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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 5
13 March 2018

Scientifc Comments
Spescial Issues
Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Science and Technology Fund
Scientific Community
Think Tank
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Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 134 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 266 )
Think Tank

Equal attention should be paid to both construction and operation of buildings for energy efficiency and emission reduction: Findings from current data on resource and environment loads in China's building industry

HE Jing, WANG Mingming, ZHANG Zhonglun, LI Min, SHI Hongxia
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 8-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.001
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Abstract ( 340 )
Using the 2015 data as an example, and taking raw material consumption, energy consumption and CO2 emission as the key indicators, this study conducts an analysis on the main situation of resource and environment load in building construction and operation process of China building industry, compares the statistics with relevant foreign data, and reveals the quantitative relation between social building activities and resource and environment load. The findings can provide a theoretical basis and data foundation for transformation of resource utilization modes of the building industry and raise suggestions in terms of standard compilation, technical research and innovation.
Scientifc Comments

Rapid development of genomics and earth science, paleontology into the new era: Hot research topics in paleontology in 2017

ZHU Min, CHEN Pingfu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 14-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.002
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Abstract ( 143 )
Focusing on the outstanding contributions made by Chinese paleontologists, this paper reviews the research advances and hotspots in paleontology around the world in 2017, involving excellent studies on early life, early deuterostomes, fossil vertebrates, ancient humans, ancient DNA, and evolutionary paleobiology.

Why first breakthrough of Monkeys cloned is in China

PAN Dengke
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 23-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.003
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Abstract ( 134 )
Scientists in China have produced the first cloned primates by a technique similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep and nearly two dozen other species. The breakthrough was published in Cell on 25 January. This review described the techniques process and a brief history of cloning animal. The history failed to produce live primates until now. The group of Sun Qiang optimized reprogramming developed by other groups. One trick was to undo chemical modifications in the DNA that occur when embryonic cells turn into specialized cells. The success of cloned monkey offer some significant advantages to study human neuropathy model. More Labs are needed to promote the optimization of the technology.
Spescial Issues

Laser cooling and manipulating atoms: Principles and applications

ZHUANG Wei, LI Tianchu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 28-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.004
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Abstract ( 173 )
Laser cooling and trapping of atoms may reduce atoms'thermal velocities and manipulate them with quantum technologies, as widely applied in precise measurements. This paper reviews the history of laser cooling and trapping, explains its basic principles, and introduces its applications in Bose-Einstein condensates, atomic clocks and atomic interferometers.

Progress in optogenetics

LU Qi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 39-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.005
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Abstract ( 243 )
Optogenetics technology refers to transfection of specific genes into neurons and the neural activity can be turned on and off with the light. After ten years of development, optogenetics has become a mature and stable routine biological technology. This review focuses on the history of optogenetics, its development and various newly developed toolboxes. Finally, the application of optogenetics in neuroscience from the subcellular level to the neural network level and the clinical application in the treatment of blindness and analgesia are introduced.

Development progress of visible light communication technology

CHEN Xiongbin, LI Honglei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 53-59. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.006
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Abstract ( 187 )
The development history and status of visible light communication technology are introduced. Then two latest achievements are reported. A 500 Mb/s real-time visible light communication system is reported, which, based on bandwidth expanding technology, uses a 1 watt fluorescent type LED as light source and PIN photodiode as detector, reaching a system bit error rate (BER) of 3.48×10-5 over a 6.2 meters transmission distance. Also reported is a new type of symmetrical 100 Mb/s VLC Ethernet system employing a 1 watt fluorescent type LED and PIN photodiode as devices, too.

Research progress of sodium guide star laser for adaptive optics

XIE Shiyong, HUANG Kangsheng, SUN Yong, WANG Jiuwang, WANG Caili, BO Tiezhu, CAI Hua, XU Tao, LIAN Jiao, SONG Puguang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 60-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.007
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Abstract ( 183 )
Adaptive optics technology plays an increasingly important role in the development of large ground-based optical astronomical telescopes, whereas the 589 nm sodium guiding star laser (SGSL) is the key to this technology. According to different generation ways, this paper reviews dye SGSL, all solid state SGSL and optical fiber SGSL, with emphases on analysis and comparison of all solid state SGSLs operating in different modes in terms of laser generation and photon-return efficiency of laser guide star. Compared with continuous wave SGSL, SGSL operating in microsecond pulse mode can use time gating mechanism to improve the imaging accuracy of sodium guide star, which provides an excellent beacon for adaptive optics correction.
Reviews

Research progress on the stability of Pickering emulsion

YANG Chuanxi, WANG Xiaoning, YANG Cheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 70-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.008
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Abstract ( 509 )
In recent years, great attention was paid to the Pickering emulsion in the field of new chemical materials and catalytic materials due to its unique interfacial particle layer and stimuli-responsiveness. In this paper, the stabilization mechanism of the Pickering emulsion is reviewed. Three key factors are identified:the interfacial tension, the triple-phase contact angle, and the particle grain size. The influential factors of the Pickering emulsion stability are comprehensively discussed, including the wettability of particles, the particle concentration, the electrolyte in the aqueous phase, the aqueous pH, and the oil/water volume ratio, based on the mechanical barrier mechanism and the three-dimensional viscoelastic particle network mechanism.
Articles

Qualified and unqualified Homo sapiens: Perspective of fiction as a behavioral marker

SHEN Sichu, CHEN Xi, GUO Huifang, LI Shu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 77-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.009
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Abstract ( 250 )
Human being, as the wisest of all creatures, has been challenged by artificial intelligence. In order to tackle the challenge, we need to identify and enhance the unique capacity of human being as the wisest of all creatures. According to Yuval Noah Harari's viewpoint presented in Sapiens:A Brief History of Humankind, the capacity to believe in things purely existing in the fiction is the key to moving up in the food chain. Two decision scenarios are therefore developed to explore whether the two elements of fiction ("fiction reading comprehension" and "future coming true") can serve as a behavioral marker to distinguish qualified from unqualified homo sapiens. The result reveals significant differences in terms of responses to the scenarios between the criterion populations of unqualified homo sapiens, such as lawbreakers and drug addicts, and qualified homo sapiens (normal control). The findings support the notion that capacity of fiction can serve as a candidate behavioral marker for distinguishing qualified from unqualified homo sapiens. Furthermore, the findings provide pilot evidence for the viewpoint that the cognitive capacity of fiction is the unique capacity of homo sapiens.

Retrieval algorithm and results from the COSMIC tiny ionospheric photometer measurement

JIANG Fang, FU Liping, WANG Yongmei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 85-91. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.010
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Abstract ( 233 )
The peak electron density of the 135.6 nm nightglow radiation data by COSMIC tiny ionospheric photometer measurement is retrieved. The peak electron density values from the tiny ionospheric photometer and the ionosonde observation are compared. The results show that the 135.6 nm nightglow radiative intensity values must be revised to suppress the influences of the 130.4 nm band and the near ultraviolet upto visible wavelength radiation. The retrieval results from the revised data have good consistency.

Acoustic properties of multi-type natural gas hydrate-bearing sediments

ZHANG Huaiwen, CHENG Yuanfang, ZHU Haitao, SHI Jihui, HAN Xiuting
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 92-97. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.011
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Abstract ( 273 )
In order to understand the acoustic characteristics and differences of muddy siltstone hydrate sediment (MSHS) and siltstone hydrate sediment (SHS) in the shallow seabed of South China Sea, a simulation experiment is conducted to investigate the acoustic response characteristics of these two hydrate sediments with the ultrasonic detection technology. The results show that the acoustic velocities of these two hydrate sediments will increase with the increase of effective confining pressure. However, when the effective confining pressure increases to the effective confining pressure saturation point, the acoustic velocities of these two hydrate sediments will not change anymore. Meanwhile, with the increase of hydrate saturation, the effective confining pressure saturation points of these two hydrate sediments will also increase. The effective confining pressure saturation point of MSHS is higher than that of SHS and the difference is between 7-10 MPa. Under the same effective confining pressure, the larger the hydrate saturation, the faster the acoustic velocity for both hydrate sediments, showing a "slow-fast-slow" tendency. The 20%-40% of hydrate saturation is the fast increasing range of the acoustic velocity, with an increase over 22%. The acoustic velocity of MSHS is greater than that of SHS under the same experiment condition. Furthermore, the change of hydrate saturation and effective confining pressure have a great effect on the acoustic velocity of these two hydrate sediments, and acoustic velocity has a greater influence on MSHS than on SHS.

Electric vehicle lane keeping assistance system based on active torque distribution

WU Yiwan, ZHU Yue, LI Fan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 98-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.012
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Abstract ( 240 )
This paper focuses on the lane keeping assistance system (LKAS) for a four in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle. A new method for lane keeping assistance is presented, which applies additional yaw moment to the electric vehicle to achieve lane maintenance with active distribution of four wheels driving/braking torque. The lane keeping assistance system is divided into three layers. In the upper layer, assistance control decision is made, and the desired yaw rate is calculated by considering vehicle-lane deviation, vehicle dynamic and limitation of road adhesion. In the middle layer, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed to control the additional yaw moment. In the lower layer, yaw moment is produced by distributing of drive/brake torques between the four wheels. Lane keeping assistance is carried out by tracking desired yaw response. The LKAS is evaluated via Carsim/Simulink. The simulation result for a single lane change test shows that the proposed method can make the vehicle have good dynamic stability, and can restrict the vehicle within the lane and avoid lane departure accidents.
Science and Technology Fund

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 105-108. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.05.013
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Abstract ( 177 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (5): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 115 )

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