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   Science & Technology Review
2018, Vol.36, No. 22
28 November 2018

Articles
Reviews
Foreword
Columns
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Scientific Comments
Exclusive: Nanobiomedicine
Major Scientific and Technological Engineering
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Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 65 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 145 )
Think Tank

The opportunity and challenge of Healthy China 2030

WANG Longde
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 8-11. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.001
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Abstract ( 183 )
Healthy China has been raised to the national strategy. In this paper, the main contents of "the Outline of Healthy China 2030" are introduced; the main problems affecting the construction of Healthy China are analyzed; the corresponding countermeasures are also put forward. It is pointed out that the key to the construction of Healthy China lies in the implementation, which needs to establish a cooperative mechanism with the government in lead, multi-sectoral cooperation and whole society participation.
Exclusive: Nanobiomedicine

Recent progress in cancer theranostics

HUANG Kai, LIN Jing, HUANG Peng, Han Gang, CHEN Xiaoyuan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 12-26. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.002
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Abstract ( 203 )
Theranostics is a type of emerging biomedical technology that integrates diagnostics with therapeutics, thus possesses significant biomedical impact on various diseases, especially cancer, in terms of fundamental research and clinical applications. A cancer theranostic agent is usually composed of a diagnostic component, which allows for cancer imaging and detection, and a therapeutic component, which allows for cancer therapy. Through the integration of diagnosis and therapy in a single nanoparticle, several novel merits are expected, including accurate localization of tumor area, in situ therapy, and real-time monitoring of therapeutic progress. In this paper, we firstly introduce the development of cancer theranostics and analyze their unique advantages for cancer diagnosis and treatment. We then focuse on the latest progress on the construction of various cancer theranostic agents. In the end, we discusse the challenges and possible future directions of cancer theranostics.

Application of aggregation-induced emission materials in bioimaging, disease diagnosis and therapy

JIANG Meijuan, KWOK Tsz Kin, TANG Benzhong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 27-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.003
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Abstract ( 957 )
The study of the underlying mechanism of aggregation-induced emission (AIE), design and synthesis of novel AIE molecules and their application in various fields of daily life are the current hot research topics. According to AIE mechanism of restriction of intramolecular motions, a variety of AIE probes with "turn-on" sensing feature have been designed to provide much lower background and higher signal reliability, which are particularly attractive and suitable for use in biology. Since the unbound AIE probes have a low background, the use of the AIE bioprobes also has the advantage of not requiring washing steps, which greatly saves the operation time and eliminates the loss of the samples. The formed AIE aggregates have excellent photostability and resistance to photobleaching during detection, allowing long-term tracking and monitoring. AIE bioprobes have been designed and applied to fields of biomolecular detection, cellular structure imaging, bacterial imaging, cell tracking, angiography, in vivo tumor imaging and therapy, etc. With the recently achieved numerous results, herein, we first briefly introduce the origin of AIE, then we discuss the working mechanism of AIE and the construction of AIE probes. Finally we summarize the recent works of AIE in different aspects of bioimaging, disease diagnosis and treatment.

Molecular element and functionalized nucleic acid

TAN Yan, LI Yingying, XUAN Wenjing, WANG Ruowen, WANG Xueqiang, TAN Weihong
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 54-65. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.004
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Abstract ( 44 )
We put forward an influential concept of "molecular elements" to appreciate the composition of nucleic acids from a new perspective. The nucleic acids that exhibit different functions are designed based on the functional requirement. They are constructed by phosphodiester bonds formation from various "molecular elements" that have different bases, thus achieving a variety of functions such as specific molecular recognition, catalysis, and intelligent response. In this article we present an overview of representative research results of our laboratory upon functional nucleic acid molecules, including the screening and application of nucleic acid aptamers as macromolecular medicine; the synthesis and evolution of artificial bases; the mechanism of DNAzymes; molecular beacons, molecular motors and their applications in biosensing, biosynthesis, biopharmaceutical research. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future research directions in the field of functionalized nucleic acid.

Drug delivery based on DNA nanorobots

JIANG Qiao, WEI Yu, LI Can, SONG Linlin, DING Baoquan, ZHAO Yuliang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 66-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.005
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Abstract ( 59 )
Natural mechanical devices carry out critical tasks for cell function, including DNA replication, intracellular transport, ion pumping and cell motility. Inspired by nature, artificial devices and machines on the molecular scale have been bottom-up designed, constructed, and operated. The unique chemical and physical properties enable DNA molecules to serve as building blocks to construct artificial, machine-like nanostructures. DNA nanostructures are characteristic of the uniform sizes and shapes, precise spatial addressability and reconfigurable mechanical operation as well as excellent biocompatibility, showing great promise for drug delivery. After integrating specific functional moieties on addressable structures, therapeutic DNA nanorobots have been constructed, which can deliver cargoes to target diseased cells or region, responsively release the loaded drugs and enhance the therapeutic efficacy. The molecular cargoes attached to DNA-based nanocarriers are usually three types:small molecular drugs, functional oligonucleotides, and therapeutic proteins. In this review, recent advances of DNA nanocarriers and therapeutic nanorobots for intelligent drug delivery are summarized. The challenges and future perspectives regarding functional DNA materials are discussed.

Recent progress of in vitro diagnostic technology based on nanomaterials

LI Wanwan, SHEN Mengfei, LIU Xinyi
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 74-86. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.006
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Abstract ( 52 )
Due to their unique optical, magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties, nanomaterials can be utilized to generate different types of detection signals, amplify the intensity of detection signal, and simplify diagnostic procedure, indicating their great potential in the development of various nanomaterials based in vitro diagnostic technologies. In this review, we first introduce unique properties of typical nanomaterials of quantum dots, gold nanoparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles commonly used in in vitro diagnostic applications, and then discuss the current advances of diagnostic systems by utilizing their optical, magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties for the detection of nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, bacteria and viruses. Finally, we summarize the challenges of large-scale synthesis and surface modification of the nanoparticles, automatic detection and clinical evaluation. We hope this review will help drive the development of nanomaterials based in vitro diagnostic technology and its related fields.

Applications and challenge of magnetic resonance imaging probes

CHU Chengchao, LIU Gang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 87-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.007
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Abstract ( 43 )
In recent years, apllications of magnetic nanomaterials in molecular imaging have attracted much attention. The superparamagnetic nanoparticle is the most popular magnetic nanoparticle due to its good T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent property. With the improvement of preparation and surface modification method, the superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPION) has been applied to imaging contrast, stem cell labeling and drug/gene delivery. This article reviews the combined applications of SPION in imaging contrast and MRI guided treatment. It also points out that many kinds of magnetic nanomaterials used for biomedical applications have low imaging contrast and specificity in vivo and have negative effecton living organism, which hinder the clinical application of SPION. Combined with the current public concerns and development of nanomedicine preparation methods, the preparation of SPION with good MRI contrast effect, high biocompatibility, disease area targeting and clinical conversion potential is a challenge to deal with in the new generation of magnetic nano-probes.

Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, diagnose and treatment

WANG Chao, FAN Qin, GU Zhen, LIU Zhuang
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 96-107. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.008
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Abstract ( 89 )
Cancer, as the one of the major diseases that threaten human health is an urgent challenge to be addressed. The design and application of functional nanomaterials and related systems for cancer treatment is an emerging research field, mainly associated with drug delivery systems, vaccine, diagnosis and imagining. To date, some of these outcomes could be seen in the clinical and preclinical studies, which provides the possibility for real-time monitoring, accurate evaluation and designation of personalized treatment. Here, we review the recent progress of utilizing nanotechnology in the field of cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, theranostics and clinical transformation. The prospects and challenges of this field are also discussed.

Progress of nanosized drug delivery systems for targeted tumor therapy

YU Haijun, WANG Dangge, YANG Xiangliang, LI Yaping
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 108-117. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.009
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Abstract ( 111 )
Nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDS) have shown enormous potential in cancer therapy, as they can increase the bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs, improve the drug distribution in tumor tissues, promote intracellular uptake as well as drug release inside tumor cells. The rational design of NDDS by utilizing the physiological properties of tumor may suppress the non-specific interactions between NDDS and normal tissue, and increase their tumor specificity and therapeutic performance. In this review, we briefly summarize the recent progress of passively-, actively-and biomimetically-targeting NDDS for cancer therapy.

Current status and prospect of cancer nanomedicine in clinical translation

LIU Jing, TANG Hao, MI Peng, WEI Yuquan
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 118-126. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.010
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Abstract ( 94 )
Nanomedicine has emerged to be a promising platform for cancer treatment with reduced side effect and increased therapeutic effect. In recent decades, with the advances in nanobiotechnology, much progress has been achieved in the development and clinical translation of cancer nanomedicines. Until now, several types of nanomedicines have been approved for cancer treatment in clinical and more candidates are in clinical trial. However, it is still a challenge for nanomedicines to treat tumors due to the complexity and heterogeneity nature of tumors. Herein, we summarize the current status and progress of cancer nanomedicines in clinical translation as well as discuss the challenge and future perspective.
Reviews

Research on the development trend of military aviation equipment technology

ZHANG Dongbo, ZHAO Qunli
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 127-130. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.011
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Abstract ( 76 )
The development direction of military aviation equipment technology directly affects a country's military aviation equipment, and thus determines the strength of a country's air power. This article analyzes and studies military aviation equipment that are being developed by the world's aviation and military powers and the application of emerging technologies to military aviation equipment. It is argued that the future military aviation equipment will develop in the direction featuring systematic, informational, agile, remote, and intelligent. The suggestions for the future development of China's military aviation equipment are also proposed.

Research progress in novel bio-inspired intelligent materials

LIANG Xiubing, CUI Xin, HU Zhenfeng, TU Long
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 131-144. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.012
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Abstract ( 102 )
This paper reviews the major research progress in designing, preparing and optimizing the bio-inspired intelligent materials in a variety of engineering applications such as anti-icing, marine anti-fouling, self-healing, infrared stealth and underwater adhesives, and the associated bionic principles are discussed as well. Finally, the outlook and prospect of this field are also addressed. As a solid bridge between fundamental researches and practical applications, the development of bio-inspired intelligent materials will definitely provide novel ideas, theories and strategies to meet the requirements for the multifunctional and structural-functional integrated materials and to solve the current technological problems in many scientific and engineering fields, which is of great importance in accelerating the innovation of science and technology.
Articles

A study on time-spatial differentiationof the city's driving force of science and technology in Zhejiang

LI Chunlin, YE Fang, WANG Fen, Hyun Chul KLm, Jaepil PArk
Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 145-151. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.013
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Abstract ( 116 )
The city's driving force of science and technology is the comprehensive driving factor of scientific and technological progress, and is the reason of the difference of regional science and technology. Based on the theory of innovation motivation, the paper selects 18 evaluation indexes from five aspects i.e., human support, material support, innovation preferences, demand pull and science and technology service, and uses the data from 2003 to 2012 of 11 cities in Zhejiang to analyze the dynamic change rules of the urban driving force of science and technology by means of weighting method with timing global factor analysis. The 11 cities are divided into three levels by system clustering method and three gradients by gradient analysis. The reasons of time-spacial differentiation of the city's driving force of science and technology are shown through variation analysis as innovation preferences and science and technology services.
Major Scientific and Technological Engineering

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 152-154. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.014
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Abstract ( 34 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 155-157. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.015
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Abstract ( 36 )
Science and Technology Humanities

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 158-160. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2018.22.016
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Abstract ( 130 )
Scientific Comments

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 6-6.
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Abstract ( 93 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 6-7.
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Abstract ( 86 )
Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 73 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 110 )

Science & Technology Review. 2018, 36 (22): 7-7.
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Abstract ( 84 )

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