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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 12
28 June 2018

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Articles
Foreword
Columns
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Scientific Comments
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 201 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 136 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 224 )
Think Tank

The complexity of the management in developing space science satellites

CAO Song, LI Zijie
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 8-12. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.001
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Abstract ( 212 )
We are facing many very complex and challenging issues during the development of the space science satellites. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the space science satellites, as well as the practice of the Strategic Priority Programs on the Space Science of CAS, and then makes some suggestions as how to deal with the complexities in boosting the space science satellites in China, which may serve as a reference for developing the space science satellites in the future.
Scientific Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 13-14. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.002
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Abstract ( 213 )

The insight of FAST: From the identification link between the guest star of Song dynasty in China and the pulsar one thousand years ago to “the Needham Puzzle”

ZHANG Chengmin, YANG Yiyan, ZHI Qijun
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 15-21. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.003
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Abstract ( 346 )
This paper analyzes the relationship between the achievements of the ancient astronomy and the scientific goal of the FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope) in China. The guest star, recorded firstly by the astronomers of Song dynasty in 1054, was recognized as the supernova explosion and shown as a Crab nebula, in which a pulsar was formed. Now, the FAST is making the pulsar observation, for understanding the above guest star. The pulsar and its discovery history are reviewed in this paper; furthermore, with a scientific confidence, based on the guest star recorded in 1054 and the FAST for the pulsar search, we try to answer the hard question put forward by Joseph Needham on why the modern scientific revolution did not happen in China despite the high prosperity reached in Song dynasty. It is well acknowledged that science is a common property of the mankind, while China made a great contribution to its initial development, Europe did its best in the Renaissance, and the expansion of Mongol helped the scientific and cultural exchange between the East and the West.
Exclusive

A review of non-invasive electroencephalogram-based brain computer interfaces

CHEN Xiaogang, WANG Yijun
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 22-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.004
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Abstract ( 351 )
The brain computer interface(BCI) is a new communication and control channel between the brain and the external world that does not depend on the peripheral nerves and muscles, with a direct interaction between the brain and the external devices. Due to the advantages such as the noninvasiveness, the ease-of-use, and the low cost, the electroencephalogram(EEG) is the most popular method for current BCIs. This paper first reviews the history of the EEG-based non-invasive BCIs. Then, the focus is placed on the state-of-art of researches in three main aspects, namely the taxonomy of the current BCIs, the applications of the BCIs, and the challenges in developing the BCIs. Finally, a summary of future developments of the EEG-based BCI technology is given.

Neural rehabilitation and new application of brain-computer interface technology

MING Dong, AN Xingwei, WANG Zhongpeng, WAN Baikun
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 31-37. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.005
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Abstract ( 211 )
As a new interactive combination technique of the brain cognitive neuroscience and engineering technology, the brain computer interfaces serve the connection between the human and the outer devices without the contact of the limb or neuromuscular system, and turn what is in the mind to real actions. BCIs are a new "window" of the brain science research, the brain cognitive mechanism and the intelligent human computer interaction application development. This paper reviews the research background, the research status and the future development trend of the BCIs technology.

Ethical issues of brain computer in terface and its solutions

LI Peixuan, XUE Gui
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 38-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.006
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Abstract ( 338 )
With the rapid advance of the neural science in decoding the human brain signals and uncovering its information processing mechanisms, as well as the innovations of the brain-computer interface technologies, the scope and the precision of the brain computer interaction (BCI) are greatly improved. Along with the development of the BCI technologies and their applications, the potential ethical issues have emerged, with an increased importance for a further study and it becomes necessary to develop effective strategies to regulate the applications of BCI technologies. This paper reviews the recent advances of the BCI technologies, and discusses the potential ethnical challenges to the society, including the security, the privacy, the fairness and the free will. Some suggestions are made to reduce the ethical risks.

Cognitive simulation: Is it a new approach for complex system modeling?

HU Xiaofeng, HE Xiaoyuan, TAO Jiuyang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 46-54. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.007
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Abstract ( 232 )
In the complex system researches, the cognitive modeling of experience and intuition is always desirable. Due to the lack of effective modeling and simulation methods for the cognition, this problem becomes a major bottleneck restricting the overall emergence, the chaos and the uncertainty of the complex systems. This paper analyzes the breakthrough of AlphaGo in the cognitive intelligence, as well as the basic connotations of the cognitive simulation, and points out the importance of the empirical and intuition capture for modeling complex systems and. the issues that the cognitive simulation methods should consider.

Cognitive simulation for complex system understanding and management

TAO Jiuyang, Wu Lin, HU Xiaofeng, HE Xiaoyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 55-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.008
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Abstract ( 136 )
The rise and the development of the complexity science are reviewed. The concepts of the uncertainty, the adaptability and the emergence of the complex systems are analyzed, as well as the main research methods, and the source of difficulties in their understanding and control. The breakthroughs and the key technologies of the cognitive intelligence are summarized, together with the basic concepts of the cognitive simulation. Finally, the existing problems and shortcomings of the cognitive simulation are outlined.

Applications of neural network in complex system modeling

ZHANG Guoning, HUANG Xiangyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 66-70. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.009
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Abstract ( 275 )
By analyzing and comparing the characteristics of neural network models and complex systems and the requirements of their modeling methodology, it is shown that the applications of the neural network in the complex system modeling are feasible. The main application fields of the neural network in the complex system modeling are discussed, such as the natural language processing, the speech recognition, the visual processing, and the fault diagnosis; and the main problems are pointed out, including the facts that the neural network can not describe the structure and the evolution of the system, it can not handle multiple tasks at the same time, and it can not solve the non repetitive problems well. Also the solutions of these problems are discussed preliminarily.

Development of intelligent unmanned combat system

ZHANG Bin, FU Dong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 71-75. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.010
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Abstract ( 782 )
The intelligent unmanned combat system is a new focus in the international military competition, and the United States is in the leading position of its development. The intelligent unmanned combat system's main characteristics and its influences on the warfare are analyzed in this paper. With the applications in a foreign army as examples, we can see the general pictures and the regular patterns of the construction of the intelligent unmanned combat system. Finally, some suggestions are made on the combat concept design, the capability/effectiveness evaluation, the scale-structure calculation, the intelligent standard and the technical industry's strategic blueprint.
Articles

The system construction of safety information science

LUO Tongyuan, WU Chao
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 76-85. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.011
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Abstract ( 355 )
This paper analyzes the principle and the system of security informatics, for the construction of the safety information science, with 4 kinds of the security information. According to the security information, 6 kinds of scientific principles of safety informatics are identified:the security of human body information principle, the safety principle, the material information security environment, the principle of information security management information, the social security information principle and the principle of information security system principle, in 30 levels. The connotation of each principle is discussed. A honeycomb structure of the principles of safety informatics is constructed to reveal the relation and the development of the principles of safety information. It is shown that with the system safety and security as the background, a safe information under a new system of safety science principle can be built, enriched and improved.

The present situation in Dongting Lake Basin after the operation of Three Gorges Project and its influencing factor of drinking water safety

HU Guangwei, ZHANG Lian
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 86-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.012
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Abstract ( 295 )
The regional economy development is restricted by the supply of high-quality water resource. As an important source of drinking water and fresh water reserve for people's livelihood in the Dongting Lake Basin, the water quality of Dongting Lake directly affects people's health. To grasp the drinking water security situation in the Dongting Lake Basin, we take the advantage of monitoring data such as runoff, level and quality of Dongting Lake water both into and out of the lake, and use comparative analysis, mathematical statistics and water quality evaluation model, as well as other analytical methods to study the current situation of drinking water safety and the impact of the operation of the Three Gorges Project on drinking water safety in the Basin in terms of water quantity and quality. Aiming at the problems existing in drinking water safety, we discuss the reasons for the safety of drinking water in the Basin. We show that the surface water and groundwater in Dongting Lake are seriously polluted and that there are some problems such as excessive heavy metal and threat of drinking water for people and animals. Especially after the operation of the Three Gorges Project, the water into the lake of the Three Outlets of Jingjiang River drops sharply, and the total diversion of Three Outlets has decreased to 475×108m3/a, a reduction of 52%; continuous lowrainfall in the Basin also exacerbates the drought situation, with precipitation dropping by 52% over the same period of the previous year. Finally, we put forward countermeasures and measures to ensure the safety of drinking water in the Basin. First, allocation of water resources should be optimized and the protection of water resources should be strengthened so that the combination of water abstraction and pollution control can be strengthened. Then, the construction of drinking water projects should be increased in the Basin and the management of drinking water safety should be improved. Last but not the least, a basis for solving drinking water safety problem in the Basin is urgent, which may play an active role in ensuring the harmonious and stable development of the ecological economic zone of Dongting Lake.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (12): 94-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.12.013
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Abstract ( 198 )

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