concerned, those measures taken by the forces of the United States can provide many enlightenments for other countries.

The success and the challenge of DARPA's technological innovation

HUANG Zhicheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 26-32. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.005
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Abstract ( 293 )
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has made a remarkable contribution to maintaining the leading technological advantage of the United States. The DARPA has accumulated a rich experience in the process of promoting innovation. This paper first analyzes the successful experience of DARPA's technological innovation, and explores the regularities of technological innovations of subversive nature based on the technological innovation of DARPA, as well as the existing problems. and the challenges facing the technological innovation in the new era. It is pointed out that the experience of the DARPA can be drawn, but not necessarily be duplicated.

The way how DARPA takes the leadership in national defense science and technology innovation

YI Biyi, HUANG Shiliang, LEI Erqing
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 33-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.006
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Abstract ( 321 )
The DARPA is the world leader of the national defense Sci & Tech innovations. To deal with the uncertainty, the diversity and the complexity of the innovation, the DARPA adopts such tactics as sticking to the specified innovative positioning of the advanced research, identifying the demands of the defense technology innovation, focusing on themes of innovations related to strategic frontiers, recruiting capable teams of innovation, encouraging various competitions for innovation and promoting the integration of innovation programs.

Analysis of DARPA challenge mode in continuously promoting scientific and technological innovation

LIU Baolin, JING Xiangxin, SUO Xingwen, YU Yang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 37-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.007
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Abstract ( 247 )
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the "technology engine" in leading the scientific and technological innovation of the US military. This paper reviews DARPA's successful experience in promoting scientific and technological innovation, including the representation of DARPA Challenges, and the successful experience of the modes. It is shown that in the DARPA Challenge modes, the full advantage of the technological research and development all over the nation and even the world is taken and great progresses are made. Now it becomes an important way for DARPA to promote the development of scientific and technological innovation, and it attracts extensive attention from other innovation institutions in the United States and other countries.

Bibliometric analysis of DARPA funding papers

CHEN Xiaoli, HAN Tao, WANG Su
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 44-50. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.008
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Abstract ( 215 )
Based on the SCI-E, this paper makes a data investigation and a quantitative analysis of DARPA funding papers, aiming to provide some useful insight of the success of the DARPA. We analyze the publication trends and the author number trends, the DARPA's preference of choosing funded institutions, the DARPA's funded person's academic influence and research area, and the DARPA's funding area preference. It is shown that the DARPA chooses foreign participants to corporate, not denying to do so only for political reasons. The DARPA chooses most influential researchers to corporate. The DARPA focuses on specific time window to maintain the research innovation. Though the DARPA projects might fail sometimes, the DARPA continues funding these areas to maintain diversity.

Analysis of the deployment of biotechnology projects of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

LI Changqin, CHENG Li, ZHANG Ziyi, JING Xiangxin, WU Shuxia, WANG Lei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 51-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.009
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Abstract ( 302 )
Since 2014 when the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency announced the establishment of the Office of Biotechnology (BTO), focusing on the restoration and the enhancement of military capability, the engineering application of biological system and the large-scale application of biological complexity,the number of research projects has increased from 23 to 31. The investment becomes more rational, and the research more focused. On the basis of the literature research, the expert consultation, the comprehensive analysis, the comprehensive inductive reasoning and other methods, this paper analyzes the deployment of biotechnology projects in the years of 2016 and 2017, reviews their characteristics, including the focus on the field of brain machine interfaces,the rapid diagnostic techniques,the countermeasures of biosafety protection,and the biological systems engineering.

The cooperation is the only way towards innovation of the national defense science and technology

ZHAO Guoan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 58-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.010
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Abstract ( 168 )
This paper shows the necessity of developing the national defense science and technology innovationon based on the new concept of the innovation of the national defense science and technology and the analysis of the cooperative innovation of the national defense science and technology in the world. It is shown that there are four modes of the national defense science and technology innovation, whichare:the cross domain collaborative innovation model based on the network platform, the cooperative innovation model based on the combination of institutions of big capacities, the cooperative innovation model based on the integration of similar scientific research institutions to carry out integrated scientific research, and the cooperative innovation model based on the military and civilian integration.

Distributed lethality is an important factor in the development of maritime warfare

HUANG Junsong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 62-68. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.011
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Abstract ( 418 )
The US military is at the forefront in the field of the world maritime war theory. In order to advance the study of the development of the maritime war form and the maritime war theory in China, this paper focuses on the Distributed Lethality of the US navy. The relation between the theory and the practice of the distributed destruction and the intelligent war is analyzed to see the objective law of the maritime war and to confirm the historical inevitability of the concept of the Distributed Lethality. It is concluded that the Distributed Lethality is an important factor in the development of the maritime war.
Reviews

Overview of foreign military UAVs'equipment and technology development

CHENG Long, LUO Lie, CHAI Jianzhong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 69-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.012
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Abstract ( 223 )
This paper systematically reviews the 2017 foreign military UAV's development hotspots with respect to new types, upgrades and modifications, mission systems and innovation technologies. One sees several trends of the UAVs' development this year, including the diversified mission requirements for new kinds of UAVs, the significant progresses of new UAV systems' development and modification, the critical new advanced airborne systems for the improvements of UAV's effectiveness, and the subversive technologies for UAVs' new applications. All these developments and progresses are in the pace with the improvements based on the artificial intelligence (or AI), the unmanned swarm control, and hypersonic technologies. The UAVs will be more and more integrated into the existing equipment system, and bring about new battle modes and concepts.

Implementation status and gap analysis of China's carbon dioxide capture, utilization and geological storage technology roadmap (2011 edition)

LI Xiaochun, ZHANG Jiutian, LI Qi, LIU Guizhen, ZHANG Xian, WEI Feng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 85-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.013
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Abstract ( 205 )
The carbon dioxide capture, utilization and geological storage (CCUS) is one of the key technologies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in fighting against global climate change. With rapid economic development in China, the energy conservation and the GHG emission reduction are important, especially for the sustainable development of green gross domestic producst. In September 2011, "Technology Roadmap Study on Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage in China" was issued by the Department of S&T for Social Development, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China and the Administrative Center for China's Agenda 21. This first CCUS roadmap sets some milestone objectives in 2015, 2020 and 2030, as well as some suggestions for priority technical development of fundamental researches and applied technology researches for the demonstration objectives. The first milestone (2015) has just reached. This paper reviews the latest literature and expert panel discussions, and it is shown that China has built a number of CCUS pilot and demonstration projects, and the priority deployment has also made some progress, but on the whole the current progress lags behind the target by about 2-3 years. In this context, this paper suggests that, to achieve the milestone object of 2020, it is necessary to solve the financing problem of large scale integrated projects to improve the economic efficiency of CCUS technology, and at the same time, and to solve the scale-up problems of all key technologies of CCUS technology. Finally, it is shown that when setting new targets for a coming China's CCUS roadmap (updated edition), in addition to considering the development level of mainstream technologies and emerging technologies, the impact of national policies on choices and applications of the technologies for CCUS projects should be considered.

CAS-ESA geostationary millimeter wave atmospheric sounder prototype: Drawing up a new blueprint for passive microwave remote sensing development

WU Ji, LIU Hao, ZHANG Cheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 96-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.014
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Abstract ( 154 )
A major requirement of microwave atmospheric sounder onboard geostationary satellite arises in the area of passive remote sensing and meteorological research. Developing geostationary microwave sounder is also a national strategy demand of China. The successful development of the CAS-ESA geostationary millimeter wave atmospheric sounder prototype based on synthetic aperture radiometer paves the way to reaching this goal. This paper briefly reviewed the research background and the current status of the relevant technology over the world, introduced the developing roadmap and achievements in china, stated the significance of the successful development of this prototype, and finally highlighted the prospect of near future application in China's Fengyun-4 mission.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 101-102. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.015
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Abstract ( 278 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 103-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.04.016
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Abstract ( 290 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (4): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 173 )

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