28 July 2020, Volume 38 Issue 14

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    Maritime Powers
  • ZHOU Shouwei, LI Qingping
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 17-26. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.001
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    Development of marine energy is important for the construction of a powerful marine country. This paper discusses the contribution of scientific and technological innovations to the exploration and development of marine energy in recent years, and puts forward the main direction and suggestions for China's marine energy development in the future: to increase the technological research of offshore unconventional oil and gas development to provide more practical contribution for China's oil and gas industry; to increase the exploration and development of deep-water oil and gas for future replacement area; to break through key technology of large-scale development of natural gas hydrate and realize commercial exploitation as soon as possible; to build a fleet of deep-water energy development equipment to support the construction of a powerful marine country; to seize the opportunity to lay out and promote exploration and development of ocean minerals; and to further strengthen polar scientific research and deep participate in polar development.
  • LIU Weimin, LIU Lei, CHEN Fengyun, MA Changlei, GE Yunzheng, PENG Jingping
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 27-39. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.002
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    This paper reviews the technical progress of power generation devices of tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy and salinity gradient energy in China. The 4.1 MW Jiangxia tidal power station, 650 kW tidal current energy power station of Zhejiang University, 500 kW wave energy power station of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences and 15 kW ocean thermal energy power station of First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources are compared with the advanced marine energy equipments abroad in terms of the scale and the key technical parameters. The results show that the energy conversion efficiency of power generation is close to the international advanced level, but there are still some gaps in the installed power, sea trial time and device reliability. Then this paper suggests that the research and development of common technology of marine energy devices should be carried out at the same time of developing the key technology, so as to improve the reliability and safety of marine energy equipments. Researches on green technology and comprehensive utilization of marine energy should be carried out actively to promote the transformation of key technologies of marine energy, and to promote industrialization of marine energy equipments.
  • SUN Song, ZANG Wenxiao
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 40-45. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.003
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    China is a big marine country, its fishery plays an important role in economy, and people's food composition. It is a big challenge for China to solve the contradiction between decrease of global fishery resources and increase of demand for marine products, and the conflicts between sustainable output of marine production and deterioration of marine environment. To explore a way of sustainable marine fishery is always a global challenge. This article is to present a promising way in establishment of sustainable fishery by building sea ranches, and the relative concept, strategy, methods, management policy, etc. are discussed.
  • LI Daoji
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 46-53. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.004
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    This paper reviews the current hot issues in the research of marine microplastics and points out the defects in the methods of sample collection and analysis, as well as the reason for misconceptions in people's scientific cognition of marine microplastics. Moreover, this paper objectively analyzes the shortcomings and mistakes in advanced research areas such as microplastic toxicology, plastic flux into the sea, and environmental risk assessment. It also introduces some new research ideas and progress. Finally, some important scientific questions in the study of marine microplastics and some suggestions for future research development are put forward.
  • Innovation Development
  • QU Jinping, WU Ting
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 54-62. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.005
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    To meet the R/D needs of polymer industry and industrialization of new polymer materials, an elongation rheologybased polymer deformation processing method for polymer material processing and molding is presented, which realizes the transformation of the principle and method of polymer material processing and molding from ‘shear deformation’ to ‘elongational deformation’. The structural principle and technical characteristics of the eccentric rotor plasticized transport device controlled by volume elongational rheology are elaborated, and the application advantages of this technology in self-reinforcement of general material processing and efficient processing of special materials are discussed. It is shown that the eccentric rotor plasticization transportation technology has obvious advantages such as good compatibilizing effect, excellent mixing and dispersion effect, less fiber breakage and fracture in multi-component plastic blending compatibilization modification, organicinorganic hybrid function modification and thermoplastic fiber reinforced modification, etc. as compared to traditional screw plasticization transportation technology. In addition, the volumetric compression and release effect of the eccentric rotor plasticizing and transporting device can strengthen the mass and heat transfer effect of melting and plasticizing process, greatly shorten the material thermomechanical process, and realize high-speed molding processing of extreme rheological behavior material.
  • SHAN Zhongde, ZHAN Li, MIAO Yunliang, WANG Min, LIU Feng
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 63-67. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.006
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    A summary of the research status of composite material preforming and equipment at home and abroad is presented at first, in which the current problems in the forming process in terms of low labor-intensive manufacturing efficiency, difficult control of precise shape forming, and low degree of automation are analyzed. Then a digital three-dimensional weaving forming method and a variable curvature preform placement-winding-needle punching integrated forming method are proposed. Finally, some future development suggestions for composite material forming technology and equipment are put forward to promote the technology towards high efficiency, high performance, high quality, automation and digitalization, and upgrade the manufacturing level of fiber preform based composite components.
  • WANG Guodong, CHU Mansheng
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 68-76. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.007
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    Carbon emission mitigation is the most urgent task for steel industry. Current status and developing trends of environmental treatment and low carbon emission technologies for worldwide steel industry are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Low carbon ironmaking technology with hydrogen partially replacing coke should be given priority for the blast furnacebasic oxygen furnace process while hydrogen-enriched shaft furnace direct reduction technology for special steel production. Based on the idea of carbon capture and utilization (CCU), chemicals production using metallurgical waste gas is the most thorough yet reasonable and sustainable way for carbon emission mitigation of the steel industry. For this purpose it is necessary to gather the technology strength of steel, chemicals, energy, information and the other related industry to implement the SCENWI (steel-chemicals-energy networking integration) CCU project with near-to-zero carbon emission to accelerate the research on metallurgical waste gas capture, transportation and treatment technology, and develop chemicals production process and products. Meanwhile, it is critical to build an intelligent manufacturing network system with close combination, collaborative management and stable running based on the industrial internet platform and effectively resolve key bottleneck problems on system complexity, dynamics and fluctuation, aiming to completely solve the carbon emission problem and promote sustainable and high-quality development of the steel industry.
  • MENG Xiangyu, GU Alun, WU Xinguo, ZHOU Jian, LIU Bin, MAO Zongqiang
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 77-93. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.008
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    China's hydrogen industry is encountering temporary difficulties under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, but with the improvement of the situation of pandemic containing, it has ushered in new development opportunities. By reviewing the hydrogen energy development policies issued in China in 2020, it is concluded that the policies mainly focus on in the field of transportation, including research and development of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle technology, key equipment manufacturing and construction of hydrogen refueling station, while rail transit is one of the development focuses of hydrogen fuel cell technology in the future. In addition, hydrogen metallurgy is a new application field. Many metallurgical enterprises are cooperating with advanced countries in demonstration projects, which may promote to realize revolutionary green transformation of China's iron and steel industry. At the same time, green hydrogen coal chemical industry, green hydrogen trade and civil liquid hydrogen are also important directions for the future development. Under the current situation, it is suggested that China should make clear its national development strategy, actively expand new areas of hydrogen energy technology innovation, focus on high-quality hydrogen energy industry, boost China's energy revolution and industrial transformation and upgrading, and play a leading role in the process of hydrogen energy globalization.
  • DING Tao, ZHENG Mianping, PENG Suping, WU Qian, HAN Hongye
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 94-101. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.009
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    According to the statistics of the United States Geological Survey in 2019, the world has identified 62 million tons of lithium resources, of which 59% are distributed in salt lakes. Since most of the salt lakes are high-magnesium-lithium salt lakes,. the extraction process is more difficult. It is desired to prepare an efficient high magnesium-lithium ratio salt lake adsorbent. The article classifies the existing adsorbents according into the different preparation materials and adsorption mechanisms of the adsorbent, summarizes the development status of ion sieve adsorbent, aluminum salt adsorbent, and natural mineral modified adsorbent, and summarizes the adsorption process. The comparative study shows that the natural mineral modified adsorbent has all the advantages of ion sieve adsorbent and aluminum salt adsorbent for lithium extraction. The preparation process is simple, with no waste generation, economic, environmental-friendly, high efficient, etc. In the lithium extraction process, attention should be paid to natural mineral modified adsorbents.
  • CHEN Jing, SUN Xiangjun, DAI Xiaoqing, YANG Bo
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 102-108. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.010
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    A number of cities have become powerful and diverse transportation nodes along the“Belt and Road”. According to their functions, these node cities can be divided into integrated transportation hubs, major ports, international hub airports, China Railway Express hubs and national logistics hubs. These cities are playing an important role in the backbone transportation network of "six corridors, six roads, multiple countries and ports". Seven of the world's top ten largest container ports are in China. The hub airports in the central and western regions as well as China Railway Express are developing rapidly. International connectivity of inland node cities has been significantly enhanced. The combined transportation hub system relying on urban agglomeration area has been becoming an important form. In the future, the transportation development of“Belt and Road”node cities will break new grounds, promote the in-depth integration of new technologies and transportation, promote the in-depth integration of all transportation modes, promote the in-depth integration of node cities and the local regional transportation, and promote the in-depth integration of transportation enterprises and the global industrial and supply chain. The focuses will be to strengthen the function of international transportation hub, optimize the integrated collection and distribution system, build world-class airport groups and port groups based on the local region, participate in the construction of the global transportation network, improve the supporting policy system, and support building a safe, reliable and efficient global transportation network.
  • DONG Zhanfeng, QU Aiyu, JI Yunqing
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 109-115. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.011
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    This paper summarizes major practices of ecological protection in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The problems of ecological protection and high-quality development in the lower reaches of the Yellow River are analyzed, such as water resources attenuation and water use rigid growth, ecological function degradation, serious environmental pollution in some areas, and the pressure of beach area treatment. Based on discussions of these issues, the general idea, key tasks and measures for ecological protection and high-quality development are proposed, including increasing investment in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, establishing ecological compensation mechanism, tightening ecological environment supervision and law enforcement, opening up information sharing platform, and improving the local legislation and standards.
  • LI Renwang, XIAO Renbin
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 116-125. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.012
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    New technologies such as digital twin and big data etc., have triggered people's new thinking on manufacturing mode. Therefore, this paper proposes a new model of big data manufacturing services driven by digital twin, combining with the important content of manufacturing services in the "Made in China 2025" plan. First of all, the research progress of intelligent manufacturing, digital twin and manufacturing service mode at home and abroad is reviewed. Secondly, an open architecture and operation logic of big data manufacturing mode driven by digital twin is proposed. Thirdly, the enabling technology of big data manufacturing service mode is studied from three aspects: the two world driven by digital twin and its description, the combination of digital twin and big data, and the model establishment and optimization of big data manufacturing service mode. This new manufacturing service model has theoretical and practical significance for promoting the transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing enterprises and promoting the comprehensive competitiveness in the new international competitive environment.
  • LIU Junyan
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 126-133. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.013
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    Changes of world's political, economic and social environments make the demand of digital transformation and upgrading of traditional small- and medium-sized enterprises more necessary. This article takes the foreign trade original equipment manufacture (OEM) Qingdao home textile industry as an example to analyze the obstacles in the digital construction of the industry and points out the lack of advanced management technology is the key obstacle to the success of digital transformation and upgrading for the enterprise. Suggestions such as making up the shortcomings of management technology, cultivating advanced management technology, promoting basic disciplines and serving the society are proposed for the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises, especially OEM home textile enterprises.
  • Technology Empowerment
  • ZHANG Chenggang, LI Pei
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 134-141. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.014
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    Application of science and technology to social governance is an important channel to accelerate social governance modernization The scientific connotation of science and technology supporting social governance modernization is reflected in the action-oriented“three levels, five dimensions". The three levels mean the cogitation level, readiness level and action level; the five dimensions are the modernization of social governance system, modernization of social governance capabilities, intellectualization of social governance methods, autonomy of grassroots society, and complementarity and integration of institutionalized and non-institutionalized channels. The challenges faced by science and technology supporting social governance modernization include the followings. The supply of frontier human resources for social governance is inadequate; the capital needs for science and technology support are large but the capital source is single; the development of social systems lags behind the development of science and technology; and the local experience of science and technology supporting social governance practice is insufficient. In order to response to the above challenges and seize the opportunities, the paper also presents some suggestions for future social governance modernization.
  • LIANG Zheng, LI Rui
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 142-147. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.015
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    Currently, driven by breakthroughs in the new-generation information and communication technology, and merged by advanced manufacturing technology including new energy and new materials technology, a new science and technology revolution is expected to bring radical changes in the manufacturing paradigm, organizational pattern and industrial construction. This paper summarizes the characteristics of the new technological revolution and industrial transformation in the digital era, analyzes the new pattern of global competition brought about by the integration of digital technology and modern manufacturing technology, and explores the realization path of the "platform" digital economy industrial innovation ecology in China.
  • JIN Yinzi, JIANG Wen, ZHENG Zhi-Jie
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 148-154. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.016
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    Public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. Health is influenced not only by personal characteristics but also by social, economic and physical environments, collectively referred to as social determinants of health. Health in all policies (HiAP), at its core, is an approach to addressing social determinants of health that are the key drivers of health outcomes. HiAP encompasses a wide spectrum of activities through collaboration between multiple stakeholders of health sectors and non-health sectors, which have influence over the determinants of health. HiAP is the principle strategy for promoting sustainable development of public health, and provides means and ways to improve the health of all peoples by incorporating considerations of population health into decision-making process across sectors and policy areas. This study analyzes the relationship between HiAP and sustainable development of public health, reviews the development and implementation of HiAP in China, and examines current problems and challenges, thereby providing policy recommendations for developing HiAP to promote sustainable development of public health in China.
  • Scientific Community
  • JI Hongbo
    Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38(14): 155-162. https://doi.org/10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.14.017
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    With the wave of a new round of industrial revolution, innovation has evolved into multi-agent, cross-industry and cross-domain integrated innovation. In today's world, all professions and trades need innovation. Take the Shandong Association for Science and Technology's innovation ecosystem construction as an example, providing theoretical and practical value for the establishment of innovation ecosystems at the level of enterprises, industries, regions and even countries, through the exploration of practice practical aspects to pushing for solutions to key common technologies and problems of the development of the industrial clusters.