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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 16
28 August 2018

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Science and Technology Humanities
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 133 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 249 )
Exclusive

Research progress of microfluidic technology based on surface acoustic waves

WEI Xueyong, JIN Shaobo, LIU Zhen, YU Keyang, JIANG Zhuangde
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 8-19. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.001
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Abstract ( 288 )
In recent years, the microfluidics technology based on the surface acoustic waves (SAW) has attracted a wide attention due to its many advantages such as simple and efficient generation and control of the SAW, multiple interacting forms between the SAW and the fluids, simple manufacturing process, and easy to integrate and detect. At present, as far as the biochemical analysis and the medical detection are concerned, the research of the SAW based microfluidic technology is mainly focused on the cells/particles sorting, the separation, mixing and concentration, the acoustic heating, the acoustic atomization, and the biological sensing. Some prototypes have almost reached the maturity stage, to be developed into portable devices with a huge prospective market. In this paper, the research of the microfluidic technology based on the SAW for the cells/particles sorting, separation, mixing and concentration, the acoustic heating, the acoustic atomization, the biological sensing reported in the last twenty years is reviewed, as well as the related research trend from a single effect study of acoustoforce, acoustothermal and acoustoelectric to the study of multiple physical effects, from two dimensional and micro manipulation to three dimensional and nano manipulation, and from planar device to flexible device.

Optofluidic sensors and their applications

ZHU Xiaoqiang, LIANG Li, SHI Yang, YANG Yi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 20-28. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.002
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Abstract ( 299 )
Based on the optofluidic technology, many kinds of high performance optofluidic sensors can be fabricated by different designs. The optofluidics sensors can be divided into four categories according to their structures. The first two categories are the optofluidic sensors based on the photonic crystal cavity and the whispering gallery mode. When the fluids flow through the cavities of the sensors, the couplemode will change because of the changed refractive index by the fluids, and the responding light signals will change as well. The third category optofluidic sensors are based on the optical waveguide. The fluids will interact with the evanescent field produced by the total reflection of the light in the optical waveguide, leading to the change of the responding light signals. The fourth category optofluidic sensors are based on the surface plasmon resonance. The sensors are very sensitive to the refractive index of the metal surface, and the refractive index changed by the fluids will shift the resonance peak. The optofluidic sensors are very sensitive to the changing of the refractive index, with high sensitivity and accuracy, meanwhile, the optofluidic system enjoys the advantages of low-cost, miniaturization and simple structure. As the detectors are approaching the microcosmic scale, the optofluidic sensors will play an important role in the detection and biochemical analysis area.

Microfluidics based cell manipulation: Methods and applications

SUN Dong, LUO Tao
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 29-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.003
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Abstract ( 280 )
With the microfluidics, the precise control of micro-liquids and the miniaturized integration of multiple functionalities can be achieved, with incomparable advantages in the cell manipulation in terms of precision, efficiency and cost. Therefore, the microfluidics has become an interdisciplinary research hot spot in recent years. From the perspective of the cell manipulation methods and the corresponding applications, this paper reviews the latest progress in the field of the microfluidic cell manipulation, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various cell manipulation methods, and then analyzes the trend of the microfluidics based cell manipulation.

Microfluidic chips for single-cell trapping

WU Chunhui, JIANG Youwei, CHENG Xin
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 39-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.004
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Abstract ( 265 )
In recent years, the application of the microfluidics in the single cell analysis has attracted more and more attention. The singlecell trapping is the basic and key component for the analysis at the single-cell level. The microfluidic chips usually have single-cell matched microstructures and could achieve the control of extremely small liquid volumes at the nanoliter and picoliter scale. Thus, the microfluidic chips are particularly suitable for the specific or high-throughput single-cell trapping. Moreover, the components for the posttrapping analysis of single cells could be integrated on the chip to build a high-efficiency and low-cost microfluidic single-cell analysis platform. This paper reviews and compares several microfluidic single-cell trapping methods, including hydrodynamic, optical, electrical, magnetic, and acoustic techniques. Future research in the single-cell trapping and analysis on the microfluidic chips is also discussed.

Microflow synthesis and preparation of hazard chemical materials

SHEN Ruiqi, ZHU Peng, YE Yinghua, XIA Huanming, ZHAO Shuangfei, CHEN Cong, YANG Yong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 46-52. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.005
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Abstract ( 201 )
Energetic materials are flammable and explosive hazard chemical materials which might explode with an slight excitation, such as the mechanical force, the heat and the static electricity. The conventional processes of synthesis, separation, purification, refining and coating for energetic materials use the internal stirred vessel technology, with a low safety and with large scale explosives kept in line. The microchannel reactor is an essential security technology, because of high ratio of surface/volume and small microchannel, in which the size of the microchannel can be designed in smaller size than the detonation critical diameter of explosives, with a small amount of explosives in line. The continuous phase micro-flow technology is widely used in synthesis and analysis of chemical materials, but the microchannel is easily blocked by solid products. The micro-segmented flow treatment is easier than that of the continuous phase flow. The innovated microsegmented flow technology is specifically suitable for the synthesis of high sensitivity hazard compounds, because of its capabilities in block-free and high efficiency mixing.

Development status and countermeasures of China's science and technology think tank

WANG Xue, CHU Xin, SONG Yaoyao, LIU Huihui, YANG Guoliang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 53-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.006
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Abstract ( 371 )
The science and technology think tank is a major part of the new think tank system in China. This paper reviews the connotation, the characteristics and the functions of the science and technology think tank. With the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering and the China Association for Science and Technology as the representatives, we analyze the situation of the science and technology think tank and its important role in the Innovation Driven Development Strategy, the third party assessment for the State Council and the scientific and technological support for the high quality development in economy and society. We analyze the main features and challenges in the background of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in a New Era, and put forward the missions and tasks of the science and technology think tank. Finally, the construction of the science and technology think tank in China is discussed. We propose six countermeasures and suggestions, including the top-level design enhancement, the institutional barrier elimination, the research mode innovation, the research ability improvement, the evaluation system establishment and the global governance.

Progress, trend and methods science and technology think tanks

MU Di, CHEN An, ZHANG Chenyang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 62-69. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.007
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Abstract ( 183 )
This paper reviews the subjects, the theories, the methods and the practice of science and technology think tanks in the world. It is shown that the economy, the management, the politics, the law, the security, the society, the energy and the environment are in the center of the methods. The transportation, the architecture, the astronomy, the geology, the biology, the medicine, the materials science, the chemistry, the mathematics, the physics, the information and the communication all have their special parts. The theory of the science and technology think tanks is gradually developed into the DⅡS (Data, Information, Intelligence and Solution) from science and technology planning, evaluation and roadmap. The methods are proposed for data, information, intelligence and solution, and each method has different attributes. Based on the visual platform, the tracking platform and the retrieval platform, with the application of science and technology in the public service and consultation, the methods of science and technology think tanks will be further developed, expanded and improved.

Generation and propagation of think tank influence: An information-solution chain based perspective

LI Hong, YANG Wenhui, LENG Fuhai
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 70-77. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.008
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Abstract ( 198 )
Chinese think tanks are thriving and facing a rat race. The think tank influence concerns the core competitiveness and the outcome of the think tank work, and is a cornerstone of the sustainable development of the think tanks. Based on the information-solution chain, combined with the knowledge utilization theory, the elite theory and the communication theory, this paper presents a five-stage mechanism of the generation and propagation of the think tank influence. Starting from the constitutive elements of the influence, the literature/network investigations and case studies, this paper reviews the think tank development and makes relevant suggestions. Think tanks are supposed to enhance their influence, to improve their strength and ability, to listen to the public demand and to provide their products and services systematically.

New mode for scientific information analysis in the big data era

CHEN Wei, YANG Rui, HE Tao, WANG Shuo, CHEN Jiangping
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 78-85. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.009
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Abstract ( 164 )
The era of big data brings both opportunities and challenges to the scientific information analysis (SIA) and the intelligent information services. It is an urgent task developing a new SIA framework to reform the data governance and the workflow, and to improve the quality of the information services. This paper describes the traditional SIA mode currently applied. It also reviews the progresses in the fields of the massive heterogeneous data integration, the data management and the analytics methods, and their applications. An integrationbased conceptual framework for the SIA is proposed through an examination of the limitations of the traditional mode. The new framework is characterized by the development of an Intelligent Decision-making Support System based on the Big Data that can store, organize, process, and visualize heterogeneous data. Next, the functions and the characteristics of the proposed framework are explained. The paper concludes with a discussion of the future research.

Construction of think tanks for Chinese characteristic environment and development in the new era

QU Jiansheng, WANG Jinping, LI Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 86-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.010
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Abstract ( 217 )
In recent years, China's economy sees a key transition period of "high-quality" development. Under the background of national needs, practical problems and globalization, the think tank construction for environment and development in China comes to a period full of opportunities, and also faces enormous challenges. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and the key elements of the think tanks, this paper reviews the current state and the problems of the think tank construction in the environmental field in China, and elaborates the key issues and the construction goals. Finally, as a practical case, the development of Western China Think Tank on Resources, Environment and Development is introduced.

Framework of the evaluation model resilient cities

WU Bohong, CHEN An
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 94-99. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.011
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Abstract ( 284 )
Recently, resilient cities have gradually replaced the traditional concept of sustainable development cities and become the objects of a new research field in urban planning, geography and emergency management. At present, no consensus is reached for a systematic, comprehensive and operable research framework for resilient cities in China, with Chinese characteristics. This paper focuses on the framework of the evaluation model for resilient cities, the connotation of the resilience evaluation, the evolution mechanism of resilient cities in different stages of external disturbance and the significance of key nodes in the evolution process of resilient cities. This study provides a reference for establishing quantitative evaluation indicators for the long-term adaptability and the intelligent urban planning and management.

Shared product management based on full life cycle

CHEN An, CHEN Jingrui
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 100-106. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.012
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Abstract ( 264 )
The sharing economy is a new economic phenomenon. A shared product, the sharing bicycles, greatly facilitates the travel of urban people and solves the travel problem of the last mile, but on the other hand, it also brings about problems such as the overcapacity of bicycles and the poor management. In this paper, we study the carbon emissions and the usage of the whole life cycle for shared bicycles, to come to the concept of the shortest use time for a bicycle to offset its energy consumption. Beijing has nearly 3.5 million shared bicycles. In the current situation where each bicycle is used for 2.1 km/d, each bicycle should be used for at least 625 days to achieve a true zero carbon row and green travel. At present, Beijing will bear huge environmental risks caused by the excessive delivery of shared bicycles. Based on the environmental perspective, the carbon emission accounting of the whole life cycle becomes an important means to establish a reasonable control value of the shared product quantity. This study will provide a basis and a method for managing the sharing of economic products.
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 107-108. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.16.013
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Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 6-6.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 7-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (16): 7-7.
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