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   Science & Technology Review
2020, Vol.38, No. 15
13 August 2020


Foreword
Papers
Think Tank
Review
Exclusive: Development and sustainable utilization of lithium resources
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Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 103 )
Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 57 )
Exclusive: Development and sustainable utilization of lithium resources

Urban mining of lithium: Prospects, challenges and policy recommendations

WANG Qiaochu, SUN Xin, HAO Han, CHEN Wei, CHEN Weiqiang, ZHENG Mianping
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 6-15. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.001
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Abstract ( 66 )
Lithium is widely regarded as a critical and strategic metal that plays an indispensable role in electric vehicles and energy storage technology. This study first provides a dynamic and holistic view on the historical evolution of the global reserve, production, and consumption of lithium. Material flow analysis (MFA) is then used to model the trends of supply, demand, scrap generation, and in-use stocks of lithium from 2020 to 2080. Finally, prospects, challenges, and policy recommendations for urban mining of lithium are discussed. It is shown that, driven by the increasing demand in batteries, the global lithium demand, scraps generation, and in-use stocks will keep fast growing over the next 60 years, and will reach≈1.50, ≈1.15, and ≈18.40 million tons, respectively by 2080. If no new recoverable reserves are found and if lithium recycling rate reaches 100%, then lithium natural reserves would be exhausted in 2080, shifting the future lithium supply from natural minerals to urban minerals. Hence, it is important and urgent to explore the urban mines of lithium, which will have positive influences on trade, resource, energy, and environment. However, there are still many bottlenecks in terms of recycling technologies, economic feasibility, and waste management system to be solved so as to ensure highly efficient and environmental utilization of urban mining of lithium. Several policy recommendations are thus provided.

Development of lithium extraction technology and industrialization in brines of salt lake

DING Tao, ZHENG Mianping, ZHANG Xuefei, WU Qian, ZHANG Xiangyu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 16-23. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.002
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Abstract ( 38 )
According to the latest statistics from the United States Geological Survey in 2020, the world has identified 80 million tons of lithium resources, of which 59% are distributed in salt lakes. This article reviews the development status of lithium extraction technology in salt lakes, and summarizes production processes of lithium resources. The adaptability and advantages of various extraction methods are explored with respect to different of magnesium to lithium ratios in salt lakes. It is found that lithium extraction in salt lakes cannot be carried out using a single method and selection of lithium extraction process should be based on different types of salt lakes. The precipitation method in low magnesium to lithium ratio salt lakes has been proven by industrial production while in high magnesium to lithium ratio salt lakes adsorption method is currently the most ideal extraction technology in terms of comprehensive effects, including high adsorption capacity, one-step direct extraction of lithium, high cycle performance and strong stability. Of all these methods, the natural mineral modified adsorption method should be the focus of future industrialization of lithium lake salt extraction.

Geothermal-type lithium resources in Southern Tibetan Plateau

WANG Chenguang, ZHENG Mianping, ZHANG Xuefei, YE Chuanyong, WU Qian, CHEN Shuangshang, LI Mingming, DING Tao, DU Shaorong
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 24-36. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.003
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Abstract ( 33 )
The high-temperature geothermal water contains abundant lithium resources, and the development and the utilization of the geothermal-type lithium resources are increasingly paid attention around the world. This paper reviews the lithium-rich geothermal resources among the geothermal resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and it is concluded that these resources have the following characteristics:(1) strong structural control:the lithium-rich geothermal spots in Southern Tibetan Plateau are often found in the intensely active high-temperature geothermal fields and are distributed on both sides of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and its southern part, strongly controlled by north-south trending rifts or grabens formed by E-W extension; (2) good quality:the lithium concentration is up to 239 mg/L; the Mg/Li ratio is extremely low and ranges from 0.03 to 1.48 for most of the lithium-rich geothermal fluid; the Li/TDS value is relatively high and ranges from 0.25%-1.14% (Zhabuye lithium-rich salt lake:0.19%; Salar de Uyuni (Bolivia):0.08-0.31%); the continuous discharge is stable at least for several decades, in some parts reaches the industrial grades (32.74 mg/L:according to the industrial grades of Salt lake brine), and in addition, the elements such as B, Cs, and Rb are rich and can be comprehensively utilized; (3) large scale:according to incomplete statistics, there are at least 16 lithium-rich hot springs with lithium concentration of 19 mg/L or more, and the total discharge of lithium metal is about 4281 tons every year, equivalent to 25686 tons of lithium carbonate, moreover, drilling data show that the depth is still very promising; (4) lack of volcanism (non-volcanic geothermal system); (5) deep origin:the formation of lithium-rich geothermal resources are closely related to the deep crust partially melting caused by the collision of the Indo-Asia continent, the deep molten magma provides a stable heat source for the high-temperature lithium-rich geothermal field and the lithiumrich parent geothermal fluid rushes to the surface to form hot springs along the extensively developed tectonic fault zones in Southern Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, the widely developed high-temperature lithium-rich geothermal resources in the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are valuable and worthy lithium resources. With the continuous advancement of the lithium extraction technologies on lithium-rich geothermal fluid, the lithium resource in Southern Tibetan Plateau is becoming a promising new type of mineral deposit-the geothermal-type lithium deposit and will be effectively exploited.
Think Tank

Practice and analysis of payload management for space science missions in China

LI Chao, WEI Fei
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 37-44. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.004
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Abstract ( 44 )
Space science payloads are instruments with definite performance, utilized to explore the unknown world. Due to lack of engineering experience the payload team, mainly composed of space scientists, is facing significantly increasing difficulty and complexity in solving key technologies of science payloads. China has thus established a management mode of payload principleinvestigator (PI) system for space science missions, with emphases on managerial requirements for key technology and payload calibration, fully carried out ground test verification, upgraded payload-management level, and payload development. All science payloads are required to be fully verified by pre-flight experiments. All the measures have significantly stimulated scientific innovation, reduced technical risks, promoted organic integration of science and technology, science and engineering, comprehensively given impetus to quality management, and promoted major achievements. Based on the successful practice of payload-management, this paper puts forward some relevant thoughts on the implementation of payload PI system and data PI system.

Suggestions for improving the competitiveness of service-oriented manufacturing enterprises

WANG Jiajia, XING Zhiqiang, FENG Baoxuan
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 45-51. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.005
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Abstract ( 38 )
As the structure of global economy changes and China's economy enters a new normal, it is difficult for manufacturing companies to entirely rely on traditional production-oriented manufacturing mode to remain competitive. It is found in practice that extension of the service link from main industry to industrial chain can bring new competitive advantage to the manufacturing enterprise, therefore, service-oriented manufacturing comes into being. According to the evaluation theory of enterprise competitiveness, this paper takes 33 typical service manufacturing enterprises in A-share as samples for empirical analysis. The results show that the impact of service elements on enterprise competitiveness is very important in the current stage and that the key direction for future development of service-oriented manufacturing is to improve the comprehensive service capability of enterprise in terms of broadening types of service projects and cultivating systematic service capability. At the same time, improving and excavating the potential of traditional competitive element indicators is another way to enhance the competitiveness of service-oriented manufacturing enterprises.

Countermeasures for speeding up the emerging Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) industry development

RAO Qiuhua, LIU Yang, ZHANG Zhideng, LUO Qin, LUO Tuyan
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 52-58. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.006
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Abstract ( 29 )
This article describes the high-quality characteristics of Australian Murray cod (Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii) and summarizes the research progress and effectiveness of the project team in recent years. Through the joint research of scientific research units and enterprises, such as appling theories and technical methods including aquatic animal breeding and breeding science, systematic research on the technology of artificial breeding, breeding, breeding and disease prevention and control, carring out large-scale seedling breeding in factories, and formed a complete system of key technologies such as breeding methods, breeding equipment, feed preparation, disease prevention and breeding. Combining with regional reality, the ideas and countermeasures for developing the emerging aquaculture industry of Murray cod were put forward.

New ideas to prevent and control infectious diseases via exploring symbiotic characteristics between human and microorganism

ZHANG Chenggang
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 59-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.007
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Abstract ( 74 )
In recent years there have been a large number of troubles caused by infectious diseases and biological safety incidents, such as the SARS in 2003 and the MERS event. In addition the rapid development of synthetic biology technology in artificial life has probably accelerated the threat of infectious diseases. The situation of biological safety is becoming more serious and looking for effective control and prevention. In this article, taking the scientific and technological progress in recent years and the related works in our laboratory in gut flora and chronic disease control and prevention we propose some new ideas of prevention and control of infectious diseases by exploring symbiotic characteristics between human and microorganism. It may be an alternative choice for us to understand that the microorganisms should also have reasonable rights to live in the environment. The reasonable relationship between human beings and symbiotic microorganism should be a win-win mode through protecting and optimizing the symbiotic microorganism system to improve human immunity. Therefore, it is important to provide new ideas for prevention and control of infectious diseases and biological safety by living with microorganisms in peace.

Implication of U.S. Defense Innovation Unit on the development of China's military and civilian science and technology collaborative innovation

CHENG Baiqiang, BAI Li, XU Yihan, LIU Zengmeng
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 67-73. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.008
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Abstract ( 69 )
Based on the analysis of research progress, policy practice, and platform construction on the development of global military and civilian science and technology collaborative innovation, the paper explores the established background, evolution, and major measures of the U.S. Defense Innovation Unit. Combined with the problems existing in the development of China's military and civilian science and technology collaborative innovation, the paper presents the implication from several aspects such as enterprise cooperation, development plan, secondary innovation, and focused fields.
Review

Research status and prospect of aircraft swarms autonomou air combat

LIANG Xiaolong, HU Liping, ZHANG Jiaqiang, BAI Peng, REN Baoxiang, LI Zhe, HE Lülong
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 74-88. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.009
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Abstract ( 42 )
Autonomous air combat of aircraft swarm is a typical difficult problem that must be studied in the field of military intelligence. On the basis of summarizing relevant theories and techniques of intelligent air combat, the paper sorts out and summarizes the research work of predecessors, clarifies the development of intelligent air combat, and focuses on analysis of aircraft swarm theory and technology as well as the application status of artificial intelligence in air combat decision-making. Its purpose is to explore possible strategies for the development of China's intelligent military and feasible ways to achieve independent air combat of the swarm.

Gene therapy for monogenetic diseases

ZHOU Lijuan, WANG Jingchun, GAO Hongbin, ZHAO Dongping
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 89-100. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.010
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Abstract ( 40 )
Gene therapy is one of the world's breakthrough technologies, which has made breakthrough progress in the treatment of monogenic diseases. In this article the characteristics of different gene therapy strategies, vectors and gene editing techniques are described, with focuses on reviewing pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, development process of gene therapy and clinical trials of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2), hemophilia, and β-thalassemia. At present, 9 gene therapies of the above 4 monogenic diseases have earned "breakthrough therapy" designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), PRIME designation by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or have been the gene therapies available on the market. The research of gene therapy faces many challenges but with the development of science and technology more patients will get treatment.
Papers

Ethical principles of sciences and technologies of microplastic surgery and their application from a perspective of STS

FENG Ye
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 101-110. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.011
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Abstract ( 43 )
Micro-surgery system, covering both some new medical sciences and technologies used in the minimally invasive plastic surgeries and their related industries, can only operate healthily within the corresponding ethical dimension. Healthy safety can guarantee and promote the physical health, mental health and good social adaptability of beauty seekers so that it is the basic ethical regulations that micro-surgery system should firstly follow. Humanitarian dignity can maintain and improve human dignity of beauty seeker's life and social dignity so that it is the ethical target principle that micro-plastic surgery system should observe. Some good social regulations are the ethical guarantee of a fair, democratic, healthy and sustainable development micro-surgery system. Thees three ethical principles of micro-surgery system should work together to curb some ethical risks and anomie of micro-surgery system so as to promote sustainable development of micro-surgery system, better benefit those who seek beauty, and promote the harmonious development of society.

On coupling coordination degree of technological innovation and new urbanization: A case study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

CAO Linjian, YANG Ankang
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 111-120. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.012
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Abstract ( 37 )
By constructing an evaluation index system, this paper makes an empirical research on the coupling coordination degrees of technological innovation and new urbanization in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2006 to 2017. The entropy method is used to determine the weights of the evaluation indexes of the two systems (technological innovation system and new urbanization system), and the coupling coordination degree model and the relative development degree model are applied synthetically. According to the result, the comprehensive development indexes and coupling coordination degrees of the region kept increasing year by year; in terms of time, the two systems in Beijing developed synchronously while the technological innovation systems in Tianjin and Hebei lagged behind; in terms of space, the degrees of coupling coordination of the two systems varied with geography, and linear fitting shows that the coupling coordination in Beijing was in a good state while the coupling coordination in Tianjin was convergent but of great potential, and that the synergy effect in Hebei was not obvious. Tianjin and Hebei should focus on improving the technological innovation ability in the future.

Analysis on the construction of urban spatial order from a perspective of ecological civilization

SUN Ying
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 121-128. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.013
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Abstract ( 37 )
Urban spatial order is the basic law that human social activities must follow, which directly affects the spread of ecological civilization thought and the construction of ecological city. To discuss the urbanization process from a perspective of ecological civilization, this paper focuses on target identification, population agglomeration, productivity development, trade promotion and unity and harmony, and the system restriction to analyze the essence of urban spatial order, precondition and motivation of the spatial order, the rule of evolution and the guarantee of order's running. It is concluded that the spatial order of the city is composed of three aspects:natural ecology, morphological function and human ethics, and the formulation of any spatial system must follow the three principles of fairness, balance of interests and spatial benefits in order to construct and develop a contemporary eco-city.

Content evolution of emergency science popularization articles during COVID-19 epidemic: Based on the method of co-word analysis

YANG Jiaying, ZHENG Nian
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 129-137. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.014
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Abstract ( 56 )
In order to study the content evolution characteristics of emergency science popularization articles during COVID-19 epidemic, articles of WeChat official account Science_China, DingXiangYiSheng, zgjkdt, yjglbwx from January to February 29th 2020 are taken as the research object. This paper extracts the key words of emergency science popularization articles and analyzes the network characteristics of the key words of the articles in four time periods using the method of co-word analysis. It is found that the main content of emergency science popularization is protection, with masks, frequent hand-washing, ventilation and health monitoring as the main protective measures, and less-going-out as the main suggestions. Besides general WeChat users, science popularization content is also aimed at specific groups. With the epidemic being gradually under control, the derivative words related to protective measures gradually become less, less-going-out becomes less-aggregation, and the homebased protection gradually turns into the protection of return to work and office space. Scientists have made great contributions to the popularization during the epidemic, and scientific literacy is needed to convert scientific research results into popular science knowledge.

The impact of innovative corporate culture on corporate growth: Based on case studies of three innovative leading companies

DING Yu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (15): 138-148. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.15.015
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Abstract ( 41 )
Innovative corporate culture is an important antecedent factor in creating a corporate competitive advantage. At present, studies have shown innovative corporate culture can indirectly improve corporate performance, but the research on the path of corporate culture to corporate growth is relatively limited. Based on the literature research, this paper clarifies the mechanism of innovative corporate culture on corporate growth from two aspects of corporate values and incentives. Three leading companies are used as cases in empirical analysis of the impact of innovative corporate culture on corporate growth, then innovation-oriented values and incentives are of great importance to corporate growth is proved. The mechanism of innovative corporate culture for corporate growth is imposed on the corporates through innovative-oriented corporate Values including bravery and tolerance for failure, openness, the pursuit of excellence, customer orientation and innovative-oriented incentives including material and spiritual incentives influence, thereby promoting corporate growth.

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