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   Science & Technology Review
2020, Vol.38, No. 23
13 December 2020


Foreword
Scientific Community
Think Tank
Science and Technology Humanities
Scientific Comments
Review
Exclusive:Solar fules
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Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 0-0.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 1-1.
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Scientific Community

Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 6-6.
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Think Tank

Status, problems, and strategies of functional agriculture in China

ZHAO Guishen, GUO Yanbin
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 9-16. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.001
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Abstract ( 39 )
Deficiency of micronutrients has been one of the key impact factors for human health in China. To resolve the problem of hidden hunger of the people, increasing concentrations of micronutrients in agricultural products based on biofortificating technologies is an innovative strategy in modern agriculture. In this study, the background, objectives and problems in functional agriculture are analyzed. The three principles, i. e., key micronutrients, carrying products, systems of technological innovation are presented, and the action plan to strengthen supply of micronutrients in functional agriculture is also suggested. Furthermore, biofortification of micronutrients by agricultural products is more suitable to actual situations in China. These suggestions can promote transformation and upgrading, quality, efficiency, and the supply-side structural reform, and are new drivers for modern agriculture to grow in the future.

On the development trend of US military electromagnetic spectrum operations capability

MENG Fansong, CHEN Jun, XU Fang
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 17-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.002
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Abstract ( 37 )
In order to maintain superiority in the electromagnetic spectrum domain, the US military is vigorously developing its electromagnetic spectrum operational capability. The research and development focuses of key technologies are introduced in this article, with an emphasis on frequency spectrum agility technology, energy clustering technology and adaptive technology. The equipment construction direction is analyzed, targeting at miniature, networked, underwater-launched and cognitively controlled devices. Different features of operational methods are illustrated in terms of applications in different phases of future real combat, including intelligence reconnaissance, force maneuver and air attack included.
Scientific Comments

On China's innovation and development of health science and technology from a scientific and technological indicator perspective

ZHONG Hua, FAN Shaoping, NI Ping, AN Xinying
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 23-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.003
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Abstract ( 39 )
This paper takes the statistical yearbook and paper databases as data source, and combs the key data of innovation and development of health and health science and technology in China, including key indicators of resource structure, innovation output and innovation impact. It is concluded that China has made a series of research progresses in the field of health and health science and technology, which cover the establishment of health and health science and technology innovation system, continuous improvement of system design, rapid updating of R&D capability and level, continuous emergence of scientific and technological achievements, and ceaseless enhancement of the role of scientific and technological innovation in ensuring health.

Value, data risks, regulation of medical big data thinking: Based on epidemic management

WU Heqi
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 31-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.004
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Abstract ( 29 )
As a national strategy, big data technology aims to benefit all people through the smart medical model. In response to the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic, medical big data technology embodies many values:effective scheduling of medical resources, AI medical treatment, prediction of outbreaks, monitoring of outbreaks, trends, etc. However, while big data technology becomes an important technical means in medical field, new problems and challenges in data risks also arise. It has become difficult for regulation design to coordinate conflicts between data protection and data use. This article sorts out the current status of personal medical data regulation, analyzes the shortcomings of data regulation in combination with medical practice, and proposes a construction logic of perfecting China's data regulation by drawing on foreign data regulation, that is, with the overall interests of society being the core, system design is carried out on the premise of balancing interest relationships and data abuse is included in data regulation. Scenario concepts are also introduced to modify consent rules and to promote the formation of data de-identification standards.
Exclusive:Solar fules

Solar fuels: New generation of green energy

SHI Jingying, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 39-48. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.005
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Abstract ( 22 )
Human being cannot live without fuel. However, to get clean and renewable fuel is a big challenge to the sustainability of human society. Artificial photosynthesis affords a method to obtain renewable fuels. Herein we trace the history of fuel and solar fuels, present a brief overview on solar water splitting for hydrogen production and CO2 photo-reduction for chemicals synthesis. Some proposals related to energy policy are discussed in the end of the paper.

Research status and development of photocatalytic water splitting for solar energy conversion

LI Rengui, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 49-61. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.006
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Abstract ( 14 )
Solar-to-chemical energy conversion is one of the most promising solutions to sustainable energy and environmental remedy issues, which has attracted increasing attention both in fundamental research and industrial application. In this review, we choose the key reaction in solar-to-chemical conversion, photocatalytic water splitting, as an example to introduce fundamental scientific advances in this field. We focus on the mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting, light-absorbing materials, photogenerated charge separation, dual-cocatalyst, Z-scheme and technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen production for potential applications. Finally, we present conclusion remarks and future directions of photocatalytic water splitting for solar energy conversion.

Progress of quantum dot artificial photosynthesis for hydrogen production

WANG Jinghao, NAN Xiaolei, WU Haolin, LI Xubing, CHEN Bin, TONG Zhenhe, WU Lizhu
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 62-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.007
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Abstract ( 27 )
Artificial photosynthetic hydrogen evolution is a promising way for solar-to-fuel conversion, which is considered as an important means to solve human energy crisis and environmental pollution. This article reviews the progress of quantum dot artificial photosynthesis hydrogen evolution system, focusing on the analysis of hydrogen evolution efficiency, including quantum dots with hydrogenase mimics, transition metal, and sensitized photocathodes. Specifically, we point out that the capture of photogenerated charges (electrons and holes) plays a pivotal role in improving hydrogen evolution efficiency, and look forward to the development direction of artificial photosynthesis.

Progress of photoelectrocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction

DING Chunmei, YAO Tingting, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 75-84. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.008
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Abstract ( 22 )
Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting for H2 production and CO2 reduction for fuel production are important ways for solar energy conversion and utilization. However, the PEC efficiency is limited by problems such as poor light absorption, high overpotential and sluggish kinetics of surface reaction, and serious recombination of photogenerated carriers. Herein, we describe the principles of PEC water splitting and CO2 reduction, recent progress and strategies on increasing the PEC efficiency, including enhancing light absorption via energy band engineering, morphology control and sensitizing strategy, promoting surface reaction via loading cocatalyst, enhancing charge separation and transfer via introducing local dipole and heterojunction electric field, morphology control, interface engineering, etc.

Progress of photoelectrocatalytic water splitting based on molecular water oxidation catalysts

LEE Husileng, WU Xiujuan, SUN Licheng
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 85-93. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.009
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Abstract ( 22 )
Utilizing sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen is an ideal way to convert solar energy into chemical energy and solve energy and environmental problems. In general, water splitting is hindered by the oxidation of water to oxygen which involves transfer processes of four electrons and four protons. To overcome this obstacle, an effective, robust and low-cost water oxidation catalysts (WOCs), and the anodes and photoanodes that perform fast oxygen evolution at low onset potentials, as well as benign conditions are highly desired. In this article we review recent advances in molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the first-row transition metal elements and advances in commonly used semiconductor materials such as α-Fe2O3, WO3, and BiVO4. Finally, we briefly discuss the assembly methods (covalent link, π-π stack, etc.) of molecular catalysts to electrodes and the classic examples of anode in catalytic oxidation of water.

Natural and artificial hybrid photosynthesis

WANG Wangyin, ZHANG Yajing, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 94-104. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.010
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Abstract ( 19 )
Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels, one of the most important pathways to address energy and environmental issues, has given rise to extensive attentions. Natural photosynthesis that conducts an efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion has been the inspiration for developing artificial photosynthetic systems for solar fuel production. Based on the scientific issues of natural and artificial photosynthesis, in this article we first review the primary process of solar conversion and CO2 fixation of natural photosynthesis. Then we focus on the natural-artificial hybrid system which integrates photosynthetic protein, enzyme and whole cell of artificial materials for solar fuel production. Through the coupling of natural and artificial photosynthesis, we reveal the fundamental of solar energy conversion in natural photosynthesis, which can provide us insights into the development of efficient artificial photosynthetic systems.

Perspectives on artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels production

LI Rengui, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 105-112. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.011
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Abstract ( 18 )
Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels production is considered to be an energy disruptive technology in the future, which can fundamentally change the current situation of excessive utilization on fossil fuels. In addition, artificial photosynthesis is an interdisciplinary science involving many fields such as chemistry, physics, materials and biology, and is also a key scientific problem in fundamental science that attracts increasing worldwide interest. In this paper we briefly introduce the concept and key reactions of artificial photosynthesis and focus on the discussion of scalable solutions to solar hydrogen production via water splitting and corresponding technical feasibility analysis. Then we present an introduction and technique routes of liquid solar fuels (e. g. methanol), as well as their potential applications. Finally, we propose a feasible solution to mimick natural artificial process via the coupling of ‘light reaction’ and ‘dark reaction’ for large-scale solar fuels production.

Research progress of non-copper-based catalysts for selective hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol

SHA Feng, HAN Zhe, TANG Chizhou, TANG Shan, WANG Jijie, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 113-127. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.012
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Abstract ( 8 )
Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gases that cause global climate change. Reducing carbon dioxide emissions and converting it to chemicals and fuels with high-value are of great significance for sustainable development. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to methanol utilizing green hydrogen produced from renewable resources such as solar energy is one of the important ways to solve the greenhouse effect and develop green energy. In recent years, non-copper-based catalysts represented by solid solutions have developed rapidly, showing good industrial application prospects. This paper reviews the research progress of non-copper-based catalysts for selective hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol, with focuses on supported metal catalysts, bimetallic catalysts, solid solution catalysts, and indium oxide-based catalysts, so as to provide references for the design of efficient and stable methanol synthesis catalysts.

Spatial and temporal characterization on artificial photosynthesis mechanism

WANG Xiuli, FAN Fengtao, LI Can
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 128-137. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.013
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Abstract ( 15 )
Artificial photosynthesis, which converts solar energy to chemical energy, is an important strategy for solar energy utilization. Efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes is a key issue in artificial photosynthesis. To investigate the photoinduced electrons and holes using techniques of high temporal and spatial resolutions is crucial to the photo(electro) catalytic mechanism study. This review summarizes the main results and latest development in photo(electro)catalytic mechanism research with time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging spectroscopy. It is shown that charge separation, recombination and reaction process are well characterized by time-resolved spectroscopy while the spatial distribution of photogenerated charges and their roles in artificial photosynthesis are revealed by imaging spectroscopy.
Review

Influence of climatic factors on virus epidemic

LI Xiaocen, ZHU Xiangying, YUAN Cheng
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 138-143. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.014
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Abstract ( 17 )
Diseases caused by virus epidemic have become a risk factor affecting human health and there are different degrees of outbreaks at home and abroad almost every year. The outbreak of viral diseases is related to many factors, one of which is climate. Many studies have shown that under certain conditions, weather conditions such as temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, air pollutant concentration, and some extreme weather events are closely related to virus epidemic. The relationship between the epidemic of SARS virus, dengue virus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and climate is reviewed in this article. It is shown that virus is produced in certain natural conditions and environment, specific climatic factors are the driving force of virus epidemic, and similar climate is more conducive to virus epidemic. Beyond the domain value, climate factors will limit or even block the spread of virus. The effects of different climatic factors are discussed, which can improve the early warning mechanism of viral diseases and help prevent and contain possible outbreaks in advance.
Science and Technology Humanities

Before and after the discovery of anti-sigma negative hyperon

DING Zhaojun, LI Shouchen
Science & Technology Review. 2020, 38 (23): 144-152. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2020.23.015
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Abstract ( 24 )
During the early stage of China's particle physics, as the construction of high-energy accelerator lagged behind China could only ‘talk on paper’ in theoretical research, and ‘depend on Heaven for food to eat’ in cosmic ray research or ‘find shelter under other's roof’ in international cooperation. The establishment of the Multinational Joint Nuclear Research Institute in Dubna created a good opportunity for the development of high energy physics in China. The discovery of anti-sigma negative hyperon left a thick and colorful mark in the history of physics in China. The series of scientific achievements by Chinese scholars in Dubna laid an important knowledge and talent foundation for the development of subatomic physics in China.

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