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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 15
13 August 2018

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Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
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Columns

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 72 )
Foreword

Hot!

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 200 )
Think Tank

The Nobel Prize as an indicator of space science's contribution to world science and technology power construction

FAN Quanlin, BAI Qingjiang, WANG Haiming, YANG Fan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 8-12. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.001
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Abstract ( 278 )
Nobel Prize is one of the most important prizes well-known to the international space science community. In the case of a space power, space scientists have been continually getting awarded with the Nobel Prizes, benefiting from the implementation of space science missions. This article takes the Nobel Prize as the tool, starts with the space science's contribution to world science and technology power construction, analyzes the Nobel Prizes awarded to space scientists from international space powers such as USA, Europe and Japan, describes the status of space science development in China, and proposes that, space science is one of the areas that Nobel-prize-level breakthroughs could be achieved, and would make significant contributions to global science and technology developments.
Exclusive

Pollution characteristics and control measures of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic environment

XU Jian, HU Peng, LÜ Jiapei, GUO Changsheng
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 13-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.002
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Abstract ( 249 )
Antibiotics are widely used in medical, agricultural and animal husbandry fields, however, they can induce drug-resistant bacteria and resistance genes, posing a great threat to human health and ecological environment. Based on a comprehensive analysis of antibiotics and their resistance genes in the aqueous environment, this paper reviews the current state of knowledge on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes, including their sources and migration paths, the occurrence and concentration levels in aquatic environment, and their possible ecotoxicity. Besides, the control measures of antibiotics pollution in the water environment are discussed and current research topics on antibiotics are proposed as well.

Effects of industrial structure adjustment on air pollutant emission in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region——Based on the impulse response function of VAR model

SHI Lei, WANG Yue, CHENG Rong, BIAN Yangzi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 24-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.003
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Abstract ( 148 )
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has been plagued by atmospheric pollution for many years. Adjustment of industrial structure can harmonize the relationship between economic development and environmental protection. Studying the effect of industrial restructuring on air pollution has become an urgent task in reduction of regional air pollutant emissions. At present, the research on the impact of industrial structure adjustment on air pollution mainly adopts three methods:EKC curve verification, time series analysis, and spatial econometric method. This research selects time series data of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei's industrial structure and certain air-pollutant emissions during 1999 to 2015 to establish the vector autoregressive (VAR) models for the secondary industry proportion, sulfur dioxide and industrial smoke (dust) emissions, then completes the impulse responses function (IRF) analysis. The findings are that the impact of industrial structure adjustment on different pollutants in different regions are various in terms of direction, degree and duration. In terms of the direction, industrial restructuring cannot reduce emissions of all pollutants in all provinces. In terms of the degree, SO2 emissions are greatly affected and industrial dust emissions are less affected; emissions in Beijing and Hebei are greatly affected, while the impact in Tianjin is small. In terms of the duration, SO2 can be affected for a long time, but the impact on industrial dust can't last long. In Beijing and Tianjin, the positive impact can last for at least 4 years, while Hebei has only a period not longer than 2~3 years. Therefore, to ensure a high efficiency of industrial restructuring policies, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei should take a three-year reference cycle to adjust the policies. Besides, different control methods should be adopted for different pollutants. And air pollutant emission reduction work should match the local reality.

Research progress on ambient particulate matter pollution and carcinogenesis in China

WU Jing, SONG Xiaoming, LIU Shuo, WU Rongshan, HUANG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 32-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.004
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Abstract ( 203 )
In recent years the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM) has remained high in China; however the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified that the outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter in outdoor air pollution are carcinogenic to humans. This article summarizes the current situation of PM pollution in China and reviews the research progress on the mechanism of PM carcinogenesis and the evidences given by China's toxicologic studies and epidemiological studies on PM carcinogenicity in the past decades. The article suggests that China should urgently conduct researches to confirm the relationship between PM and cancers and that a series of actions should be taken to alleviate China's air pollution.

Atmospheric ozone: Natural distribution, formation potential and effects on health: A review

JIN Taosheng, XIN Yanchao, YIN Xiaoge, QI Jingyu, WANG Yu, HAN Miao, ZHAO Shuai
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 39-47. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.005
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Abstract ( 121 )
In order to promote people's awareness of atmospheric ozone changes and take protective measures, the paper reviews the latest progress of ozone research. The review includes three aspects:natural distribution of ozone, impacts of human activities on ozone variation (ozone hole and ozone formation potentials) and effects of ozone pollution on human health (especially for human respiratory system and cardiovascular system). Three models are introduced in terms of ozone creation potentials, namely ozone creation efficiency, photochemical ozone creation potentials and ozone incremental reactivity. The object of the paper is to give some knowledge about the ozone pollutions, main sources and the change of regional ozone.

The biological effects and health impacts of ionizing radiation

CAO Yi, XIE Wen
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 48-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.006
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Abstract ( 265 )
People are often exposed to radiation in their daily life, but they are also unaware of the low doses of ionizing radiation such as medical radiation because radiation is hard to perceive. In this paper, the source, biological effects and health impacts of ionizing radiation are briefed, and the hormesis and adaptive response of low-dose radiation are discussed. This paper intends to help people to correctly understand ionizing radiation and proposes appropriate protective measures that may reduce the harmful effects of ionizing radiation in human life to some acceptable level for humans, so that radiation can benefit human beings in the fields of medicine, industry and scientific research.
Reviews

Advanced liquid metal cooling: Historical developments and research frontiers

YANG Xiaohu, LIU Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 54-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.007
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Abstract ( 266 )
The thermal barrier problem has been a major bottleneck that hinders the development of high-profile chips and optoelectronic devices. Hence, it is urgent to develop high-performance chip cooling and thermal management technologies to tackle this challenge. As a class of newly emerging thermal management materials, liquid metals have revolutionized the concepts and technologies in the areas of convective cooling, thermal interface materials, and phase change materials. The liquid metals enable cooling technologies to break the performance limit of conventional cooling methods and provide powerful solutions for the cooling of devices and equipment which are faced with tough thermal barrier issues. They are expected to play a key role in areas such as defense equipment, aerospace industry, energy systems, and consumer electronics. This paper is dedicated to a systematic review on the developments and frontiers of liquid metal cooling technologies, mainly including liquid metal convection cooling, liquid metal based thermal interface materials, low melting point metal phase change materials and liquid metal enabled combinatorial heat transfer science and cooling technologies. The main scientific issues and technical challenges lying behind are outlined and discussed in order to help better stimulate the development and applications in the area.
Articles

The framework of agricultural technology system adaptive to climate change in Northeast China

LI Kuo, XU Yinlong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 67-76. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.008
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Abstract ( 241 )
The impacts of climate change are becoming more and more remarkable. So adaptation to climate change has gradually turned into a global hotpot. Northeast China is an important base of grain production, the impact of climate change on which will directly cause fluctuations of the grain production in China. From the perspective of adaptation to climate change, the key challenges to agriculture due to climate change are analyzed. According to the analysis, four key problems are discussed, which are the increasing heat resources, the rising frequency and intensity of drought and flood disasters, the declining extreme events of low temperature and chilling, and significantly increasing plant diseases and insect pests damage. In view of the above influencing key issues, the adaptation technologies are classified into six categories, namely capital construction of farmland, selection and breeding of anti adversity varieties, tillage and cultivation of crops to cope with disasters, adjustment of planting structure, pest control, and agricultural insurance. In this paper, the key technologies of adaptation to climate change in Northeast China are identified and optimized. They and assorted technologies are assembled and integrated to form a framework of technology system adaptive to climate change. This paper may provide some theoretical guidance and technical support to the adaptation work in different regions and sectors of China to speed up the activities of adaptation to climate change.

Micro-/nanomotors for biomedicine applications

LI Tianlong, YU Hao, LI Mu, TANG Wentian, DONG Huijuan, ZHOU Dekai, LI Longqiu, ZHANG Guangyu
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 77-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.009
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Abstract ( 337 )
Due to lightweight, less volume and high thrust, micro/nano motors can be widely used in the fields of sensing detection, nanofabrication and experimental remediation. Especially, micro/nano motors can serve as promising biomimetic motors for biomedical and nanoelectronic applications. In this paper, fabrication, propulsion and control methods of micro/nano motors are expounded. And micro/nano motors used for the fields of targeted therapy, nano surgery, toxins adsorption and thrombolysis are summarized. Finally, the challenge and development direction of micro/nano motors used for biomedicine application are discussed.

Flood control strategies of Jingjiang and Jianghan-Dongting areas in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

CHEN Lide
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 85-92. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.010
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Abstract ( 443 )
On the basis of reflection on existing flood control and disaster mitigation measures and based on the consideration of ‘flood and sediment resources’, the measures for flood control in Jingjiang and Jianghan-Dongting areas of the Yangtze river are proposed. These measures are ‘dreding sand, expanding the lakes and reforming cold waterlogged paddy fields’ while ‘recreating the Yunmengze and expending the Dongting-lake’, which will expand the flood storage space in Jianghan-Dongting area. Under the principle of ‘draining and raising storage with draining first’ and ‘rivers and lake confrontation’, an overall consideration on food control and disaster reduction as well as the transformation of the cold leaching fields and improvement of Schistosomiasis control work should be taken into account, so as to support the sustainable development strategy of the Yangtze river economic belt and the middle reaches of the Yangtze river.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 93-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.011
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Abstract ( 222 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 96-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.15.012
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Abstract ( 213 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 6-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (15): 7-7.
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