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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 10
28 May 2018

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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 194 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 204 )
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Progress of neuroscience and related technology prospective

Group on Technology Foresight and Roadmap of Neuroscience Development, Chinese Neuroscience Society
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 6-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.001
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Abstract ( 351 )
The brain science is one of the most advanced area of the life science, breeding many disruptive technologies. The second decade of the 21st century sees revolutionary breakthroughs of the brain-inspired artificial intelligence, along with the "second wave" of the neuroscience development. This paper reviews the outstanding progress and the strategic layouts of the neuroscience and the brain-inspired artificial intelligence, as well as the technology prospective and the roadmap.

Applications and challenges of compressed imaging

ZHANG Hua, CAO Liangcai, JIN Guofan, David J. Brady
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 20-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.003
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Abstract ( 286 )
This paper reviews the development and the applications of the modern compressive imaging in the whole electromagnetic spectra from the perspective of the marginal cost. The values of the compressive imaging need to be considered in the perspective of the hardware cost and the computational expense when the compressive models and the reconstruction algorithms are designed. Based on the plenoptic function, a couple of successful applications are presented to show the advantages in compressing different data. The challenges of the compressive imaging are presented in practical applications. For the large-scale applications of compressive imaging, it is a challenging task to design a compressed sensing model with high stability and good compatibility.

From the emergence of intelligent science to the research of microwave vision

XU Feng, JIN Yaqiu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 30-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.004
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Abstract ( 334 )
In the past decade, artificial intelligence has attracted a great attention from both academics and industry, suggesting the transition of the human civilization into a new intelligence era. However, the "intelligent science" has not yet developed into the science foundation of the intelligent age. This paper, from a specific viewpoint of electromagnetic information sensing, discusses how the intelligent science might be developed in future, and points out that the human intelligence and the external world form a pair of inseparable dual problems, as the fundamental nature of the intelligent science. Therefore, the development of the artificial intelligence goes through four stages according to the objects and the related disciplines, namely, the mathematical intelligence, the physical intelligence, the psychological intelligence, and the free consciousness. In the first stage, the mathematical theory of a general learning algorithm is developed to form the basis of the intelligence. In the second stage, the physical intelligence is developed to deal with the physical world. Based on this, the third stage of development responds to high-order intelligence involving social groups, while in the fourth stage, the nature of the free consciousness and the question whether the artificial intelligence can finally become a conscious super-intelligence are studied. Within the author's own research field of the electromagnetic information sensing, a new concept of the microwave vision is proposed along the direction of the physical intelligence to explain its key ideas and essential problems and to paint the roadmap of its technological development. Taking the previous studies of the authors' team in this direction as an example, we further discuss the research and development of the physical intelligence as one of the specific directions of a general intelligent science.

Tunable optofluidic devices based on the inhomogeneous media and their biochemical applications

LIANG Li, ZHU Xiaoqiang, SHI Yang, YANG Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 45-55. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.005
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Abstract ( 143 )
Different optofluidic devices and their biochemical applications in inhomogeneous media are discussed. In optofluidic chips, various new technologies, such as the optofluidic waveguides, the lenses, the cell counting and the chemical detection, are developed and implemented from two aspects. Firstly, in the liquid-liquid inhomogeneous medium, the gradient and step refractive index distributions of the liquid in the micro cavity are realized by adjusting the flow rates in the channel and controlling the convection-diffusion between the liquids to achieve the special optical properties, such as the beam separation, the bending, and the self-focusing. Secondly, in the solidliquid inhomogeneous medium, a series of adjustable and more sensitive detections are achieved by combining the special microfluidic structure with the liquids. These new technologies play a key role in many biochemical applications, for example, the biosensing, the energy production and the seawater detection. Thus, with the development of the optofluidics, the tunable devices in inhomogeneous media will have great potential biomedical applications.

Research progress of conductive adhesives

ZHANG Wei, YAO Jianji, ZHAN Ke, XING Junjie, WANG Wenjie
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 56-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.006
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Abstract ( 235 )
As the emerging adhesives for electronics, the electronical conductive adhesives (ECAs) enjoy many advantages,such as the lower processing temperature, the simpler processing procedures and the finer-pitch interconnection in comparison with the traditional soldering technology. This paper reviews four main types of ECAs based on different conductive fillers, as well as the research progresses of the ECAs from three aspects:The electrical conductivity, the contact resistance and the mechanical property. This applications of the ECAs may open up the possibility of developing the next generation innovative bio-nano electronic devices.

Research progress and outlook for efficient, clean and low-carbon coal utilization

CEN Kefa
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 66-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.007
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Abstract ( 192 )
Along with the revolution of the energy production and consumption, the coal consumption and utilization in China turns from the original inefficient extensive ways to the efficient low-carbon clean methods. This paper reviews the research status and main development directions of coal consumption in China, including the efficient power generation, the classified and graded utilization, the comprehensive disposal and recycling with pollutions, the solid waste and biomass blended with the coal combustion power generation, the CO2 capture storage and utilization and the smart energy.

Augmented reality technology

WANG Yuxi, ZHANG Fengjun, LIU Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 75-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.008
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Abstract ( 275 )
The augmented reality technology combines virtual materials with the real world, displays the mixed information in the surrounding physical world via display devices, and provides a natural human-computer interaction. Recently, the augmented reality technology sees a rapid developement, and is widely used in thefields of games, entertainment, exhibitions, education and so on. This paper reviews the key technologies of the augmented reality system, its application in practice, as well as its future development.

Development of reusable space transportation technologies

LONG Lehao, CAI Qiaoyan, WANG Fei, MA Tingting, WEN Yue
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 84-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.009
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Abstract ( 149 )
The level of the space transportation technologies is closely related with the ability of accessing the space, utilizing the space, and ensuring security and protecting interests in the space. It symbolizes the comprehensive national strength. The reusable space transportation system is an ideal mean to reduce the space launch costs, to improve reliability and safety, and to shorten the turn-around time, as an important component of the future space transportation system. It is an inevitable tendency that the future space transportation system will turn from expendable to reusable. Developing an advanced and reusable space transportation system is of great significance for meeting the needs for the future space exploration and the low cost launch. This paper reviews the development trend of the reusable space transportation technologies. The development route of the future reusable space transportation in China is also discussed from three aspects, including the traditional launch vehicle configuration, the rocket-powered lifting-body configuration and the combined propulsion configuration.

Challenging problems facing the extra-long tunnel and some food for thought

HONG Kairong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (10): 93-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.10.010
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Abstract ( 163 )
Along with the strategy of building China into a country with a good transportation system, the constructions of tunnels and underground works in China has entered a new era. According to the current level of tunnel construction in China, this paper discusses the concept of extra-long tunnel, the technical challenges facing the construction of various extra-long tunnels, and the development trend of some key technologies.

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