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   Science & Technology Review
2021, Vol.39, No. 15
13 August 2021


Foreword
Papers
Science and Technology Humanities
Review
Scientific Comment
Exclusive: Meteorological satellites for meteorological disaster monitoring and early warning
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 0-0.
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Abstract ( 29 )

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 6-7.
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Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 7-7.
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Foreword

Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 1-1.
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Abstract ( 32 )
Exclusive: Meteorological satellites for meteorological disaster monitoring and early warning

China's Fengyun (FY) meteorological satellites, development and applications

GAO Hao, TANG Shihao, HAN Xiuzhen
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 9-22. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.001
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Abstract ( 99 )
Fengyun (FY) series meteorological satellite is an important space infrastructure in China, and an important symbol of meteorological modernization. Since the first FY meteorological satellite launched in 1988, China has successfully launched 19 FY meteorological satellites. At present, 8 FY satellites are operating in orbit, and have formed an observation network system of polar-orbiting and geostationary meteorological satellites. The independent development of meteorological satellite serialization and operation has been realized. The overall strength of FY meteorological satellite coming up with international advanced ranks, which has strongly support meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation, and make great contribution to national economic and social development, "Belt and Road" construction. This paper introduces the development of FY meteorological satellites, research and application of progress in numerical weather forecasting, weather monitoring, climate and climate change, ecological and environmental disaster monitoring, agriculture monitoring, and "Belt and Road" service. The future development of FY meteorological satellite is also prospected.

Review and vision of Fengyun meteorological satellites weather application

WANG Xin, TANG Shihao, WEI Caiying
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 23-30. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.002
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Abstract ( 32 )
After half a century's development, Fengyun satellites have made remarkable achievements, 19 satellites have been successfully launched and 8 are currently in orbit, forming a series of operational integrated observation networks in polar orbiting and geostationary orbiting. In the past 50 years, with the upgrading of payload on board and improvement of observation capability, Fengyun satellites have made steady progress both in methods and techniques of space weather monitoring. This paper reviews the development of Fengyun satellites and satellite meteorology and summarizes the evolution of satellite in weather application. Moreover, based on the future requirement and the planning roadmap of Fengyun satellites, the latent capacity in satellite weather application is prospected.

Application of Fengyun meteorological satellites in disaster prevention and mitigation

ZHENG Wei, WANG Xin, ZHANG Yeping, HAN Xiuzhen, TANG Shihao
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 31-38. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.003
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Abstract ( 50 )
Fengyun meteorological satellites have the ability of global, all-weather and three-dimensional observation, which has reached the level of international advanced meteorological satellite in terms of spatial resolution, temporal resolution and spectral resolution, and plays an increasingly important role in disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper introduces the application of Fengyun meteorological satellite in the monitoring of typhoon, rainstorm, drought, high temperature, dust, snow disaster, flood and forest and grassland fire, and prospects the application of Fengyun meteorological satellite in disaster prevention and mitigation. With the continuous improvement of the performance of Fengyun meteorological satellites remote sensing instruments and the continuous development of data processing and application technology, it will better provide China and the world with satellite remote sensing disaster monitoring, assessment and early warning information, and provide more scientific and powerful support for disaster prevention and mitigation.

Agricultural application using FY meteorological satellite

ZHANG Yeping, ZHANG Mingwei, SUN Ruijing, ZHANG Yuanyuan, ZHANG Liyang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 39-45. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.004
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Abstract ( 60 )
The technological status of agricultural quantitative remote sensing, crop classification and planting area estimation, crop growth monitoring and agricultural disaster monitoring are summarized. Some quantitative products of FY meteorological satellites relevant to agriculture are introduced. Some application cases of FY satellite data for identification of winter wheat area, crop growth monitoring, phenological monitoring and agricultural drought are presented, and some ideas about agricultural remote sensing application of FY satellites are put forward.

Status and development strategy of the Fengyun meteorological satellites application on the Belt and Road

XIAN Di, LI Xue, ZHU Jie, JIA Xu, LIU Chang
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 46-53. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.005
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Abstract ( 32 )
Fengyun meteorological satellite (FY satellite) is one of the highest operational and the best used remote-sensing satellites in China. It is also honored with a name card of practising the Belt and Road initiative and building the Belt and Road spatial information corridor. This article carries out an international survey, analyzes the survey result, conducts in-site investigations, and discovers the status of FY satellite data applications to scientific research and operational work of international users. Combined with international user's requirements and internal motivations, this article puts forward strategies and advises in terms of promoting satellite global observation capability, improving Belt and Road countries' data acquisition and remote sensing application abilities, and strengthen scientific exchange between China and Belt and Road countries.

Overview of satellite remote sensing technology for marine atmospheric and environment observation

TIAN Lin, WANG Xi, YANG Bingyun, WU Xiaojing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 54-66. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.006
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Abstract ( 64 )
Satellite remote sensing is the best way to observe the vast ocean-atmosphere. With the development of satellite remote sensing technology in recent years, remarkable progress has been made in atmosphere and marine environment remote-sensing, and data assimilation in climate model. This paper summarizes the the latest development of marine meteorological satellite monitoring capabilities, methods and related products in sea fog, strong convection over ocean and marine environmental monitoring. And this provides the background and application information about ocean-atmosphere remote-sensing for scientific researchers and engineers.

Application of machine learning in remote sensing image classification

GAO Ang, TANG Shihao, XIAO Meng, ZHENG Wei
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 67-74. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.007
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Abstract ( 95 )
This paper summarizes the main methods of machine learning and its main application direction in remote sensing image. It covers the research and application of machine learning technology in environmental ecological remote sensing, and the new progress in recent years. Through the application of deep learning to snow detection of FY-3C meteorological satellite data, it is shown that the deep learning model can improve the detection accuracy by means of big data advantages, and has achieved better precision than traditional machine learning in some indexes, thus solving some problems that are difficult to solve using traditional machine learning method, and driving the innovation of remote sensing application mode.
Scientific Comment

Characteristics, problems and suggestions for Chinese scientific and technological talent plan system

DUAN Guang, BAI Lu
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 75-83. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.008
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Abstract ( 105 )
The Chinese talent plan system, which is the core of talent development work and has effectively promoted scientific and technological talents development in decades, is now diverse, hierarchical and extensive after its nearly forty years fast-growing development. In this paper we study the Chinese talent plans from a system perspective. We clarify the conception and classification of talent plans and describe several characteristics and different development stages of the Chinese talent plan system. At the same time, we focus on the problem analysis and put forward some suggestions to improve the Chinese talent plan system development.
Review

Damage mechanics as applied to civil engineering

REN Xiaodan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 84-94. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.009
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Abstract ( 60 )
In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in the field of civil engineering and infrastructure construction in China, greatly supporting the continuous development of the economy. While China's economy steps into the "new normal" phase, the development of civil engineering shows some new features and the developments of fundamental theories and advanced technologies attract more and more attention. Nonlinear analysis of structures, one of the essential problems in civil engineering, has been concerned by more and more researchers and engineers. For constitutive modeling of engineering materials, the damage model plays an important role where structural damage and failure are considered. In this paper, the historical development of damage model for quasi-brittle materials is briefly reviewed. Then V&V of the damage model is described and its applications to civil engineering are presented by case studies. Finally, an application of the theory to bio-engineering is shown with a case. In the near future, the transformation and upgrading of traditional civil engineering will be promoted by the coupling between its fundamental research and engineering application.

Research progress of secondary organic aerosol

HU Ruolan, WANG Shuxiao
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 95-109. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.010
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Abstract ( 46 )
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is one of the most important components of PM2.5. It significantly influences air quality, radiation balance and human health. Thus, studying the formation and control of SOA has a significant meaning in revealing the cause of particulate pollution and improving eco-environment. However, there are still many challenges in the field of SOA study because of the complexity of organic compounds, reactions and atmospheric conditions. The purpose of the paper is to summarize the progress of SOA research based on investigating the literature published on the top international academic journals in the field of environment and atmospheric chemistry in 2019. The molecular characteristics and sources of SOA are delved into with a variety of novel or modified methods and instruments in both field studies and laboratory simulations. The formation process and major influence factors of SOA from some natural and anthropogenic precursors are investigated. Atmospheric aqueous chemistry and the interaction between organic and inorganic compounds are found playing an important role in the formation and aging of SOA. In addition, the contribution of SOA to the change of aerosol optical property and the impact of aerosol on human health are estimated. In conclusion, it is necessary to pay attention to the further research of SOA so as to take effective actions to control particulate pollution.

Research status of microbial pollution in Chinese water environment

LI Ke, ZHANG Hongxun, YU Zhisheng, ZHENG Fengjuan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 110-116. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.011
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Abstract ( 74 )
The microbial pollution in water environment would induce intestinal and respiratory diseases, threatening human's health. More and more attention had been paid to the pollution situation and detection methods of microorganisms in water environment. Based on the categories of water environment microorganisms, this study briefly introduced the characteristics and infection risk of pathogens. The indicative microorganisms in Chinese water quality standards were summarized and compared to that in USA and EU. The main factors affecting the microbial pollution in water environments were made clear based on the sources of microbial pollution. The detection methods of water environment microorganisms and their application status were reviewed. In brief, all the seven watersheds are contaminated by microorganisms. It would positively improve the prevention and control work of microbial pollution by improving the indicative microorganisms in relative water quality standards, controlling the sources of microbial pollution, and enhancing the detectability of microbial pollution.
Papers

On green building development and technology application in Zhejiang province

WU Jindong, WENG Jiantao, TENG Fengshi, TANG Yifan
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 117-123. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.012
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Abstract ( 64 )
With the development of green buildings, to clarify the existing development trend and technology application in this field may help overcome shortcomings and optimize the development environment. This study summarizes the current development status and technology application in existing green building projects in Zhejiang province and analyzes the development and technology application characteristics. Results show that there is imbalance between cities as well as in applications of technologies for green buildings in Zhejiang. The results of the study may provide a reference for the development and technology application of green buildings.

Analysis on urbanization quality, urban resilience and disaster risk of typhoon rainstorm: Take 7 southeast coastal provinces and cities for example

LUO Ziyuan, ZENG Jian
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 124-134. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.013
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Abstract ( 60 )
Coastal provinces and cities are faced with severe typhoon and rainstorm disaster risk. The quality of urbanization and urban resilience plays an important role in resisting the risk of Typhoon Rainstorm. This paper analyzes the influence mechanism of urbanization, urban resilience and the disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm from the theoretical level, and puts forward the hypothesis that the urban resilience is the mediator between the urbanization quality and disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm. This paper measures the urbanization quality from economic development, social development, residential life, infrastructure and environment reserves, and quantifies urban resilience from economy, society, infrastructure and ecology. The urbanization quality, urban resilience and disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm are quantitatively evaluated, based on the Yearbook, meteorological and disaster data of the seven southeast coastal provinces and cities from 2005 to 2019. The coupling degree of urbanization quality and urban resilience is analyzed. The mediating effect of urban resilience on the impact of urbanization quality on the disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm is further analyzed. The results show that:Due to the differences in resources and environment, development policy and social investment, the coupling degree between the seven southeast coastal provinces and cities is different. The coupling degree decreases before increases under the influence of the policy of "development before governance". High urbanization quality and high level of urban resilience significantly reduce the disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm. Urban resilience performed as a mediator between the urbanization quality and disaster risk of Typhoon Rainstorm. However, the unbalanced development of various components of urban resilience caused two different mechanisms of "masking effect" and "mediating effect". Economic resilience, social resilience and ecological resilience play part of the mediating effect, while infrastructure resilience plays a masking effect. In order to give full play to the role of resilience in resisting disaster risks, the construction of resilient cities should be included in the statutory planning to form the planning basis and guarantee. Green infrastructure and grey infrastructure should be coupled to weaken the masking effect of infrastructure resilience.

Practical scenarios of artificial intelligence in the prevention and control of COVID-19

SHA Dechun, JING Jing
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 135-141. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.014
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Abstract ( 80 )
In early 2020, COVID-19 outbroke in many countries around the world. Governments of various countries have since adopted diversified prevention and control measures to control the epidemic. Among them, AI has been an important auxiliary means that plays a unique role in prevention and control of COVID-19. The practical scenarios of AI assisting the prevention and control of COVID-19 have been focused on research field, mainly including epidemic monitoring and early warning, medical diagnosis, virus and drug research and development. The application of AI technology has significant effects on controlling the spread of the epidemic, alleviating the pressure of diagnosis and treatment and improving the efficiency of research and development. At the same time, AI is still facing practical problems such as regulations and ethics, data security, and algorithmic bias. Based on this, suggestions such as perfecting laws and regulations, ensuring data security, and strengthening talent training are proposed.
Science and Technology Humanities

Zhan Tianyou: The model of returned overseas Chinese and the spiritual model of artisans in big countries

ZHAN Shengze, LIAN Junhong
Science & Technology Review. 2021, 39 (15): 142-148. ;  doi: 10.3981/j.issn.1000-7857.2021.15.015
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Abstract ( 97 )
Through literature collection and qualitative research, this paper studies Zhan Tianyou's patriotism and national spirit in his childhood and life-long career. The research shows that Zhan, in his high position and weight, adhered to the principles of honesty, unselfishness, non-corruption and wholeheartedness for the country, which sparked many touching and far-reaching light of the rise of the Chinese nation. Under the background of globalization and the new era, in the tide of rejuvenating the country through science and technology and combating corruption, Zhan's spirits are worthy of learning and praising by the whole society.

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