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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 6
28 March 2018

Special lssues
Scientifc Comments
Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
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Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 219 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 153 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 292 )
Think Tank

The “repeatability” difficulty in ecological experiment

XIAO Xianjing
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 8-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.001
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Abstract ( 312 )
The "repeatability" difficulty in the ecological experiment is an important issue. From the point of view of the ontology, mainly due to the natural variability, and partly due to the large scale, it is easy to use an organism system to illustrate the process, or to choose the homogeneity and balancing system to simulate the natural micro universe experiments. However, all these simplifications of the natural selection, or simplified simulations of the nature, although valid for a moment, are not always feasible. From the point of view of the epistemology, the ecology of the complexity of the subjects, the organic wholeness and historic nature make the validity of the understanding restricted, which directly affects the experimental "repeatability". Therefore, it is necessary to accurately determine the experiment site, and to clearly define the relevant concepts, to achieve the correctness(reality) of the ecology experiment and create a "repeatable" win-win situation. Methodologically, the incomplete experimental reports and the lack of relevant method-specific details are important causes of the "repeatability" difficulty of ecological experiments, thus it is necessary to improve the experimental report and the review system, to provide the original records of experimental details, to apply strict evaluation criteria. From the point of view of the axiology, academic misconducts, such as the P-hacking, the cherry-picking, and the hypothesizing after results(HARKing), etc., become important aspects of the experiment's "repeatability" difficulty and must be eradicated completely.
Scientifc Comments

Discovery of underground ice layer in the scraps on Mars

ZHENG Yongchun, ZHAO Weifang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 17-20. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.002
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Abstract ( 211 )
Is there water on Mars? Where is the location of the water, and how much is their storage volume? It is not only a matter of science, but also related closely to the future manned mission and immigrants to the Mars. As the most similar planet to the Earth in the solar system, the surface of Mars is covered with thick soil layer. However, what is the component beneath these sediments? It is always a mystery for human beings. Recently, scientists have discovered abundant pure water ice in the exposed scraps in the mid-latitude region. This article presented the results and what have been discovered. We discussed the proof of exposed ice in the observed material. The formation of ice scraps and the history of ice records, were also discussed. In the end, we described the utilization of the water ice resources for future Mars missions.
Special lssues

Application of mission planning in the emergency communication field

SUN Xin, ZHENG Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 21-27. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.003
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Abstract ( 154 )
The development of the emergency communication system has made a great success in China. However, for the emergency system to have a systematic application capability, one should solve the problem of the cooperative emergency, and the fine operation. In this paper, the world wide developments of the mission planning techniques are reviewed at first. Then, the applications of the mission planning techniques in the emergency communication field are discussed. Finally, a construction strategy is proposed based on on the mature technological achievements of the mission planning.

Development of marine emergency communication technology at home and abroad

JIANG Bing, ZHENG Yi, HUA Yanning, LÜ Chongjing, HUANG Wanning, HE Long, CUI Xiaojian
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 28-39. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.004
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Abstract ( 143 )
This paper systematically analyzes the features of the emergency communication, the evolution of the marine emergency communication technologies at home and abroad, and the current situation and problems of the marine emergency communication in China. To meet the demands of the emergency communication in various marine activities, an integrative constructive idea of the emergency communication system is proposed, with the sky, the outer space, the coast and shore, the sea surface and the underwater integrated. On this basis, the emergency communication application patterns in the corresponding classic marine emergency scenes are discussed, to provide a reference for the development of the marine emergency communication technology and the system establishment in the near feature.

Application and development of satellite communication in emergency communication

MENG Hui, SONG Junhai
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 40-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.005
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Abstract ( 203 )
This paper discusses the application mode, the policy and the methods of the emergency communication abroad and the establishment and the development of Chinese emergency communication system, focusing on the use of the satellite communication system in the emergency field. A prediction is made about the new technology,the new direction and the future development of the satellite communication.

Application prospect of near space solar-powered UAVs in emergency communication

MA Hongzhong, LI Qing, LIU Xiaochun, DING Yiheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 47-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.006
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Abstract ( 154 )
The solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flying at the near space enjoy a long flight time and a high flight height. The air communication service system can be established when the solar-powered UAVs carry the communication loads and it has a great application prospect in the field of the emergency communication. This paper reviews the development of the solar-powered UAVs platform at home and abroad and the application in the area of communication. By analyzing the characteristics and the application directions of the communication system based on the solar-powered UAVs, three typical applications and their key technologies and benefits are analyzed. It is shown that the near space communication system can be constructed by using the solar-powered UAVs. The communication system can be used for the long-term wide area and is flexible in use. And it will play an important role in the field of the emergency communication.

Current applications and the prospect of aerostat in emergency communication

HUANG Wanning, ZHANG Xiaojun, ZHU Rongchen, ZHOU Shuyu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 55-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.007
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Abstract ( 157 )
The emergency telecommunications play a critical role in the disaster risk reduction and it is of paramount importance providing communication services during an emergency. In recent years, it becomes a new direction of development applying the aerostat as a new emergency communication platform. In comparison with the conventional manned or unmanned aircraft, the aerostat provides a larger coverage area and a less delay of the transmission time with longer flight duration. At present, some typical types of aerostats, including the high-altitude super pressure balloons and the low-altitude tethered balloons, have reached the principle demonstration or test flight stages. One of the best-known projects is the Google's Project Loon, which has been successfully used to provide emergency telecommunication services in Peruvian floods and Puerto Rico hurricane disaster. In this paper, the super pressure balloon and tethered balloon technologies and the current development status are reviewed, as well as some key issues related to the aerostat as an communication platform.
Reviews

Basic issues of safety information science

LUO Tongyuan, WU Chao
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 65-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.008
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Abstract ( 149 )
In order to interpret safety issues from the perspective of information economics, and to explore and create safety information, the information asymmetry theory is taken as the breakthrough point in the field of economics to explore the safety information science. Through combining the attribute of safety science with the information asymmetry theory, the significance of the establishment of safety information is explained. In addition, from the view of the information asymmetry, the definition and the connotation of the safety information science are proposed. The basic problems of the subject of the safety information science are discussed. The theoretical basis, the subject base and the frame system of the safety information theory are established. The general procedure of the safety information science is created. It is shown that the combination of the information theory and the safety science has a profound theoretical significance. The establishment of the safety information science can provide new ideas and methods for the safety science.

Development of implantable silicon neural microelectrodes

PEI Weihua
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 77-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.009
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Abstract ( 156 )
The mechanisms by which the brain produces, transmits, and processes information are related with the neuroscience and the neural engineering, involving the electrical activity of brain neurons. As a kind of implantable sensor, the micro neural probe is one of the highest resolution tools used to record the neural activity. It can record electrical potentials of single neurons without damaging the nervous system. In order to record tens of billions of neurons in the brain, the more electrodes that can be simultaneously implanted, the more details of information processing by brain can be obtained. Thus, smaller volume and higher integration are required. As a kind of mature micro machining materials, silicon enjoys excellent mechanical properties and good biological compatibility. The neural microelectrode array fabricated from silicon has the advantages of small size, high integration and good electrical consistency. In this paper, the structure characteristics, the preparation methods and the performance of several mainstream implanted silicon based neural microelectrodes are reviewed. Through the continuous optimization of the structure, and the improvement of the modification methods and methods, the number of electrodes on one probe can be increased greatly, and the biocompatibility of the silicon based neural electrode be improved dramatically. In the area of high-throughput neural recording, the silicon based electrode fabricated with standard CMOS process and integrated with amplifier, as well as the analogue to digital circuit is a hopeful method to realize large-scale neural recording in-vivo,to replace the point to point connection between the electrode array in body and the recording equipment outside body with several digital lines.

Offshore CO2 flooding projects and the potential evaluation in Woffshore oilfield

LI Baozhen, KANG Xiaodong, ZHANG Jian, Tang Engao, ZHANG Xiansong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 83-89. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.010
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Abstract ( 155 )
In view of the highly developed industry and agriculture in China coastal cities, the pressure of the greenhouse gas emissions greatly increases, meanwhile, more and more oil and gas reserves with high CO2 content are found in China offshore oilfields, whose development is facing great challenges. A feasibility study of the offshore CO2 flooding application in China offshore oilfields "A" is carried out. Firstly, the worldwide researches and applications of offshore CO2 flooding are reviewed, including the key technology breakthroughs, the field performance and the valuable experience. Secondly, the design and the optimization of CO2 flooding in China offshore field"W" are made based on the reservoir engineering and the numerical simulation and its potential enhanced recovery and sequestration are evaluated. Finally, the outlook of China offshore CO2 flooding is evaluated. It is shown that this technology could improve the recovery of offshore oil reservoirs and improve the utilization rate of natural gas resources, which also provides a new way for the reduction of the greenhouse gas emission.
Articles

Analysis and validation of basic characteristics of intelligent products in the field of intelligent manufacturing

FANG Yifang, SONG Yanyan, DU Mengxin
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 90-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.011
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Abstract ( 443 )
The intelligent manufacturing involves a deep integration of the advanced manufacturing, the ICT and AI technology in the fields of end products and the manufacturing equipment, and the intelligentialization of manufacturing products are the core. The intelligent manufacturing also provides an important guarantee to achieve high-efficiency, high-quality, low-consumption and intelligent services. This paper reviews the latest studies of the intelligent manufacturing at home and abroad, proposes eight basic characteristics of the product intelligetialization, analyzes the related relationship between these characters and the intelligent manufacturing reference model, then validates the reasonableness of the characters of intelligent products based on the patents research.

Smart devices battery life technology trends

FENG Xiang, YANG Zhaokun, ZHANG Qiang, SU Yalong, QIAO Yun, LIU Sha, YANG Ruizhi, SUN Xiao, QIU Yun, WANG Dan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 97-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.012
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Abstract ( 415 )
The slow development of the lithium ion battery material technology hampers the growth of the energy density of commercial lithium ion batteries. The form of smart devices develops in the direction of portability e.g. ultra-thin and ultra-light along with the arrival of the mobile internet era, which poses a great challenge to the battery capacity and the device stand-by time. This paper reviews the methods of improving the stand-by ability of smart devices, focusing on the technology of the lithium ion battery widely used in smart device and the technical status of the key elements in the lithium ion battery cell. The tendency of the device power consumption and the machine structure design of smartphones are analyzed, including the power consumption distribution and the technical upgrading of the hardware in the smartphone field. The display module is shown to consume most power of a smart device. The logic power consumption and the BLU power consumption could be reduced effectively by using the pixel rendering technology. With the integration in the PCB and the processability of the PCB layout developments of the hardware elements, a larger space in the device will be used for a larger volume battery. The battery life will be prolonged with the multiple coordination and optimization of hardware elements of the smart devices.

Evaluations of node importance of urban road network based on transmission contribution matrix

CHEN Liang, WANG Jingjing, ZHOU Zhihua, LI Qiaoru, CHEN Mingming
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 105-111. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.013
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Abstract ( 306 )
Some important intersection nodes in the urban road network are generally defined by a single indicator such as the traffic flow or the number of connected links. It is difficult to ensure the reliability of the road network once the traffic incident in the hub node happens. In this paper, according to the free scale features, the urban road network is simplified as a weighted complex network, in which the traffic impedance is taken as the weight parameter, and a method of the weighted network node importance transmission contribution matrix is proposed. The method comprehensively combines the intersection location in the road network, the number of connected links, and the traffic impedance of associated links, to evaluate the intersection node importance. The node efficiency value is used to represent the information related with the intersection location, meanwhile, the node degree value and the traffic impedance value are fused to characterize the importance dependencies of adjacent intersections in the process of the traffic information transmission. A regional road network in Tianjin is used as a test sample to validate the proposed approach. The cascading failure is simulated on the network by continuously removing important nodes. Simulation results show that the largest subgraph size based on the proposed method falls by 9.10%, as compared with the weighted node contraction method when the top 8 important nodes are continuously removed. These results provide a theoretical basis for the congestion warning for the urban traffic network.

Influence of compaction degree and moisture on frost heaving properties of gravel soil in seasonally frozen region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

LONG Xiaoyong, CEN Guoping, CAI Wantong, ZHANG Jianjun, ZHANG Yongxiang, WEN Xiaoping, YANG Jiale
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 112-118. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.014
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Abstract ( 301 )
In order to see the influence of the compaction degree and the moisture on the frost heaving properties of the gravel soil in the seasonally frozen region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and provide a foundation for the prevention and the control of the soil frost heaving, a series of frost-heaving ratio indoor tests with improved test devices are conducted to study the influence of the compaction degree, the initial moisture content and the water replenishing on the frost-heaving ratio. It is shown that, the frost-heaving ratio of the gravel soil decreases after the first increase with the increase of the compaction degree, with its maximum at the compaction degree of 95% under the closed condition and with the same initial moisture content, and it increases linearly with the increase of the initial moisture content under the closed condition and with the same compaction degree. There are highly related functional relationship between the compaction degree, the initial moisture content and the frost-heaving ratio, which can be used to forecast related indicators in some cases. The frost-heaving ratio increases over several times under the open condition than under the closed condition. It is necessary to reduce the underground water level, to set the water-resisting layer, and to strictly control the compaction degree and the initial moisture content for the effective prevention and control of the soil frost.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (6): 119-120. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.06.015
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Abstract ( 234 )

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