Collect | Home Page 
   
Office Online  
Journal Online
· Forthcoming Articles
· Current Issue
· Archive
· Advanced Search
· View by Fields
· Archive By Subject
· Special Issues
· Download Articles
· Read Articles
· Email Alert
· Recommended
Links
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 13
13 July 2018

Exclusive
Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Select | Export to EndNote
Columns

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 0-0.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1692 KB)  ( 41 )
Abstract ( 102 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 1-1.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (606 KB)  ( 172 )
Abstract ( 334 )
Think Tank

A comparative study on technologies and industries of high performance carbon fibers in US, Japan and UK

ZHOU Hong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 8-15. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.001
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (910 KB)  ( 158 )
Abstract ( 280 )
In more than 20 years from late 1950s to 1970s, the technology of high performance carbon fibers developed fast. Scientists of US, Japan and UK discovered "graphite whisker" and its characteristic of super high strength and invented the technologies for producing rayon-based, PAN-based, pitch-based as well as mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers. This paper combs the R&D history at that time, summarizes the critical technological contributions by two research institutions, and introduces fives scientists and three companies from. US, Japan, and UK. Then the paper uses the SWOT model to analyze their successful factors (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat) in R&D, industrial base, and developmental environment of this field. Finally, it comparatively studies the three counties' industries for high performance carbon fibers. The lessons learned from the three countries can be valuable for those who concern the development of China's domestic industry of high performance carbon fibers.
Exclusive

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 16-17.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (320 KB)  ( 66 )
Abstract ( 92 )

Advances in corneal mechanobiology

LI Xiaona, WEI Junchao, WANG Xiaojun, CHEN Weiyi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 18-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.002
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (860 KB)  ( 51 )
Abstract ( 82 )
As an important part of the ocular dioptric system, the corneal tissue is subject to the load under intra-ocular pressure. Corneal cells can sense and respond positively to the mechanical stimulation. In this paper, we review force analysis of corneal tissue borne, biological response of corneal cells to mechanical stimulation, and the relation with the repair after injury and relative diseases.

Progress of research on corneal biomechanical properties

ZHANG Haixia, ZHANG Di, QIN Xiao, SUN Taifeng, LI Lin
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 23-29. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.003
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1927 KB)  ( 99 )
Abstract ( 85 )
The optical function of cornea is closely associated with its morphological structure. Abnormal corneal morphology can lead to myopia, hyperopia and keratoconus. It is an important subject to study the corneal mechanical characteristics. The result will improve the understanding of corneal surgery and predict postoperative through establishing the biomechanical model with clinical application. In this paper, based on the research work of the ophthalmic biomechanics team of Capital Medical University, we review the corneal biomechanical testing methods and the corneal constitutive parameter research.

Advances in glaucoma biomechanics research

QIAN Xiuqing, SONG Hongfang, LIU Zhicheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 30-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.004
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1729 KB)  ( 88 )
Abstract ( 184 )
Glaucoma ranks the first in the irreparable blindness eye diseases in the world. As the elevated intraocular pressure is the main risk factor of visual impairment, decreasing intraocular pressure is the main treatment of glaucoma at present. Therefore, the biomechanical problem of glaucoma is an important part of the research of pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of glaucoma. The main reason of high intraocular pressure for glaucoma is the increase of outflow resistance of aqueous humor. The increase of intraocular pressure will lead to iris deformation, pupil block, change of flow field of aqueous humor in the anterior chamber, thinning thickness of optic nerve fiber layer and lamina cribrosa, and damage of visual function. Recent advances in glaucoma biomechanics are introduced from aspects of intraocular pressure measurement, measurement of aqueous humor flow, visual function imparied, etc.

Research advances in scleral biomechanics in myopia progression

ZHOU Qingyi, ZHAO Fei, ZHOU Xiangtian
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 39-43. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.005
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (819 KB)  ( 66 )
Abstract ( 123 )
The increased prevalence of myopia and its potentially irreversible vison impairment have caused widespread concern, but the detailed pathogenesis of this disease needs further investigation. Experimental and clinical evidences indicate that excessive ocular elongation associated with myopia is the result of altered scleral shell. This review summarizes the research advances in scleral biomechanics in myopia progression, including biomechanical properties of the sclera in myopic eyes, the related changes and reasons of the composition of the scleral extracellular matrix, and some new clinical treatments. Future research direction and trend in this field are prospected as well.

Review of eye trauma research by numerical simulation

LIU Xiaoyu, CHEN Duo, GENG Xiaoqi, FAN Yubo
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 44-49. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.006
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1186 KB)  ( 47 )
Abstract ( 89 )
The eye is characterized by its complex structure and fragile material. Injuries to the eye would lead to serious visual impairment or blindness. Epidemiological study indicates that one-third of the hospitalized patients are related to eye injuries. As an effective method, numerical simulation can be used to represent the dynamic response of the ocular tissues as well as provide the mechanical conditions unavailable in any experimental methods. This paper reviews and introduces the related research literatures in the past 20 years, focusing on the application of numerical simulation of direct and indirect ocular trauma, and it' s current and future research. In general, the numerical simulation technology has become an effective method for the study of eye trauma, which can quantitatively analyze the relationship between mechanical conditions and degree of injury so as to help understand the mechanism of ocular trauma and provide more reasonable medical treatment.
Reviews

Review on disposal technology of spent fluorescent lamps

LI Penghui, ZOU Xiaoyan, ZHANG Hongwu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 50-57. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.007
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1723 KB)  ( 57 )
Abstract ( 111 )
Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals to human beings. Meanwhile, mercury pollution which is triggered by waste fluorescent lamps widely used in our daily life is becoming a more and more serious problem. In recent years, landfill and incineration have been the main disposal methods for waste fluorescent lamps at home and abroad, posing a huge potential threat to the surrounding environment and human health. On the other hand, fluorescent lamps contain large amounts of reusable secondary resources, such as rare earth elements, copper and lead. Therefore, this review summarizes the major disposal technologies of waste fluorescent lamps at home and abroad, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, focusing on the recycling of waste fluorescent lamps, harmless disposal of mercury, and recovery methods of rare earth metals from waste fluorescent lamps. Finally, the article indicates that the recycling method, new type of nanomaterials (such as nano-selenium, etc.) for harmless treatment of mercury, and environment friendly recovery methods of rare earth all have good prospects in the future.
Articles

Ultra high speed digital image correlation system and its application in blasting research

YANG Liyun, ZHANG Lanyue, DING Chenxi, SUN Jinchao, LIU Linlin, LI Ming
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 58-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.008
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (3818 KB)  ( 178 )
Abstract ( 251 )
Combining with the digital image correlation method and the ultra high speed photography technology, an experimental system of ultra high speed digital image correlation is set up to realize monitoring and analysis of the ultra-dynamic strain field under blasting loading. By using the experimental system and the UV flatbed printing technology, a blasting model experiment on polycarbonate (PC) plate is conducted, the evolution of blasting strain field and the attenuation law are analysed. The results show that the compressive wave is the main form of blasting stress wave and the shear wave is the minor form. With the propagation of stress wave in the specimen plane, the stress wave decays from high frequency to low frequency, and the energy of stress wave dissipates gradually. In addition, the ABAQUS finite element analysis code is used to simulate the dynamic process of blasting. The deformation evolution of numerical simulation is in good agreement with the experimental results, it is verified that the experimental system has good applicability to blasting research.

Influence of fracture pressure depletion on transient inter-porosity flow characteristic between matrix and fracture in tight oil reservoir

HUANG Shan, YAO Yuedong, WANG Li, MA Ruoyu, WANG Jinwei, GUO Qinglin
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 65-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.009
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (2265 KB)  ( 65 )
Abstract ( 207 )
The tight formation has the characteristics of the extremely low permeability and the sensitivity of the permeability to the effective stress. The conventional constant shape factor model cannot accurately characterize the transient inter-porosity flow characteristics. In this paper, a new model is established by considering the effect of the stress sensitivity and the time-dependent fracture pressure boundary condition. The Pedrosa substitution and the perturbation method are applied to eliminate the nonlinearity of the model. The Laplace transformation method is used to obtain the analytical solution in the Laplace domain. Based on the Duhamel principle, the solution under the time-dependent fracture pressure boundary condition is obtained. The results obtained by the new model are compared with those obtained by the model of Hassanzadeh and the finite element analysis to validate the new model. Finally, the influences of the stresssensitivity and the decreasing velocity of the fracture pressure on the shape factor and the velocity of the inter-porosity flow are discussed. It is shown that the larger the stress sensitivity coefficient, the smaller the value of the shape factor and the smaller the velocity of interporosity flow will be. The fracture pressure depletion has a significant effect on the inter-porosity flow. The effects of the matrix stress sensitivity become more pronounced when the effects of the fracture pressure depletion are considered. Moreover, the shape factor and the velocity of inter-porosity flow are different in different stages as the fracture pressure depletion coefficient is not the same. The velocity of the inter-porosity flow will increase first to reach an equilibrium and then decrease when the decreasing rate of the fracture pressure is small, which is different from the results obtained under the constant fracture pressure boundary condition. The estimation of the velocity of the inter-porosity flow would be inaccurate if the effect of the fracture pressure depletion is not take into account. The new model provides a theoretical basis for the development of tight reservoirs and can be used in the study of the well test analysis and the numerical simulation of multi-fractured horizontal wells in a tight formation.

Evolution model and risk analysis of urban haze disaster chain

GAO Feng, TAN Xue
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 73-81. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.010
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1592 KB)  ( 78 )
Abstract ( 243 )
Evolution model and risk analysis of urban haze disaster chain are carried out on the basis of disaster system theory and the complex network theory in this paper. Through the information gathering and analysis of the causes and harm of urban haze disaster, the disaster chain mechanism of urban haze is analyzed, as well as the types and characteristics of disaster chain, according to the characteristics of disaster-causing factors, hazard-formative environment and hazard-affected bodies. By building the urban haze disaster chain evolution network model, qualitative risk analysis is made based on the out-in degrees and number of nodes in its subnets, the shortest path and average path, and the number of branched chains. Finally, the key steps are found and the solutions on disconnecting chains are presented. The results of risk analysis show that in the urban haze disaster chain evolution system, the haze event closely relates to the other crisis events. Through several times of transition, the harm effect might spread to the entire network, and the key links are the decline in atmospheric visibility, the decline in air quality or air pollution, traffic jams or paralysis, traffic accidents, resulting in urban atmospheric acid rain, urban greening, economic losses and endanger human health.

Vibration displacement measurement of flexible manipulator using machine vision

MA Tianbing, LIU Jian, DU Fei, CHEN Nannan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 82-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.011
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1500 KB)  ( 123 )
Abstract ( 328 )
Of traditional vibration displacement measurement methods, the indirect measurement method has its large error and low accuracy while the direct measurement method can achieve accuracy with high cost and poor utility. So a vibration displacement measurement method using machine vision is proposed. A motor-driven flexible arm is selected as the measurement object. A CCD camera is used to collect the motion image of the marker on the arm's manipulator. After the visual processing such as threshold segmentation and centroid detection, the vibration displacement information of the manipulator is obtained. An experimental platform is built to verify the method. The result is compared with the vibration displacements obtained by piezoelectric material measurement method and the simulation method. It is shown that the machine vision-based vibration displacement measurement method can be well applied to the flexible arm without any contacts. The accurate and real-time vibration displacement measurement of the arm is superior to the piezoelectric material measurement method, avoiding the influence of formula errors and other effects, and has obvious advantages.

An intelligent visualization platform for biohazard incidents based on Cesium

ZHANG Xun, WANG Dongming, JIANG Dong, FU Jingying, LI Jiangtao
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 88-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.012
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (3310 KB)  ( 94 )
Abstract ( 406 )
The purpose of this research is to meet the urgent needs of emergent biological hazard event simulation prediction research due to the new worldwide situation of complex biological hazard. With the help of the Cesium framework, an open source software tool for 3D geographic information technology from WebGL, this paper defines the overall framework of emergent biological hazard event platform. On this basis, a database of emergent biological hazard events is established, and for modules, namely analogue simulation function module, hazard assessment function module, auxiliary decision function module, and intervention measures function module are developed for three application scenarioes of bioterrorism, biological invasion, and infectious diseases. So a 3D earth biological platform for emergent biological hazard events has been implemented, which aims to provide a visual analysis platform for emergent biological hazard event research decision-making with data support and software platform guarantee.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 95-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.13.013
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (444 KB)  ( 63 )
Abstract ( 222 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 6-6.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (812 KB)  ( 33 )
Abstract ( 103 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 6-6.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (812 KB)  ( 29 )
Abstract ( 106 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 6-7.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (1414 KB)  ( 36 )
Abstract ( 101 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 7-7.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (901 KB)  ( 43 )
Abstract ( 104 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (13): 7-7.
Full text: HTMLnew PDF  (901 KB)  ( 34 )
Abstract ( 100 )

Copyright © Editorial office of Science & Technology Review
Tel: +86-10-62138113 Fax: +86-10-62138113 E-mail: jdbbjb@cast.org.cn
京ICP备14028469号-1