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   Science & Technology Review
2019, Vol.37, No. 21
13 November 2019

Reviews

Foreword
Papers
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Exclusive: Large Experimental Equipment and Planning in Light, Cosmic Ray and Space Study
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Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 110 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 1-2.
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Abstract ( 120 )
Think Tank

Analysis on German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2017

ZHOU Luming, YANG Jianhua, WANG Weizhou, LIAO Zhijun, LIU Fuchao
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 7-13. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.001
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Abstract ( 110 )
Germany has been considerably exploiting and consuming wind and solar energy since the detailed laws concerning renewable energy use were introduced in the country. However, problems such as weak consumption ability, lack of marketization have been occurring at the same time.Thus, German Renewable Energy Sources Act was again revised in 2016 and 2017 to establish a new auction system that considers the factors of renewable energy types, capacity and competition environment. It emphasizes the concept of the expansion corridors, which sets clear targets for future capacity increase, power generation, synchronization between the grid infrastructure and the expansion of renewable capacity. China's renewable energy penetration rate is increasing rapidly and similar problems are occurring in renewable energy industries. Therefore, this paper takes a lesson from Germany in the aspect of legislation, with a focus being on the revised German laws. Some suggestions are also given for the Chinese counterparts.

Water environmental quality of Baiyangdian Lake and its treatment and protection countermeasures

LI Linlin, WANG Guoqing, QIN Pan, ZHAO Jian, WAN Zhengfen, AI Shaobi, CHENG Yongqian, LU Shaoyong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 14-25. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.002
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Abstract ( 102 )
According to previous study the ecological environment of Baiyangdian Lake has been destroyed and the reasons for the loss of self-purification and ecological restoration ability are complicated, including construction of dams and reservoirs, industrial wastewater and domestic sewage flowing into the lake, regional aquaculture, tourism development, etc. On the other hand, the construction of Xiong'an New District closely around Baiyangdian will make a potential pollution contribution. In view of the present situation of Baiyangdian ecological environment and the cause of water deterioration, in order to restore the ecological self-purification and recycling ability of the Lake, the countermeasures of pollution source control and ecological protection are put forward.
Exclusive: Large Experimental Equipment and Planning in Light, Cosmic Ray and Space Study

Dalian Coherent Light Source: Make a movie for molecules during chemical reaction

SUN Yang, ZHANG Weiqing, YANG Xueming
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 26-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.003
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Abstract ( 80 )
Free electron laser (FEL), called the fourth advanced light source, is the most advanced experimental device to explore the microscopic world. It has a transformative driving effect on many subjects, such as energy, physics, chemistry, materials, biology, etc. With the successful research of "comprehensive experimental research equipment based on tunable EUV coherent light source (Dalian Coherent Light Source, DCLS)", China's vacancy in this area has been filled. DCLS could be expected to be the edge tool to promote the development of science and technology in China. This paper briefly reviews the research background of DCLS and the development status of FEL at home and abroad, then states the significance of the successful research of this equipment, and finally highlights its application prospect.

Tracking the “Messenger” of the universe, challenging puzzle of the century: A brief introduction to the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory

ZHA Min, CHEN Songzhan, WU Hanrong, MA Lingling, MA Xinhua, HU Hongbo
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 32-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.004
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Abstract ( 71 )
A lot of epoch-making discoveries have been revealed by the century long study of cosmic rays. However, issues related to the origin, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays remain to be mysterious. The large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) is a unique experiment having both advantages of high altitude and large effective area. Besides, LHAASO will greatly improve the discrimination power between gamma ray and cosmic rays by using the hybrid detector technology. LHAASO is expected to obtain unprecedented gamma ray detection sensitivity and to make very precise measurement in cosmic ray spectrum in a very wide energy range. LHAASO will make important contribution to understanding fundamental problem of cosmic ray, to the research in high-energy astrophysics, cosmology and the exploration of new physics. This paper briefly describes the concept and structure of LHAASO detectors, the advanced performance, and scientific goal of LHAASO.

Development status and application prospect of near space science and technology

HUANG Wanning, ZHANG Xiaojun, LI Zhibin, WANG Sheng, HUANG Min, CAI Rong
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 46-62. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.005
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Abstract ( 82 )
This paper introduces the special space location and typical meteorological characteristics of the near space, combs the situation of scientific exploration and research on the near space through space-based, ground-based and in-situ platforms at home and abroad. To aim at the current situation of insufficient understanding of the near space, the paper argues that the scientific exploration and application of the near space should take the near space vehicle as the main platform, whose technological development and application status are reviewed including high-altitude balloons, stratospheric airships and solar long-range UAVs in military and civil markets. Finally the condenses some key issues that need attention and puts forward some concrete suggestions for the near space development and application of our country.

Review on the global efforts in advancing space science with the CubeSats

SHI Peng, SU Xiaohua, WANG Qin, FAN Quanlin
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 63-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.006
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Abstract ( 75 )
Space science encompasses all major frontier basic researches that base on spacecraft platforms to obtain experimental data and realize scientific discoveries. China has started to develop scientific satellites such as DAMPE, HXMT. The international scientific community has recognized CubeSats to have important effect on deep space exploration. The occident and institutions support CubeSat's scientific research, and have implemented some missions. Significant progress of CubeSat platform has also been made in China's commercial space and space technology demonstrations, which has laid an important foundation for scientists to make breakthroughs in space science.

American space science development and its enlightenment

FAN Quanlin, BAI Qingjiang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 73-87. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.007
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Abstract ( 81 )
The paper introduces the American space science strategic planning, the layout of its science programs and its development mechanism at first. Then it concludes with several suggestions advices for China to accelerate its space science. Despite the huge difference between China and US, we propose that, with the growing importance attached to Chinese space science, it is necessary to think highly of strategic planning and its authority, to insist on the national cause of space science programs, with worldwide openness at the same time, and to foster space science missions in more extensive involvements.
Reviews

Review on catalytic effects of redox mediator in anaerobic degradation of pollutants

BAN Qiaoying, LIU Qi, YU Min, LI Jianzheng, QIN Yan
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 88-96. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.008
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Abstract ( 76 )
Anaerobic biological treatment technology has been widely used for treating various organic pollutants due to less excessive sludge and recyclable energy, especially, good performance in removal of poisonous, harmful and refractory pollutants. However, the treatment rate of anaerobic biological process is usually relatively low. Redox mediators can improve the electron transfer rate in the redox process through continuous oxidation and reduction, promoting anaerobic degradation of pollutants. Quinones and humic acids are frequently used as redox mediators, which have achieved certain effects in catalytically enhancing the degradation of refractory pollutants. The characteristics and mechanism of redox mediators are discussed in this study, and their enhancement effects on anaerobic decolorization of azo dyes, denitrification and anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls are summarized. Moreover, the future research direction of redox media is also proposed.
Papers

Release the brake on the immune system, constitute a landmark in the fight against cancer——Introduction of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

ZHANG Na, ZHANG Linzheng, LIU Junxiang
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 97-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.009
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Abstract ( 104 )
Immune checkpoints, known as regulators of the immune system, are crucial to self-tolerance. The inhibitory checkpoint molecules function as brakes on the T cells, inhibiting immune activation, which contributes to tumor immune escape. James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo individually studied two of the inhibitory checkpoint molecules, CTLA-4 and PD-1, showed their inhibitor antibodies' anti-tumor effect, provided new strategies for cancer therapy, and therefore won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In this paper, we introduce the laureates and their research experiences, interpret the mechanism of tumor and T-cell immunity, analyze the development status of checkpoint therapy, and finally predict the research direction of immune checkpoint.

Artificial intelligence and big data as applied to Psychology

LIU Xingyun, LIU Xiaoqian, XIANG Yuanyuan, ZHU Tingshao
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 105-109. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.010
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Abstract ( 129 )
With the development of technology, artificial intelligence and big data have brought a new research strategy to psychology research. Compared with traditional methods, the combination of artificial intelligence and big data produces three advantages of ecological data:vertical tracking, time backtracking, high internal and external validity. This kind of interpersonal interaction based on Online Social Networking has profoundly affected or even changed people's psychological and behavioral characteristics. Meanwhile, ecological behavior data can be used, combined with other artificial intelligence technology, to establish a psychological index prediction model to achieve automatic identification of people's psychological indicators. This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence and big data in psychological research and practice by taking personality prediction model, Proactive Suicide Prevention Online, and Qingdao prawn as examples. Finally, when using big data to analyze relevant psychological indicators, we must also pay attention to protecting user privacy and rational use of big data and artificial intelligence technology.
Science and Technology Humanities

Wolf Prize in Physics and the development of quantum information

YIN Pei, ZHU Huijuan
Science & Technology Review. 2019, 37 (21): 110-116. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2019.21.011
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Abstract ( 102 )
The 2018 Wolf Prize in Physics was awarded to Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard for their contributions to quantum information. The Wolf Prize in Physics has been awarded annually since 1976, which is the most important prize in the physics world. Many of the laureates have also won the Noble Prize in Physics. This article demonstrates the development footprint of quantum information through the breakthroughs of those laureates of Wolf Prize in Physics in 2010, 2013 and 2018, and compares the different research ideas between them.

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