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   Science & Technology Review
2020, Vol.38, No. 13
13 July 2020

Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Scientific Comments
Exclusive: Theory and Practice of Chinese Geography
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Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 53 )

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 1-2.
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Abstract ( 38 )
Think Tank

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 7-11.
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Abstract ( 39 )
Exclusive: Theory and Practice of Chinese Geography

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 12-18. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.001
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Abstract ( 32 )

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 19-24. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.002
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Abstract ( 23 )

Human-natural coupling system for sustainable development: Framework and progress

ZHAO Wenwu, HOU Yanzhen, LIU Yanxu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 25-31. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.003
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Abstract ( 33 )
The human-natural coupling system focuses on the organic combination of natural and human processes, and the effective link of knowledge-science-decision. Through monitoring surveys, model simulations, scenario analysis, and optimization controls at different scales, the integrated study (multi-factor, multi-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-model, and multi-source data) is carried out to explore the system's fragility, resilience, adaptability, and bearing boundaries. The study of the humannatural coupling system and the understanding of the complex interaction between humans and nature will provide a systematic and mechanism support for the sustainable development. On the basis of the concept reorganization of the human-natural coupling system research framework, and the bibliography analysis of the human-natural coupling system-the sustainable development, this paper discusses the key fields and directions of the human-natural coupling system in the future researches.

Geosystems and geogovernance

CAO Xiaoshu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 32-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.004
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Abstract ( 26 )
As an independent scientific system, the geoscience has experienced the transformation from the geography to the meaningful geoscience. The transformation of its research paradigm is reflected in three aspects: the integration of the whole scientific field and the intersection of the natural science, the social science, the humanity science, the management science, the technical science, the engineering science; the coupling integration and the system simulation of multi-source data of geoelements; the whole chain from the basic research to the applied research. The core of the basic research of the geoscience is the geosystem, which is composed of the geoelements, the geospace and the human-natural system with its unique system structure and functions, including the earth surface system, the land use system, the human activity system and the humannatural coupling systems. The core of the applied research of the geoscience is the geogovernance. Geogovernance is an important part of the national governance system and at present is mainly reflected in the land and space governance in the national governance system, including the general survey of the geoconditions and the geoevaluation, the geoplanning and the geodesign, the geosimulation, the geoengineering, the geomonitoring and the geowarning. The theory, the method and the technology systems should be innovated by Chinesescholars to make a greater contribution to the global sustainable development.

Land system: From integration to generation

QIN Zhangxuan, LIU Xiaolin, ZHOU Meijun, LI Fei
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 39-46. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.005
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Abstract ( 25 )
The land system science is indeed a fascinating field. However, it does face challenges, such as it is difficult to integrate due to its complexity. This paper reviews the researches of the land systems, in order to find an effective way to understand scientifically the land systems based on the ideas of the generative theory in the systems science. It is shown that the cognition and the understanding of the land systems from the perspective of the system generation theory can help more closely come to the essence that the land systems are complex open systems generated by the transformation, the utilization and the adaptation by human beings of the earth's land surface and certain spaces above and below it, including the geographical environment, the land use and the social economy, all of which are mutually interconnected. As open and complex systems, the land systems feature the multifunctionality, the energy conversion, the material production, the ecological maintenance, the resource supply, the social security, and the cultural nurture. With the system generation theory as the logical starting point, and based on the theory of the hypercycle, the regional differentiation and the geographical process, the study of the land systems should not only focus on the basic researches of the land system generation mechanism, the process, the adaptability, and the tele coupling, but also solve the problems of the two-way collaboration between the science and the policy practices.

Theoretical framework and technical system of the territory and spatial planning in China

DANG Anrong, TIAN Ying, ZHEN Maocheng, WU Guanqiu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 47-56. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.006
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Abstract ( 20 )
The territory and spatial planning is an important component of the national spatial governance system, a spatial blueprint for the sustainable development, and a primary basis for the protection and utilization of territory resources. The theoretical framework and the technical system of the territory and spatial planning are proposed in this paper based on a review of the related available theoretical researches and technical explorations of the territory and spatial planning. The theoretical framework not only integrates "the theory of space" and "the theory of planning" according to the concepts of "people-orientated, ecological civilization, five-in-one, and sustainable development", but also integrates the "five principles" and "five systems" of the science of human settlements, and integrates the“five-level and three-class”system of the territory and spatial planning. While the technical system includes the“double evaluation”of territory spatial resources, the determination of“three-boundary and four-zone”, as well as the planning and management information system. All these might hopefully be used to support the ongoing exploration and application practice of the nationwide territory and spatial planning.

Quantitative effects of digital terrain features on land use spatial distribution

ZHAO Shangmin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 57-64. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.007
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Abstract ( 17 )
To evaluate the quantitative effect of the topographic conditions on the spatial distribution of land use, the Shanxi Province is taken as the research area, to study four topographic factors (the elevation, the relief, the slope and the aspect) obtained from the DEM dataset, representing the digital topographic characteristics, and the spatial distribution of the land use is interpreted based on the remote sensing images, finally to analyze the spatial stratified heterogeneity, the spatial correlation and the interaction effect of the four digital topographic factors on the spatial distribution of the land use. It is shown that: (1) the relief and slope factors have the most remarkable spatial stratified heterogeneity effect (p<0.01); (2) the relief factor has the strongest spatial correlation effect (q=0.012), followed by the slope (q=0.010); (3) any two kinds of digital terrain indicators have a significant interaction enhancement; the interaction between the altitude and the relief has the strongest effect with the highest statistic value q of 0.034. Hence, the relief factor is the most important single factor affecting the spatial distribution of the land use, which plays an important role in the spatial distribution of the land use by combining the elevation factor.

Transformation of land scale management in major grain-producing areas and countermeasures——A case study of Hebei Province

QIN Yanjie, ZHAO Yanxia, LIU Xin, WU Aibin, SHEN Huitao, YANG Huijuan
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 65-72. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.008
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Abstract ( 26 )
The only way to advance the agricultural modernization is to moderate the land scale management. The fundamental conditions of the land scale management are satisfied in the Hebei plain area. But there are some problems to be solved, such as the land fragmentation, the poor farmland infrastructure, especially, the irrigation facilities, and the limited capacity of the land transfer to further promote the scale operation. Therefore, it is desirable to analyze the land scale management states, the transformation characteristics and its drive force. It is shown that the land scale management goes from the land transfer concentration stage into the scale management and social service transition stage and the scale management form goes from the pure land transfer to the coexistence of the land transfer and the land trusteeship. The drive force is the development of the agricultural productive forces, the interests of the operating subjects and the service system of the agricultural production. Some suggestions for the present stage are made: The establishing of the land swap mechanism, the linkage of the land transfer and the land improvement, and the driving scale operation with the land trusteeship.

Determination of poverty-affluence degree and sustainable livelihood strategies in mountainous counties of Hebei Province

LIU Xin, QIN Yanjie, FENG Xiaomiao, ZHU Sujia
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 73-82. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.009
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Abstract ( 28 )
In mountainous areas, the regional difference of poverty is significant due to the interweaving of natural conditions and cultural factors. The determination of the poverty-affluence degree and the reasons can help to improve decision support for mountainous areas to get rid of poverty and become rich. This paper takes mountain counties in Hebei province as the basic unit. 33 indicators are selected from five dimensions. The natural environment (A), the land resources (B), the county economy (C), the people's quality of life (D) and the livelihood ability (E) to construct a index system. And multidimensional povertyaffluence status is obtained in research area. The poverty location entropy is introduced to analyze the influence of each dimension on the occurrence of poverty. In order to discover the spatial consistency and differences between poverty-affluence distribution and dominant dimension, the two results are compared in space. And sustainable livelihood strategies are discussed with the dominant factors of each dimension. The results are as follows. the incidence of multidimensional poverty is 89.52% and above moderate poverty is 62.50%. The poverty level is deep in research area. In spatial distribution, moderate and low poverty degrees were frequent, while severe, rich or relatively rich areas are scattered. In poverty driver, the incidence of poverty dominated by A and C dimensions is higher than that of other dimensions. Severe poverty is highly coupled with A dimension, and moderate poverty is consistent with A and C dimensions. Basing on the results, the livelihoods strategies are put forward, such as the ecological relocation, an increase of the profit of the natural resources and getting rid of poverty through land and agricultural industry.

Clustering analysis and biogeographical division of the distribution of insects in the world

SHEN Xiaocheng, LU Jiqi, REN Yingdang, SHEN Qi, LIU Xintao, YANG Linlin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 83-95. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.010
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Abstract ( 24 )
The insect is the largest biota group in the world, but so far without its own geographical regionalization scheme. This paper quantitatively analyzes the distribution pattern of the world insects to work out a geographical regionalization scheme for worldwide insects. According to the topography, the climate and other ecological conditions, the continents of the world are divided into 67 basic geographic units (excluding Antarctica). Using our similarity general formula (SGF) and the multivariate similarity clustering analysis(MSCA)method, the distributional data of the total 31 orders 1208 families 104344 insect genera are analyzed. The clustering results of the MSCA method see distinct hierarchies. The level of similarity is 0.300 and 0.200, respectively, 67 BGUs are gathered into 20 small unit crowds and seven big unit crowds; The composition of each crowd is adjacent, with no "noise" and "enclaves"; the ecological environment conditions of each crowd are relatively independent of each other; and each crowd has its own endemic of the insect group. According to the clustering results of the MSCA, the first global insect geographical regionalization scheme is worked out, including seven kingdoms and 20 subkingdoms. The insect fauna characteristics of every kingdom and subkingdom are analyzed.

Input-output features of R&D personnel in China and major science and technology powerhouses

CAO Qin, XUAN Zhaohui
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 96-103. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.011
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Abstract ( 45 )
Human resources are the resource of the first importance and the focus of science and technology powerhouses. The R&D personnel are the core of science and technology human resources. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the inputoutput characteristics of the R&D personnel in China and major science and technology powerhouses from the following perspectives, the scale and the structure, the resource allocation, the research and technology output efficiency of the R&D personnel, and proposes some policies for the cultivation and the use of science and technology human resources in China, such as expanding the talent team of R&D personnel, adjusting the structure of R&D personnel, optimizing the allocation of R&D resource and improving the efficiency of R&D output.

A comparative study of the contribution of talent resources to economy in typical national high-tech zones

WANG Kaile, XIONG Yonglan, GONG Qingbin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 104-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.012
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Abstract ( 46 )
Based on the classical Cobb-Douglas production function, a potential analysis model is used to improve the measurement method of the talent contribution rate, to overcome the defect that the original model could not measure the instantaneous elasticity coefficient, and to improve the accuracy of the estimation at the same time. The multivariate regression analysis of the panel data of six typical national high-tech zones shows that the main factor affecting the contribution rate of the talents is the quality of the talents, and the key to improving the quality of the talents is to create a good soft environment for the talent development. Through the empirical comparison analysis of six high-tech zones, the driving factors affecting the talent contribution rate are explored, and suggestions for the formulation of high-tech zone policies are put forward.

The satisfaction evaluation of the poor population in the relocated migration and the influencing factors——A case study of the relocated migration in Tibet

ZENG Weilian, YANG Wenfeng, SUN Zibao
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 113-121. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.013
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Abstract ( 34 )
The satisfaction degree of the poor population reflects the effect of the relocation of the poverty alleviation and is related to the smooth progress of the poverty alleviation move. Based on the survey data of 1739 households in Tibet, this paper studies the satisfaction of poor people to the relocation policy and the influence factors, and analyzes the marginal effect of each factor. It is shown that the variables such as whether they are consulted in the process, the housing improvement, the income increase, the living standard improvement and the relationship with local villagers have a significant positive impact on the satisfaction level of the poor population. Therefore, in the process of poverty alleviation and relocation, the improvement of the housing conditions, the expansion of income channels, the improvement of living standards, and the improvement of the participation of farmers in relocating households will help people better integrate into the relocated communities, for the realization of the relocation goal.

Seven scientific concepts in the construction of safe water supply demonstration project in bedrock water-scarce areas of southern Jiangxi Province

WANG Xinfeng, SONG Mian, GONG Lei, LIAO Yuansu, HU Qifeng, YU Kaining
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 122-128. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.014
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Abstract ( 33 )
China is one of the 13 water-scarce countries in the world. The water shortage problem exists not only in the densely populated North China Plain, but also in the northwest desert areas, the southwest karst areas, and even the southeastern region rich in water resources, especially, in poor water areas, distributed with bedrock mountains. There are many ways to solve the bedrock water shortage problems, such as the concentration, the dispersion and the combination. Based on the demonstration project of Xixia Rural Centralized Safe Water Supply in Xingguo County, implemented by the China Geological Survey in 2017 in the move of poverty alleviation in Southern Jiangxi Province, this study adopts the method of the case analysis and the engineering validation, analyzes seven scientific problems of unsafe water in the bedrock mountain areas, that is, how to find water, the drinking water safety of bedrock mountains, the water intake, the water purification, the water storage, the water distribution, the water supply, and the protection of the water. The solutions of the seven scientific problems are found by the innovation of engineering technology and the popularization of drinking water safety knowledge, to serve as a typical demonstration and leading role.

The construction and the development of “emergency science popularization” in China

HOU Rongying, ZHENG Nian, YIN Lin, QI Peixiao
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 129-134. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.015
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Abstract ( 37 )
The novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan has spread to the whole country, especially in late 2019, with the emergence of natural disasters, accident disasters, public crises and social security. This paper makes a comparative study of the construction of emergency science popularization in the United States, Japan, Germany, Australia and other developed countries, and analyzes the corresponding emergency science popularization skills and protection training for public servants, rescue workers, volunteers, consumers, other groups in various countries. This paper shows that the construction of "emergency science popularization" in China in the new era should focus on three directions: the emergency culture science popularization, the emergency rescue personnel science popularization and the emergency product science popularization. At present, China's emergency science popularization construction and development has just started, there are still many problems. This paper puts forward some measures for the construction and development of China's emergency science popularization.
Scientific Comments

Discussions on some important issues involved in the work program to strengthen basic research with original innovations

XUE Shu, HE Guangxi
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 135-140. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.016
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Abstract ( 58 )
Strengthening basic research is an important way and task to cope with the changes in the international scientific and technological competition pattern and enhance China's scientific and technological innovation and development capabilities. The "0 to 1" basic research work plan clarifies the focus and the methods of the basic research policy support. This paper analyzes the relationship between the basic research policies and the economic and social development levels, and the key topics such as the basic research support funding, the support directions, the talent evaluation, the study styles and the international cooperation in the above-mentioned policies.
Science and Technology Humanities

Yu Min's style of national defense research

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (13): 141-148. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.13.017
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Abstract ( 37 )
Academician Yu Min is the chief contributor to the China's breakthrough in the principle of hydrogen bombs. He is also an important engineering management expert and strategic consulting expert in the field of research and development of nuclear weapons in China. In the long-term work on the national defense research and management, he forms a unique style of national defense scientific research, such as the pursuit of national defense for a lifetime, a clear orientation towards the military demands, the focus on practical problems in national defense, a solid foundation in research, and the materialistic dialectical thinking through the science research.

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